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1/12/2011

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Chapter8(andsomeof6)
FractureandFailureAnalysis
LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
Definefracturetoughnessintermsofabriefstatementand
anequation.
Definetheconditionsforfracture.
El b t th l ti hi b t i t i t Elaborateupontherelationshipbetweenimpactresistance,
tensilestrength,tensileductility,andfracturetoughness.
Definehardnessandrelateittostrength.
FRACTURE
Theseparationorfragmentationofasolidbody
intotwoormorepiecesunderanappliedstress
Figure8.1 (a)Highlyductilefracturein
which the specimen necks down to a
Fracture is when something
breaks into pieces!
whichthespecimennecksdowntoa
point.(b)Moderatelyductilefracture
aftersomenecking.(c)Brittlefracture
withoutanyplasticdeformation.
[Callister,7
th
Ed.]
Steps in fracture:
Crack initiation (formation)
Crack propagation (growth)
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ModesofFracture
Dependsupontheabilityofthematerialtoundergoplasticdeformationprior
tofracture.
Fracturemodes:
DUCTILE: most metallic materials, polymers
Extensive plastic deformation in front of crack Extensive plastic deformation in front of crack.
This allows the crack to resist further extension unless applied stress is
increased.
BRITTLE: ceramics, ice, cold steel
Very little plastic deformation
Cracks move rapidly without an increase in applied stress.
No fracture is most desirable.
When fracture does occur, a ductile fracture is generally better.
With a ductile fracture, the component may maintain some structural
capacity before catastrophic failure.
DuctileMaterials:
Undergoextensiveplasticdeformationpriortofailure
BrittleMaterials:
Undergolittleornoplasticdeformationpriortofailure.
Figure6.13 Schematic
representationsoftensile
stressstrainbehaviorfor
brittleandductilematerials
loadedtofracture.
[Callister,7
th
Ed.]
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Brittlevs.DuctileFracture
a) Veryductile,softmetals(e.g.,AuandPb)atroomtemperature.Othermetals,
polymers,andglassesathightemperatures.
b) Moderatelyductilefracture,typicalforductilemetals(e.g.,Al,Ni).
c) Brittlefracture,typicalofcoldferrousmetalsandceramics.
DuctileFracture
Crack grows 90to applied stress
Figure8.2 Stagesinthecupandcone
fracture.(a)Initialnecking.(b)Smallcavity
formation.(c)Coalescenceofcavitiesto
formacrack.(d)Crackpropagation.(e)Final
shearfractureata45 anglerelativetothe
tensile direction (From Ralls Courtney and
a) Necking
b) Cavityformation
tensiledirection.(FromRalls,Courtneyand
Wulff,IntroductiontoMaterialsScienceand
Engineering,p.468,Copyright1976,Wiley,
NewYork).[Callister,7
th
Ed.]
) y
c) Cavitycoalescencetoformcracks
d) Crackpropagation(growth)
e) Fracture
Maximum shear stress
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DUCTILEFRACTURE
Dimplesonfracturesurface
correspondtomicrocavitiesthat
initiatecrackformation.
Pictureatleftisatypicalcupand
conefracture.
BRITTLEFRACTURE
No appreciable plastic deformation.
Crack propagates very fast; nearly
perpendicular to applied stress.
Cracks often propagate along Cracks often propagate along
specific crystal planes or boundaries.
Transgranularfracture Intergranularfracture
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TransgranularFracture
Transgranular fracture
Cracks pass through grains, often along specific crystal
planes. Fracture surfaces have faceted texture because of
different orientation of cleavage planes in grains.
Transgranularfracture
IntergranularFracture
Intergranular fracture
Cracks propagate along grain boundaries.
Intergranularfracture
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Whatisthesignificanceoffracture?
Manyhighstrengthmaterialssuchas
ceramicsfracturebeforeyielding.
Resultisthatengineeringstructuresmayfail
atstresseswellbelowthedesignedload
i capacity.
Why???
Fractureofaperfectsolid
Fracture plane
o
Simultaneous rupture of all
atomic bonds
Asolidthatcontainsnodefects
Fractureplane
o
Theoretical strength,
o
th
~ E/10

E/10
Material GPa psi
Au 7.8 1,080,000
Cu 12.1 1,680,000

Far greater than
experimental values
Thus, fracture does not occur in this fashion
Why is fracture stress lower than theoretical?
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Why/Howdomaterialsfail?
Aretypicalloadingconditionssevereenoughtobreakallinteratomic
bonds?
NO!
Sinceweknowthestressthatisrequiredtobreakbonds,whydomaterials
failinservice?
DEFECTS!
Theyconcentratestresslocallytolevelshighenoughtorupturebonds
Wh b i l h f ? Whataboutmaterialsthatareperfect?
NOMATERIALISPERFECT!
ThereisALWAYSsomestatisticaldistributionofflawsordefects
P
Defect free solid
PP
Defect free solid
Flaws concentrate
applied stress!
o
area
=P/A
P=load
PPP
P
2a
P
2a
P
Defect in solid
PP
Defect in solid
P
2b
P
2b
b/a 0,o
local

A
1
>>A
2
o
1
>>o
2
PPP
1
2
<<
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a
Aswenotedearlier
Fractureoccursbythenucleationandgrowthofcracks!
Fundamentalwaysthatloadscan
operateoncracks
TENSILE SLIDING TEARING
Figure8.10 Thethree
modesofcracksurface
displacement.(a)Mode
I,opening;(b)modeII,
sliding;and(c)modeIII,
tearingmode.
[Callister,7
th
Ed.]
The mode of loading (state of stress) plays a role in
how/when a material will fail.
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MATERIALS DO NOT FAIL AT CERTAIN STRESS
LEVELS!
All materials fail when the
FRACTURE TOUGHNESS
is exceeded is exceeded
Fracturetoughnessisacharacteristicmaterialpropertythattellsyouwhenamaterialwillfail.
K Y
MaterialsfailwhenK
IC
isexceeded
IC
K Y a o t =
Toughness Stress CrackLength
DependsonsizeofflawandmaterialpropertiesNOTstress
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ValuesofK
IC
Material K
IC
(MPam
1/2
)
Minerals 0.5 1
Concrete 0.35
Metalsthatexhibit
highductility,exhibit
hightoughness.
Concrete 0.35
SLS Glass 1
Most Polymers 1 3
Ceramics 3 10
Cast Iron 10 40
Aluminum Alloys 20 50
Ceramicsarevery
strong,buthavelow
ductilityandlow
toughness.
Polymers are very Aluminum Alloys 20 50
Plane Carbon Steels 30 100
Titanium Alloys 30 120
TRIP Steel ~200
Polymersarevery
ductilebutarenot
generallyverystrong
inshear(comparedto
metalsandceramics).
Theyhavelow
toughness.
Stressstraincurvesfordense,polycrystallineAl
2
O
3
.
Why areceramicssomuchstrongerincompressioncomparedtotension?
Tension Compression Tension Compression
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What is Compression?
A
A
o
P
h h
o
P
A = A
o
h
o
/h = V/h
ENGINEERING: S = -P/A
o
e = (h
o
h)/h
o
= A A
o
/A
TRUE: o = -P/A c = ln(h
o
/h) = ln(A/A
o
)
Byconvention,stressandstrainarenegative
(forcesareoppositethantension)
Compression
Frictionisimportant!
Frictionbetweenspecimenandpresscauses
barreling(moretocome)
Barrelingiswherethespecimenexpandslaterally
asthetop/bottomsurfacesarefixedbyfriction,
consequently
Xsection areachangesalongitsheight
Frictiondissipatesenergy
Makesitdifficultto
gettrulyindicative
properties
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Compression
Incompression,shapeofthe
engineeringplasticregion
different than tensile differentthantensile
Whyistheengineeringstress
higher?
Barreling (xsectionincreased,
resultinginformoreload).
RecallS=F/A
o
Wouldthetruestressstrainbe
S
thesameforcompressionand
tensile?Yes,instantaneousarea
used!
e
Backtoourquestion Whyareceramics
somuchstrongerincompressionover
tension?
Griffith crack model Griffith crack model
( )
2
1
2

o o
c
m
~
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InClassProblem:
Aglassplatecontainsanatomicscalecrack(tipradius=dia ofO
2
ion).Ifcracklength=1m&
theoreticalstrength=7.0GPa,calc.thebreakingstrength,o.
IMPACT Toughness
Shorttermdynamicstressing
Carcollisions
Bullets
Athl ti i t Athleticequipment
Etc
Abilityofthematerialtoabsorbenergypriortofracture.
Thisisdifferentthantoughness.
Usefulinqualitycontrol.
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InfluenceofLoadingRateonProperties
Increased loading rate...
-- increases o
y
and TS
-- decreases %EL
Why? An increased rate
gives less time for
dislocations to move past
decreases %EL
dislocations to move past
obstacles.
o
o
y
TS
TS
larger
c
ll
c
27
c
o
y
smaller
Figure8.12
(a)Specimenused
forCharpyandIzod
impacttests.(b)A
schematicdrawing
ofanimpacttesting
hi Th
Charpy or Izod test
Strikeanotchedsamplewith
ananvil.
machine.The
hammerisreleased
fromafixedheight
andstrikesthe
specimen;the
energyexpendedto
breakthespecimen
isreflectedinthe
differencebetween
theinitialheightof
thehammerand
Measurehowfartheanvil
travelsfollowingimpact.
Distancetraveledisrelatedto
energyrequiredtobreakthe
sample.
h h f l d
theswingheight.
[adaptedfrom
Callister,7
th
Ed.]
Veryhighrateofloading.
Makesmaterialsmore
brittle.
Impact energy is analogous to toughness.
High impact energy means high toughness; material resists crack propagation
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ImpactDataforSelectMaterials
No. Alloy Impact energy [J (ft-lb)]
1 1040 carbon steel 180 (133)
2 8630 low-alloy steel 55 (41)
3 410 stainless steel 34 (25)
4 L2 tool steel 26 (19)
5 Ferrous superalloy (410) 34 (25) 5 Ferrous superalloy (410) 34 (25)
6 Ductile iron, quenched 9 (7)
7 2048, plate aluminum 10.3 (7.6)
8 AZ31B magnesium 0.8 (0.6)
9 Ti-5Al-2.5Sn 23 (17)
10 Aluminum bronze, 9% (copper alloy) 48 (35)
11 Monel 400 (Ni-Cu alloy) 298 (220)
12 50:50 solder (Pb alloy) 21.6 (15.9)
13 Nb 1Z 174 (128) 13 Nb-1Zr 174 (128)
14 Low density polyethylene 22 (16)
15 High density polyethylene 1.4-16 (1-12)
16 PVC 1.4 (1)
17 Epoxy 1.1 (0.8)
18 Teflon 5 (4)
Impactenergiescanvarywildlywithineachclassofmaterials
Fatigue = failure under cyclic stress.
compression on top
counter motor
be
i
g
specimen
Adapted from Fig. 8.16,
Callister 6e (Fig 8 16
FATIGUE itsimportant
tension on bottom
counter motor
flex coupling
bearing
bearing
Stress varies with time.
--key parameters are S and o
m
o
max
o
i
o
time
o
m
S
Callister 6e. (Fig. 8.16
is from Materials
Science in Engineering,
4/E by Carl. A. Keyser,
Pearson Education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River,
NJ.)
o
min
time
Key points: Fatigue...
--can cause part failure, even though o
max
< o
c
.
--causes ~ 90% of mechanical engineering failures.
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Fatigue limit, S
fat
:
--no fatigue if S < S
fat
S
fat
case for
steel (typ.) unsafe
S = stress amplitude
FATIGUEDESIGNPARAMETERS
Sometimes, the
fatigue limit is zero!
S
fat
N = Cycles to failure
10
3
10
5
10
7
10
9
safe
case for
Al (typ )
f
S = stress amplitude
Adapted from Fig.
8.17(a), Callister 6e.
Al (typ.)
N = Cycles to failure
10
3
10
5
10
7
10
9
unsafe
safe
Adapted from Fig.
8.17(b), Callister 6e.
Crack grows incrementally
da
dN
= AK
( )
m
typ. 1 to 6
( )
FATIGUEMECHANISM

dN
( )

~ Ao
( )
a
increase in crack length per loading cycle
Failed rotating shaft
--crack grew even though
K
max
< K
c
--crack grows faster if
crack origin
crack grows faster if
Ao increases
crack gets longer
loading freq. increases.
Adapted from
Fig. 8.19, Callister
6e. (Fig. 8.19 is from
D.J. Wulpi,
Understanding How
Components Fail,
American Society for
Metals, Materials
Park, OH, 1985.)
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1. Impose a compressive
surface stress
(to suppress surface
k f i )
S = stress amplitude
near zero or compressive o
m
Adapted from
Fig. 8.22, Callister 6e.
IMPROVINGFATIGUELIFE
cracks from growing)
--Method 1: shot peening --Method 2: carburizing
C-rich gas
put
surface
into
i
shot
N = Cycles to failure
moderate tensile o
m
larger tensile o
m
p
m
2. Remove stress
concentrators.
bad
bad
better
better
compression
Adapted from
Fig. 8.23, Callister 6e.
DuctiletoBrittleTransition
(DBTT)
Ductile Brittle
Figure8.16 Influenceof
carboncontentonthe
Charpy Vnotch energy
Low
toughness
High
toughness
CharpyV notchenergy
versustemperature
behaviorforsteel.
[fromCallister,7
th
Ed.]
Dramatic change in impact energy is associated with a change in fracture mode from
brittle to ductile.
DBTT occurs in bcc metals but not in fcc metals
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Increasing temperature...
--increases %EL and K
c
Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT)...
Temperature
BCC metals (e.g., iron at T < 914C)
p
a
c
t

E
n
e
r
g
y
High strength materials (o > E/150)
polymers
More Ductile Brittle
FCC metals (e.g., Cu, Ni)
I
m
p
Temperature
High strength materials (o
y
> E/150)
Ductile-to-brittle
transition temperature
Adapted from Fig. 8.15,
Callister 7e.
Pre-WWII: The Titanic WWII: Liberty ships
DesignStrategy:
StayAboveTheDBTT!
Reprinted w/ permission from R.W. Hertzberg, Reprinted w/ permission from R.W. Hertzberg,
Problem: Used a type of steel with a DBTT ~ Room temp.
"Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering
Materials", (4th ed.) Fig. 7.1(a), p. 262, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1996. (Orig. source: Dr. Robert D. Ballard,
The Discovery of the Titanic.)
"Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering
Materials", (4th ed.) Fig. 7.1(b), p. 262, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1996. (Orig. source: Earl R. Parker,
"Behavior of Engineering Structures", Nat. Acad. Sci.,
Nat. Res. Council, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY,
1957.)
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HARDNESS HARDNESS
Theresistanceofa
materialtodeformation
byindentation.
Hardnesscanprovidea
qualitativeassessmentof
strength.
Hardnesscannotbeused
toquantitativelyinfer
strengthorductility.
Usefulinqualitycontrol
Hardness
Resistance to permanently indenting the surface.
Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in
compression.
--better wear properties.
e.g.,
10 mm sphere
apply known force
measure size
of indent after
removing load
d
D
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness hardness.
increasing hardness
most
plastics
brasses
Al alloys
easy to machine
steels file hard
cutting
tools
nitrided
steels diamond
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HARDNESS HARDNESS
Hardness is the resistance of a material to deformation by indentation.
Hardness can provide a qualitative assessment of strength.
Table6.5 Hardnesstestingtechniques
Early hardness tests
were based on
scratching materials
with minerals
Figure6.18 Comparison
ofseveralhardness
scales.
[fromCallister,7
th
Ed.]
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Hardness:Measurement
Rockwell
No major sample damage Nomajorsampledamage
Eachscalerunsto130butonlyusefulinrange20100.
Minorload10kg
Majorload60(A),100(B)&150(C)kg
A=diamond,B=1/16in.ball,C=diamond
HB B i ll H d HB=BrinellHardness
TS (psi)=500xHB
TS(MPa)=3.45xHB