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Luyuan Fang

Broadband Forum Ambassador Cisco Systems

Doug Hunt

Broadband Forum Ambassador Alcatel-Lucent

MPLS in Mobile Backhaul

MR-234

Issue 2

May 2010

Cisco Systems Doug Hunt Broadband Forum Ambassador Alcatel-Lucent MPLS in Mobile Backhaul MR-234 Issue 2 May
Cisco Systems Doug Hunt Broadband Forum Ambassador Alcatel-Lucent MPLS in Mobile Backhaul MR-234 Issue 2 May
Cisco Systems Doug Hunt Broadband Forum Ambassador Alcatel-Lucent MPLS in Mobile Backhaul MR-234 Issue 2 May
Agenda 1.  2.  Introduction to the Broadband Forum MPLS in Mobile Backhaul
Agenda
1. 
2. 
Introduction to the Broadband Forum
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul

Issues, trends and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving backhaul architectures

3.

MPLS Basics

MPLS fit and operation in the mobile backhaul network and the support of end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features

4.

MPLS Pseudowires

For legacy network migration (TDM and ATM), LTE support (IP/ Ethernet) and their operation in MPLS backhaul networks

5.

MPLS OAM and Protection

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities of IP/ MPLS backhaul networks

11. Packet Synchronization and Timing 12. MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI 13. Summary

2

11.   Packet Synchronization and Timing 12.   MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI 13.  
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Tutorial Contributors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Tutorial
Contributors

Matthew Bocci – Alcatel-Lucent

Rao Cherukuri – Juniper Networks

Dave Christophe – Alcatel-Lucent

Sultan Dawood – Cisco Systems

Doug Hunt – Alcatel-Lucent

Fabien Le Clech – France Telecom

Drew Rexrode – Verizon

Nikhil Shah – Juniper Networks

Dave Sinicrope – Ericsson

3

Drew Rexrode – Verizon    Nikhil Shah – Juniper Networks    Dave Sinicrope –
http://www.broadband-forum.org
http://www.broadband-forum.org
http://www.broadband-forum.org We are the United Broadband Forum    The Broadband Forum is the central organization

We are the United Broadband Forum

We are the United Broadband Forum    The Broadband Forum is the central organization

The Broadband Forum is the central organization driving broadband solutions and empowering converged packet networks worldwide to better meet the needs of vendors, service providers and their customers.

4

We develop multi-service broadband packet networking specifications addressing interoperability, architecture and management. Our work enables home, business and converged broadband services, encompassing customer, access and backbone networks.

Our work enables home, business and converged broadband services, encompassing customer, access and backbone networks .
The BroadbandSuite Goals and Focus
The BroadbandSuite
Goals and Focus

BroadbandManagement

BroadbandSuite Goals and Focus    BroadbandManagement The BroadbandSuite is broken down into three major domains:

The BroadbandSuite is broken down into three major domains:

Goal – enhance network management capabilities and enable an intelligent, programmable control layer that unifies diverse networks Focus - empower service providers to deliver and efficiently maintain personalized services that enhance the subscriber experience

BroadbandNetwork

Goal - establish network architecture specifications to support current and emerging services and applications Focus - deliver access, aggregation and core specifications that provide inherent interoperability, quality, scalability and resiliency capabilities from end-to-end

BroadbandUser

Goal - Define unified networking standards by establishing a common set of CPE capabilities within the business, home and mobile environments Focus - Simplify the service delivery process by developing common devices’ identification, activation, configuration and maintenance specifications

5

broadband-forum.org

common devices’ identification, activation, configuration and maintenance specifications 5 broadband-forum.org
Broadband Forum Scope PARTNER Management APPLICATION TR-069 ACS
Broadband Forum Scope
PARTNER
Management
APPLICATION
TR-069 ACS

FUNCTION

FUNCTION PARTNER CONTROL FUNCTION

PARTNER

CONTROL

FUNCTION

TR-069 ACS FUNCTION PARTNER CONTROL FUNCTION Quality of Experience TR-069 (CWMP) Identity, Accounting and

Quality of Experience TR-069 (CWMP) Identity, Accounting and Policy Operations and Network Management DSL Quality Management

TR-126 IPTV Quality of Experience

TR-176 DSL Profiles for IPTV

IPTV Quality of Experience TR-176 DSL Profiles for IPTV IDENTITY BILLING OSS CWMP TR-069 Network TR-144
IPTV Quality of Experience TR-176 DSL Profiles for IPTV IDENTITY BILLING OSS CWMP TR-069 Network TR-144

IDENTITY

BILLING

OSS

CWMP

TR-069

Network TR-144 Multi Service Requirements Multi-Service Core Edge Aggregation Access Content Network P2P E-FTTx
Network
TR-144 Multi Service Requirements
Multi-Service Core
Edge
Aggregation
Access
Content Network
P2P E-FTTx
TR-101, TR-156
GPON
IP/MPLS
Ethernet
EPON
Aggregation
DSL
Mobile Network
Multi Service Architecture & Requirements
Certification, Test and Interoperability
BSC
VoD
RNC
TV
SGW
SIP

6

broadband-forum.org

& Requirements Certification, Test and Interoperability BSC VoD RNC TV SGW SIP 6 broadband-forum.org
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap
We don’t work alone
Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org

7

We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org

broadband-forum.org

We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org
We don’t work alone Coordinated industry efforts maximize value with minimum overlap 7 broadband-forum.org
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul

MPLS in Mobile Backhaul

MPLS in Mobile Backhaul
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul

Issues, trends and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving backhaul architectures

MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Issues, trends and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving backhaul
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Issues, trends and enablers of the transition to IP/MPLS in evolving backhaul
State of the Market
State of the Market

Price competition Reduction or flattening of growth in minutes per subscriber in markets such as North America Subscribers granted ability to customize phones

Voice and text messages drive majority of current revenue

Declining average revenue per user (ARPU)

Initial 4G (LTE/WiMAX) trials/deployments

Significantly expand data capacity to enable new devices, services and applications ARPU growth 1 st generation wireless network built as a data network Focus on reducing cost per bit

9

–   1 s t generation wireless network built as a data network –   Focus
Evolution to LTE is all about services 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Evolution to LTE is all about services
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
CDMA
CDMA2000
CDMA2000
EV-DO
EV-DO
LTE
1X
1xEV-DO
Rev A
Rev B
DL: 153 kbps
UL: 153 kbps
DL: 2.4 Mbps
UL: 153 kbps
DL: 3.1 Mbps
UL: 1.8 Mbps
DL: 3.1-73 Mbps
UL: 1.8-27 Mbps

Requirement:

DL: 100 Mbps UL: 50 Mbps

Real-time Services apps Voice High-speed data Picture/Video Email Web browsing Broadband data VOD, MOD
Real-time
Services
apps
Voice
High-speed data
Picture/Video
Email
Web browsing
Broadband data
VOD, MOD
High-speed
Internet
Enterprise
applications
Video
Broadband
telephony,
Real-time
VoIP,PTx,
Applications
Multimedia,
VoIP, Video Delivery,
Advanced IMS
Interactive
gaming,
Multimedia
WCDMA
GSM UMTS (W-CDMA) EDGE GPRS R99 DL: 114 kbps UL: 114 kbps DL: 384 kbps
GSM
UMTS (W-CDMA)
EDGE
GPRS
R99
DL: 114 kbps
UL: 114 kbps
DL: 384 kbps
UL: 384 kbps
DL: 384 kbps
UL: 384 kbps

HSPA+

HSPA+

Rel 7

Rel 8

LTE

Phase 2

Phase 1

Target:

DL: 40 Mbps UL: 10 Mbps

Requirement:

DL: 100 Mbps UL: 50 Mbps

HSDPA

HSUPA

Rel 5

Rel 6

DL: 1.8-7.2 Mbps UL: 384Kbps

DL: 7.2 Mbps UL: 5.2 Mbps

TRANSPORT TDM (SONET/SDH, PDH) FR, HDLC, ATM/IMA IP/Ethernet
TRANSPORT
TDM (SONET/SDH, PDH)
FR, HDLC, ATM/IMA
IP/Ethernet

10

DL: 1.8-7.2 Mbps UL: 384Kbps DL: 7.2 Mbps UL: 5.2 Mbps TRANSPORT TDM (SONET/SDH, PDH) FR,
Data revenue for mobile operators
Data revenue for mobile operators

Mobile Data revenue (as % of total ARPU) is growing Mobile broadband data traffic is growing much faster than corresponding revenue growth

11

total ARPU) is growing    Mobile broadband data traffic is growing much faster than corresponding
From 2G/3G to LTE: Towards all-IP, simplified network architecture 2G/3G Broadband Forum focus areas for
From 2G/3G to LTE: Towards all-IP, simplified
network architecture
2G/3G
Broadband Forum focus
areas for backhaul
Softswitch
PSTN
GMSC
MGW
CDMA / EVDO
GSM / GPRS
EDGE
UMTS
HSPA
Circuit Switched
Other
Core (Voice)
Voice
mobile
MSC
networks
Channels
BTS
BSC / RNC
IP channel
Internet
Node B
Packet Switched
Core
VPN
SGSN
GGSN
PDSN
HA
New, all-IP mobile core network introduced with LTE
What is EPC ?
 
 
 
End-to-end IP
Clear delineation of control plane and data plane
Simplified architecture: flat-IP architecture with a single core
LTE+EPC
IP channel
eNode B
Evolved Packet Core
(All-IP)
(eNB)
Transport
(backhaul
and backbone)

Evolved Packet Core = end-to-end IP transformation of mobile core

12

(All-IP) (eNB) Transport (backhaul and backbone) Evolved Packet Core = end-to-end IP transformation of mobile core
State of market : LTE
State of market : LTE
State of market : LTE    Large number of cell sites will support mix of
State of market : LTE    Large number of cell sites will support mix of
State of market : LTE    Large number of cell sites will support mix of

Large number of cell sites will support mix of 2G, 3G and 4G (LTE/WiMAX) RAN types

Worldwide LTE subscribers will cross 200 millions by 2014

13

Source: Infonetics, Q3. 2009, ABI research

RAN types    Worldwide LTE subscribers will cross 200 millions by 2014 13 Source: Infonetics,
Backhaul connections Growth (By Technology Type)
Backhaul connections Growth
(By Technology Type)

Operators migrating mobile backhaul to converged, packet- based architectures Microwave used extensively in Europe and Asia

Multiple options for backhaul transport Varies based on geography, availability, volume, inter/ intra carrier relationships

Worldwide Mobile Backhaul New Connectivity by Technology

inter/ intra carrier relationships Worldwide Mobile Backhaul New Connectivity by Technology 14 Source: Infonetics, 2008
inter/ intra carrier relationships Worldwide Mobile Backhaul New Connectivity by Technology 14 Source: Infonetics, 2008
inter/ intra carrier relationships Worldwide Mobile Backhaul New Connectivity by Technology 14 Source: Infonetics, 2008

14

Source: Infonetics, 2008

inter/ intra carrier relationships Worldwide Mobile Backhaul New Connectivity by Technology 14 Source: Infonetics, 2008
Business and technical Drivers for Mobile backhaul evolution    Expense of the Mobile backhaul

Business and technical Drivers for Mobile backhaul evolution

Expense of the Mobile backhaul is sizable portion of overall OPEX of Mobile operator Fix the legacy backhaul bottleneck (Scale) Solution need to support co-existence of 2G, 3G and 4G base stations on the same cell site.

Future Proof: Path to 4G, Next Generation Networks Address network synchronization

15

same cell site.    Future Proof: Path to 4G, Next Generation Networks    Address
LTE Deployment requires evolution of backhaul transport LTE+EPC eNB IP channel Evolved Packet Core (All-IP)
LTE Deployment requires evolution of
backhaul transport
LTE+EPC
eNB
IP channel
Evolved Packet Core
(All-IP)
eNB
Transport (backhaul
and backbone)

LTE is built on an all-IP flat architecture – compared to 3G and previous generations of mobile technology it has

A more direct data and control path between the mobile user and the core network

Base stations (called eNBs) with additional functionality – including direct communication of client data and control plane traffic between eNBs

Transport Implications

Favors more flexible backhaul mesh, such as architectures that do not need to transverse the aggregation points

To support transport of latency-sensitive traffic between eNBs, need a backhaul architecture that minimizes latency

MPLS at the aggregation points is one of the likely solutions to this challenge

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that minimizes latency –   MPLS at the aggregation points is one of the likely solutions
LTE Deployment requires evolution of backhaul transport (continued) LTE+EPC eNB IP channel Evolved Packet Core
LTE Deployment requires evolution of
backhaul transport (continued)
LTE+EPC
eNB
IP channel
Evolved Packet Core
(All-IP)
eNB
Transport (backhaul
and backbone)

Flatter IP architecture requires smooth interworking between previously separate mobile backhaul and backbone transport networks

VPN scaling: LTE enabled eNB user plane by-passes RNC, connects directly to PS-Core

Scope of E2E network planning, traffic engineering, transport SLA monitoring increases (e.g. high availability, stringent E2E QoS is no longer broken up into segments with mobile NEs between each)

17

increases (e.g. high availability, stringent E2E QoS is no longer broken up into segments with mobile
Why MPLS?
Why MPLS?

MPLS is THE unifying technology for various backhaul types MPLS is proven in Service Provider deployments globally – it delivers on its promises MPLS adds carrier-grade capabilities

Scalability - millions of users/end points Resiliency - high availability including rapid restoration Manageability – ease of troubleshooting & provisioning Traffic Engineering plus QoS – predictable network behavior Multiservice – support for 2G, 3G ATM and IP RAN (e.g. LTE, WiMAX) and co-existence with other types of traffic e.g. residential Virtualization – VPNs to ensure separation of OAM from signaling / bearer planes, partitioning of multi-operator traffic

18

– VPNs to ensure separation of OAM from signaling / bearer planes, partitioning of multi-operator traffic
Why IP/MPLS in Mobile Backhaul? –  
Why IP/MPLS in Mobile Backhaul?

Backhaul requires co-existence of multiple transport options

MPLS is proven mechanism to support ATM, TDM, Ethernet, HDLC emulation (Pseudowires) Allows legacy RAN equipment to continue to be utilized (CAPEX protection) while leveraging the advantages of new packet transport networks

Packet Backhaul needs to support multi-media traffic

Voice/VoIP, Video, SMS,

MPLS –TE enables advanced QoS capability

Improved network utilization, Better ROI

Reliability is critical

MPLS offers faster convergence and interoperable mechanisms for failure detection and recovery

Backhaul is increasingly becoming a strategic asset

–   IP/MPLS
–  
IP/MPLS

MPLS at cell site enabled carriers to offer new revenue generating services (i.e. L2/L3 VPNs)

Scalability

19

Resiliency

Multi-Service

Manageability

TE/QOS

to offer new revenue generating services (i.e. L2/L3 VPNs) Scalability 19 Resiliency Multi-Service Manageability TE/QOS
Multi-phase MPLS migration into RAN Transport Radio Access Network Phase 1 IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site

Multi-phase MPLS migration into RAN Transport

Multi-phase MPLS migration into RAN Transport Radio Access Network Phase 1 IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site Hub

Radio Access Network

Phase 1

IP/MPLS Backbone

Cell Site

Hub

MTSO

Access Network Phase 1 IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site Hub MTSO TDM Enet/PPP T1/E1 T1/E1 Enet BSC
Access Network Phase 1 IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site Hub MTSO TDM Enet/PPP T1/E1 T1/E1 Enet BSC
Access Network Phase 1 IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site Hub MTSO TDM Enet/PPP T1/E1 T1/E1 Enet BSC
TDM Enet/PPP T1/E1 T1/E1 Enet BSC RNC WAC Copper Copper Fiber TDM/IP ATM/IP Enet ATM
TDM
Enet/PPP
T1/E1
T1/E1
Enet
BSC
RNC
WAC
Copper
Copper
Fiber
TDM/IP ATM/IP
Enet
ATM
PPP
TDM
ATM
PPP
Enet
Converged
Aggregation
T1/E1
T1/E1
SDH/SONET
IP/MPLS
via
2G – TDM/IP
3G – ATM/IP
WiMAX - Enet
LTE - Enet
Copper
Copper
Fiber
Backbone
SDH/SONET
TDM
ATM
PPP
Enet
TDM
ATM
PPP
Enet
µ wave (PDH channels)
µ wave (SDH ch)
Separate transmission
facilities for different
technologies
ATM
Aggregation
Overlay
Central Aggregation,
Consolidation,
Service Routing
MPLS “edge”

20

technologies ATM Aggregation Overlay Central Aggregation, Consolidation, Service Routing MPLS “edge” 20
Multi-phase MPLS migration into RAN Transport Radio Access Network Phase 2 IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site

Multi-phase MPLS migration into RAN Transport

Multi-phase MPLS migration into RAN Transport Radio Access Network Phase 2 IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site Hub

Radio Access Network

Phase 2

IP/MPLS Backbone

Cell Site Hub TDM ATM PPP Enet MTSO MPLS SDH/SONET TDM Enet/PPP MPLS fiber T1/E1
Cell Site
Hub
TDM
ATM
PPP
Enet
MTSO
MPLS
SDH/SONET
TDM
Enet/PPP
MPLS
fiber
T1/E1
T1/E1
Aggregation
BSC
RNC
WAC
Copper
Copper
TDM
ATM
PPP
Enet
for all
MPLS
TDM/IP ATM/IP
Enet
ATM
PPP
Technologies
Converged
Ethernet
T1/E1
T1/E1
fiber
IP/MPLS
2G – TDM/IP
3G – ATM/IP
WiMAX - Enet
LTE - Enet
Copper
Copper
Backbone
TDM
ATM
PPP
Enet
TDM
ATM
PPP
Enet
µ wave (PDH channels)
MPLS
Ethernet ch
Separate transmission
facilities for different
technologies
µ
wave
Common facility for
all traffic
Central Aggregation,
Consolidation,
Service Routing
MPLS “edge”

21

µ wave Common facility for all traffic Central Aggregation, Consolidation, Service Routing MPLS “edge” 21
Multi-phase MPLS migration into RAN Transport Phase 3 Radio Access Network IP/MPLS Backbone Cell Site
Multi-phase MPLS migration into
RAN Transport
Phase 3
Radio Access Network
IP/MPLS Backbone
Cell Site
TDM
ATM
Enet
IP
Hub
TDM
ATM
Enet
MTSO
MPLS
MPLS
SDH/SONET
SDH/SONET
MPLS
fiber
MPLS
fiber
Aggregation
Aggregation
BSC
RNC
WAC
TDM
ATM
Enet
IP
TDM
ATM
Enet
for all
for all
MPLS
MPLS
TDM/IP ATM/IP
Enet
Technologies
Technologies
Converged
Ethernet
Ethernet
fiber
fiber
IP/MPLS
Backbone
2G – TDM/IP
3G – ATM/IP
WiMAX - Enet
LTE - Enet
TDM
ATM
Enet
IP
TDM
ATM
Enet
MPLS
MPLS
Ethernet ch
Ethernet ch
µ
wave
µ
wave
Router
Common facility for
all traffic
Common facility for
all traffic
MPLS “edge”

IP/MPLS is agnostic to transmission techniques in Access

22

all traffic Common facility for all traffic MPLS “edge” IP/MPLS is agnostic to transmission techniques in
Mobile Backhaul Standards Landscape   3GPP –   RAN definition and specification – definition of
Mobile Backhaul Standards
Landscape
 
3GPP
–   RAN definition and specification – definition of the RAN and its interfaces

Broadband Forum

MMBI – architecture of mobile backhaul transport support with MPLS WT-145 – next generation broadband network architecture to support mobile backhaul Certification – certification of MPLS technologies to support mobile backhaul transport Tutorials and Marketing – education on MPLS in mobile backhaul transport and issues

Metro Ethernet Forum

MBH Phase I and II – Metro Ethernet services and interfaces required to support mobile backhaul MBH Marketing and Tutorial – education on Ethernet in mobile backhaul transport and issues

ITU-T SG 15

Adaptive & Differential Clock Synchronization specification

2323

and issues    ITU-T SG 15 –   Adaptive & Differential Clock Synchronization specification 2323
What is MMBI ?   MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Initiative –   Work item embraced
What is MMBI ?
  MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Initiative
–   Work item embraced by the Broadband Forum
–   Defining role IP/MPLS technologies in Mobile backhaul
(including LTE)

IP/MPLS Forum launched the industry wide initiative in 2Q 2007 and the Broadband Forum continues that work

Framework and Requirements Technical Spec: IP/MPLS Forum 20.0.0 Detailed technical specs are ongoing work MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Certification Program

Pilot phase on TDM over MPLS complete ATM over MPLS in development Ethernet and IP over MPLS (future work item)

24

on TDM over MPLS complete    ATM over MPLS in development    Ethernet and
  Faster mobile broadband deployment
  Faster mobile broadband deployment

What MMBI aims to solve/facilitate ?

HSPA/HSPA+/LTE, EV-DO, LTE

Enhanced experience for mobile users with new data services and application, along with voice

Location based service, VoIP, gaming, etc

Future-proof investments Improve mobile operator’s bottom line and simplify operations

Converging technology specific backhaul networks to single multi-service packet infrastructure Based on proven benefits of IP/MPLS while leveraging cost- benefits of Ethernet

25

packet infrastructure –   Based on proven benefits of IP/MPLS while leveraging cost- benefits of Ethernet
MMBI Reference Architecture (more on this later) Access Aggregation Core BS Cell Site Mobile Gateway
MMBI Reference Architecture
(more on this later)
Access
Aggregation
Core
BS
Cell Site
Mobile
Gateway
Aggregation
Abis
Site Gateway
TDM TNL
RC
A
A
Edge
Node
Gb
Access
Abis
TDM TNL
Iub
Access
network
Iu-CS
Node
S5/S8A
ATM TNL
Edge
xDSL,
Node
Iub
IP/
ATM TNL
microwave,
Aggregation
S5/S8A
MPLS
Leased
network
Core
Iub/S1
Line,
Iub/S1
mobile
Edge
IP
IP
GPON,
Node
TNL
networ
Gb
Edge
TNL
Optical Eth
Iu-CS
k
Node
Abis
HDLC
TNL
Iu-PS
Abis
Iu-PS
HDLC
Iur
TNL
MPLS transport network
SGSN 3G

RAN

MSC 2G

MSC 3G

PDN GW

SGSN 2G

MPLS PE function could be integrated into the BS (BTS/Node B/BS)/RC

 

WCDMA/

CDMA

 

Terminology

UMTS

2000/1x

LTE

Base Station

Node-B

BTS

eNB

Base Station Controller

RNC

BSC

A GW

Circuit Edge devices

MSC

MSC

-

Packet Edge devices

SGSN, GGSN

PDSN

PDN GW

Technology

Data Services

GSM/UMTS

EDGE, GPRS, HSPA

CDMA

CDMA2000, 1xRTT, EV-DO

4G

LTE

26

PDN GW Technology Data Services GSM/UMTS EDGE, GPRS, HSPA CDMA CDMA2000, 1xRTT, EV-DO 4G LTE 26
MPLS Basics
MPLS Basics
MPLS Basics
MPLS Basics
MPLS Basics

MPLS Basics

MPLS Basics
MPLS Basics

MPLS operation in the mobile backhaul network

Support of end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high availability features

MPLS Basics MPLS operation in the mobile backhaul network Support of end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high
MPLS Basics MPLS operation in the mobile backhaul network Support of end-to-end SLAs, QoS, and high
MPLS Definition
MPLS Definition

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a network technology that enables network operators to implement a variety of advanced network features, both to serve their customers and to enhance their own network utilization. These features are a result of the transformation of the connectionless per-hop behavior of an Internet Protocol (IP) network into a connection-oriented forwarding along MPLS Label Switched Paths (LSP). MPLS operates over a range of devices such as routers, switches, etc, using enhanced IP protocols and leveraging Operations Administration and Management (OAM) systems similar to those with IP

28

MPLS can be viewed as an extension of IP, rather than its replacement.

MPLS works with both IPv4 and IPv6 MPLS is currently being extended to provide additional packet transport capabilities (MPLS-TP)

IPv4 and IPv6    MPLS is currently being extended to provide additional packet transport capabilities
Label Switched Path (LSP)   LSP is the path followed by labelled packets that are
Label Switched Path (LSP)
  LSP is the path followed by labelled packets that are assigned to
the same FEC
–  
Packets of similar characteristics are treated/forwarded in a similar
way
LSP
IP source
network
IP destination
network
MPLS
network
  FEC is Forwarding Equivalence Class

This class is formed based on the equivalence in forwarding, i.e., “forwarding equivalence” FEC-to-label binding mechanism Flow (stream, traffic trunk) of IP packets – forwarded over same LSP FEC-to-label binding mechanism binding is done once, at the ingress

29

IP packets – forwarded over same LSP –   FEC-to-label binding mechanism binding is done once,
Network Engineering vs. Traffic Engineering
Network Engineering vs. Traffic Engineering

Network Engineering

"Put the bandwidth where the traffic is"

Physical cable deployment Virtual connection provisioning

Traffic Engineering

"Put the traffic where the bandwidth is"

On-line or off-line optimisation of routes Ability to diversify routes

Leverage knowledge of available resources in network

30

of routes    Ability to diversify routes –   Leverage knowledge of available resources in
Providing Resiliency with MPLS   Lower Layers
Providing Resiliency with MPLS
  Lower Layers

Partial or full mesh Automatic Protection Switching strategies of SONET/ SDH/WDM

31

MPLS Layer

Outage

Protection and Re-routing procedures

Administrative

Re-optimization and Preemption

IP Layer

IGP convergence algorithms

IGP: Internal gateway protocol

  Re-optimization and Preemption    IP Layer –   IGP convergence algorithms IGP: Internal gateway
Carrier-Grade IP/MPLS Protection   Restoration time
Carrier-Grade IP/MPLS Protection
  Restoration time

Recovery times smaller than IGP convergence times. 50ms fail-over possible. Failover transparent to edge service protection mechanisms

Resource efficiency

Leverages statistical gains over use of optical or SDH/SONET layers

Service differentiation

MPLS enables granular levels of protection. This helps service differentiation (QoS, protection)

Node protection

Service awareness assist in node protection or protection of layer 2 traffic

Robustness

Route pinning avoids transient LSP behavior when SPF routing changes

32

Interoperability

MPLS provides standardized protection in multi-vendor environments RFC 4090: FRR extensions to RSVP

–   MPLS provides standardized protection in multi-vendor environments –   RFC 4090: FRR extensions to
MPLS Pseudowires
MPLS Pseudowires
MPLS Pseudowires
MPLS Pseudowires

MPLS Pseudowires

MPLS Pseudowires
MPLS Pseudowires

For legacy network migration (TDM and ATM), LTE support (IP/Ethernet) and their operation in MPLS backhaul networks

For legacy network migration (TDM and ATM), LTE support (IP/Ethernet) and their operation in MPLS backhaul
For legacy network migration (TDM and ATM), LTE support (IP/Ethernet) and their operation in MPLS backhaul
What is PWE3?
What is PWE3?

PWE3 – “Pseudowire Emulation Edge-to- Edge” – IETF Working Group assigned to study carriage of “Legacy and New Services” over MPLS Protocol encapsulations can be carried over MPLS

Legacy Services under consideration are:

FR, ATM, SONET & SDH, DS0, DS1, DS3, …

And new services such as:

Ethernet, VLANs, etc.

34

  FR, ATM, SONET & SDH, DS0, DS1, DS3, … –   And new services such
MPLS Pseudowire Reference Model Native Emulated Service Pseudowire (PW) (forward) MPLS Tunnel LSP (forward) AC
MPLS Pseudowire
Reference Model
Native Emulated Service
Pseudowire (PW) (forward)
MPLS Tunnel LSP (forward)
AC
AC
CE1
IP/MPLS Network
CE2
PE1
PE2
MPLS Tunnel LSP (backward)

Pseudowire (backward)

AC: Attachment Circuit CE: Customer Edge PE: Provider Edge 35
AC: Attachment Circuit
CE: Customer Edge
PE: Provider Edge
35

ATM, Ethernet , FR, IP, TDM, etc Circuit (AC) - Same at each end

Attachment

CE: Customer Edge PE: Provider Edge 35 ATM, Ethernet , FR, IP, TDM, etc Circuit (AC)
MPLS Point-to-Point Services Label Stacking Tunnel PW VC Encaps Layer 2 payload Header Header Information
MPLS Point-to-Point Services
Label Stacking
Tunnel
PW
VC Encaps
Layer 2 payload
Header
Header
Information
1
2
3
  Three Layers of Encapsulation

1) LSP Tunnel Header: Contains information needed to transport the PDU across the IP / MPLS network 2) Pseudowire Header: Used to distinguish individual PWs within a single tunnel 3) Emulated VC Encapsulation: Contains the information about the enclosed PDU (known as Control Word)

LSP Tunnel Header determines path through network Pseudowire Header identifies VLAN, VPN, or connection at the end point All services look like a Virtual Circuit to MPLS network

36

identifies VLAN, VPN, or connection at the end point    All services look like a
Layer 2 Encapsulation - PWE3   Ethernet   RFC 4448   ATM cell and ATM
Layer 2 Encapsulation - PWE3
  Ethernet
  RFC 4448
  ATM cell and ATM AAL5
  RFC 4717
  TDM
2G to 3G
  RFC 4553 (structure agnostic)
  RFC 5086 (CES0PSN)
  PPP/HDLC
CDMA

3G to 4G (LTE/WiMax)

3G R99/R3 UMTS

RFC 4618

37

agnostic)   RFC 5086 (CES0PSN)   PPP/HDLC CDMA 3G to 4G (LTE/WiMax) 3G R99/R3 UMTS 
Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet over MPLS Networks 4 octets 4 octets 4 octets
Encapsulation Methods for Transport of
Ethernet over MPLS Networks
4 octets
4 octets
4 octets
Tunnel
PW
Control
Payload (Ethernet/802.3 PDU)
Header
Header
Word
bits
4
12
16
0000 Reserved
Sequence Number

Set to 0 to signify PW data

Control Word (use is optional)

Enables transport of an Ethernet/802.3 PDU across a MPLS network

Ethernet PDU consists of the Destination Address, Source Address, Length/Type,

MAC Client Data and padding Ethernet PW operates in one of two modes:

Raw mode: If there is a 802.1Q VLAN tag in a frame, it is passed transparently by network

 
 

Tagged mode: Each frame must contain at least one 802.1Q VLAN tag which PW termination points have an agreement (signaled or manually configured) on how to process tag

Optional Control Word allows:

38

Sequence number to guarantee order of frames – use is optional

RFC 4448

  Optional Control Word allows: 38 –   Sequence number to guarantee order of frames –
ATM Cell Mode Encapsulation for Transport over MPLS 4 octets 4 octets 4 octets 52
ATM Cell Mode Encapsulation for
Transport over MPLS
4 octets
4 octets
4 octets
52 octets
52 octets
Tunnel
PW
Control
Header
Header
word
ATM cell #1
minus FCS
ATM cell #2
minus FCS
bits
4
4
4
6
16

0000

Flags

Res

Length

Sequence Number

Control Word

2 modes relevant to backhaul:

One-to-One Cell Mode - maps one ATM VCC (or VPC) to one PW N-to-One Cell Mode - maps one or more ATM VCCs (or VPCs) to one PW (shown above); only required mode for ATM support

Ingress performs no reassembly

N-to-One Cell Mode Multiple Cell Encapsulation

 

Control Word (optional)

 

VPI

VCI

PTI

C

 

ATM Payload (48 bytes) “

 

VPI

VCI

PTI

C

 

ATM Payload (48 bytes) “

 

Control word is optional: If used, Flag and Length bits are not used

39 RFC 4717

bytes) “ “      Control word is optional : If used, Flag and Length
Structure-Agnostic TDM Encapsulation for Transport over MPLS (SAToP) 4 octets 4 octets 4 octets Tunnel
Structure-Agnostic TDM Encapsulation for
Transport over MPLS (SAToP)
4 octets
4 octets
4 octets
Tunnel
PW
Control
Fixed RTP Header*
TDM Payload
Header
Header
Word
* Optional see RFC 3550
bits
4
1 1
2
2 6
16
0000
L
R RSV
FRG
Length
Sequence Number

SAToP Control Word

Structure agnostic transport for TDM (T1, E1, T3 and E3) bit streams

Ignores structure imposed by standard TDM framing Used in applications where PEs do not need to interpret TDM data or participate in TDM signaling

SAToP Control Word allows:

Detection of packet loss or mis-ordering Differentiation between MPLS and AC problems as causes for emulated service outages Conservation of MPLS network bandwidth by not transferring invalid data (AIS) Signaling of faults detected at PW egress to the PW ingress

40 RFC 4553

by not transferring invalid data (AIS) –   Signaling of faults detected at PW egress to
PW Control Plane PE MPLS PE Tunnel LSP Layer 2 Pseudowire Layer 2 AC AC
PW Control Plane
PE
MPLS
PE
Tunnel LSP
Layer 2
Pseudowire
Layer 2
AC
AC
CE
Payload
(L2 protocol)
Ethernet
Targeted LDP
ATM
PW Label
TDM, etc
LSP Label

PWs have a control plane that signals binding of PW label to the PW FEC

control plane that signals binding of PW label to the PW FEC CE Inner Label Outer

CE

Inner Label

Outer Label

RSVP-TE or LDP

MPLS Label Stack

41

PW Setup and Maintenance: IETF RFC 4447

label to the PW FEC CE Inner Label Outer Label RSVP-TE or LDP MPLS Label Stack

2G

MPLS Pseudowires for Backhaul

2G MPLS Pseudowires for Backhaul BTS Node B eNB, BS L2 AC Cell- site PE MPLS
BTS

BTS

Node B

Node B

eNB, BS

eNB, BS

L2 AC

2G MPLS Pseudowires for Backhaul BTS Node B eNB, BS L2 AC Cell- site PE MPLS

Cell-

site

PE

MPLS RAN

Pseudowire

Tunnel

LSP

MTSO

PE

L2 AC Cell- site PE MPLS RAN Pseudowire Tunnel LSP MTSO PE L2 AC 3G PW

L2 AC

3G

PW frame

payload

(L2 protocol)

PW Label

T-LSP Label

4G

Inner Label

Outer Label

MPLS Label Stack

Pseudowires Emulate a native layer 2 service, such as Ethernet, TDM, ATM VC/VP, FR VC, etc Many PWs carried across MPLS network in a tunnel LSP PWs can utilise features of the MPLS network for resiliency, QoS, etc

42

across MPLS network in a tunnel LSP –   PWs can utilise features of the MPLS
2G Multi-Segment PW for Backhaul BTS Node B eNB, BS Cell Site T-PE MPLS Access

2G

Multi-Segment PW for Backhaul

2G Multi-Segment PW for Backhaul BTS Node B eNB, BS Cell Site T-PE MPLS Access Ethernet,
BTS

BTS

Node B

Node B

eNB, BS

eNB, BS

Cell Site

2G Multi-Segment PW for Backhaul BTS Node B eNB, BS Cell Site T-PE MPLS Access Ethernet,

T-PE

MPLS

Access

Ethernet, TDM, ATM MS-PW

MPLS Aggregation Pseudowires Tunnel LSP T-PE S-PE Hub MTSO
MPLS Aggregation
Pseudowires
Tunnel LSP
T-PE
S-PE
Hub
MTSO

3G

4G

Pseudowires Tunnel LSP T-PE S-PE Hub MTSO 3G 4G A static or dynamically configured set of

A static or dynamically configured set of two or more contiguous PW segments that behave and function as a single point-to-point PW Enables:

Scalability – to hundreds of base stations connecting to RNC/BSC site Multi-domain operation – including multi-provider backhaul networks Multi-technology operation – leverage mechanisms from non-MPLS access infrastructures

backhaul networks    Multi-technology operation – leverage mechanisms from non-MPLS access infrastructures 43

43

MPLS OAM and Protection
MPLS OAM and Protection
MPLS OAM and Protection
MPLS OAM and Protection

MPLS OAM and Protection

MPLS OAM and Protection
MPLS OAM and Protection

Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities of IP/MPLS mobile backhaul networks

MPLS OAM and Protection Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities of IP/MPLS mobile backhaul networks
MPLS OAM and Protection Operations, Administration and Management (OAM) capabilities of IP/MPLS mobile backhaul networks
  OAM needed for reactive & proactive network maintenance
  OAM needed for reactive & proactive network
maintenance

MPLS for Backhaul: OAM Requirements

Quick detection and localization of a defect Proactive connectivity verification and performance monitoring

OAM tools have a cost and revenue impact to carriers

Reduce troubleshooting time and therefore reduce OPEX Enable delivery of high-margin premium services which require a short restoration time

Top level requirements

Service Level e.g ATM OAM, MAC-Ping
Service Level
e.g ATM OAM, MAC-Ping
VLL / PW Level e.g VCCV, PW status
VLL / PW Level
e.g VCCV, PW status
Tunnel LSP Level e.g LSP ping
Tunnel LSP Level
e.g LSP ping

Provide/co-ordinate OAM at relevant levels in IP/ MPLS network Proactive and reactive mechanisms, independent at all levels

45

OAM at relevant levels in IP/ MPLS network –   Proactive and reactive mechanisms, independent at
OAM and Service Assurance: Mobile Backhaul Test Service Latency, Jitter, Packet Loss and Round-trip Delay
OAM and Service Assurance: Mobile Backhaul
Test Service Latency, Jitter, Packet
Loss and Round-trip Delay
Operator GUI
Monitor Alerts for Potential
SLA Violation
OAM
Schedule a Suite of Tests at
Service Activation or Time of Day
Notification

Calculate SLA Performance Metrics

2G

3G

4G

BTS

BTS

Node B

Node B

eNB, BS

eNB, BS

L2 AC

OAM Notification (flat file) OSS
OAM
Notification
(flat file)
OSS

Automate On-Demand Test Suites from Fault Notification

MPLS RAN

MTSO

PE

Pseudowires
Pseudowires

Cell-site

PE

Tunnel LSP

L2 AC

OSS Automate On-Demand Test Suites from Fault Notification MPLS RAN MTSO PE Pseudowires Cell-site PE Tunnel

46

OSS Automate On-Demand Test Suites from Fault Notification MPLS RAN MTSO PE Pseudowires Cell-site PE Tunnel
Service-Aware OAM Toolkit Cell Site VLL / PW Level Service Level e.g BFD, VCCV, PW
Service-Aware OAM Toolkit
Cell Site
VLL / PW Level
Service Level
e.g BFD, VCCV, PW status
e.g ATM OAM, SDP-Ping
2G
BTS
MPLS Aggregation
MPLS
Access
3G
Pseudowires
Node B
Tunnel LSP
4G
Hub
MTSO
Tunnel / LSP Level
eNB, BS
e.g LSP Ping & Traceroute
Tunnel / LSP Level eNB, BS e.g LSP Ping & Traceroute Quickly isolate and troubleshoot faults

Quickly isolate and troubleshoot faults to reduce MTTR

Tool set for reactive & proactive network operation and maintenance

Defect detection, proactive connectivity verification, and performance monitoring Provide/co-ordinate OAM at relevant levels in IP/MPLS network Services Level: Eth CFM, Eth EFM, ATM, FR loopback, SAA Tunnel LSP Level: LSP ping and LSP Traceroute Pseudowire Level: PW Status, VCCV-BFD, VCCV-Ping, mapping to Ethernet, TDM, ATM notifications MPLS is currently being extended to provide additional packet transport capabilities (MPLS-TP)

47 for performance monitoring, path segment monitoring and alarm suppression

packet transport capabilities (MPLS-TP) 47 for performance monitoring, path segment monitoring and alarm suppression
LSP Ping
LSP Ping

LSP Ping is MPLS specific variation of traditional ICMP ping/traceroute ad hoc tool

Ping is simple e2e loopback Traceroute uses TTL to incrementally verify path

Ping paradigm useful for craftsperson initiated testing

48

TELNET/CLI

LSP Ping is augmented with a number of TLVs processed by the receiver to extend functionality As LSP is unidirectional, and Ping is bi-directional, LSP Ping is augmented with options for distinguishing real problems from return path problems

and Ping is bi-directional, LSP Ping is augmented with options for distinguishing real problems from return
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)
Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD)

49

Simple, fixed-field, hello protocol

Easily implemented in hardware Very useful as a fault-detection mechanism

Nodes transmit BFD packets periodically over respective directions of a path If a node stops receiving BFD packets some component of the bidirectional path is assumed to have failed Applicable to tunnel end-points

BFD packets some component of the bidirectional path is assumed to have failed    Applicable
Virtual Circuit Connection Verification (VCCV) 2G PSN PE1 PE2 BTS 4G-3G-2G 3G A GW/ Node
Virtual Circuit Connection Verification
(VCCV)
2G
PSN
PE1
PE2
BTS
4G-3G-2G
3G
A GW/
Node B
Pseudowire
HBSC/RNC
Attachment
Attachment
4G
Complex
Circuit
Circuit
eNB, BS

Mechanism for connectivity verification of PW Multiple PSN tunnel types

MPLS, IPSec, L2TP, GRE,…

Motivation

One tunnel can serve many pseudo-wires MPLS LSP ping is sufficient to monitor the PSN tunnel (PE-PE connectivity), but not PWs inside of tunnel

Features

Works over MPLS or IP networks In-band CV via control word flag or out-of-band option by inserting router alert label between tunnel and PW labels Works with BFD, ICMP Ping and/or LSP ping

50

by inserting router alert label between tunnel and PW labels –   Works with BFD, ICMP
PW Status Signaling AC defect PW status: AC RX fault AC defect 2G PSN BTS
PW Status Signaling
AC defect
PW status: AC RX fault
AC defect
2G
PSN
BTS
PE1
PE2
4G-3G-2G
A GW/
3G
HBSC/RNC
Node B
Pseudowire
Complex
Attachment
Attachment
4G
Circuit
Circuit
eNB, BS

PWs have OAM capabilities to signal defect notifications:

Defect status mapped between AC and PW in the PE PW status signaling propagates defect notifications along PW - Extension to T-LDP signaling

51

PW in the PE    PW status signaling propagates defect notifications along PW - Extension
PW Status Signaling: Multi-segment PWs 2G PW Status MPLS Aggregation BTS MPLS Access 3G Pseudowires
PW Status Signaling: Multi-segment PWs
2G
PW Status
MPLS Aggregation
BTS
MPLS
Access
3G
Pseudowires
Node B
Tunnel LSP
S-PE
T-PE
4G
Hub
MTSO
eNB, BS
T-PE

Cell Site

PW status signaling also works for MS-PWs S-PEs:

Transparently pass remote defect notifications Generate notifications of local defects

52

  S-PEs: –   Transparently pass remote defect notifications –   Generate notifications of local defects
MPLS Network Reliability Both node level and network level recovery are required
MPLS Network Reliability Both node level and network level recovery are required
MPLS Network Reliability Both node level and network level recovery are required
MPLS Network Reliability Both node level and network level recovery are required
MPLS Network Reliability Both node level and network level recovery are required

MPLS Network Reliability

MPLS Network Reliability Both node level and network level recovery are required

Both node level and network level recovery are required

53

3G

4G

node level and network level recovery are required 53 3G 4G Node B Ethernet ATM (IMA)

Node B

Ethernet

network level recovery are required 53 3G 4G Node B Ethernet ATM (IMA) eNB, BS active

ATM (IMA)network level recovery are required 53 3G 4G Node B Ethernet eNB, BS active standby MPLS

eNB, BS

active

standby MPLS RAN

Node B Ethernet ATM (IMA) eNB, BS active standby MPLS RAN A GW/ RNC Node Level

A GW/

RNC

Node Level Recovery Non-stop routing for ALL protocols (LDP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP, multicast, PIM-SM) Non-Stop Service for ALL services (VPLS, VLL, IP-VPN, IES, multicast)

Network Level Recovery Dual-homing w/o RSTP MPLS FRR MPLS Standby Secondary Sub 50 ms restoration End-to-end path protection MPLS extensions to include additional approaches

  Sub 50 ms restoration    End-to-end path protection    MPLS extensions to include
Network Level Redundancy for PWs AC redundancy protocol drives forwarding state of PWs/PEs 3G active
Network Level Redundancy for PWs
AC redundancy protocol drives
forwarding state of PWs/PEs
3G
active
Node B
PW status
Ethernet
4G
ATM (IMA)
MPLS RAN
standby
eNB, BS
Forwarding direction
determined by PW state
MC
MC

Active/standby state of LAG/APS sub-groups reflected in PW status

state of LAG/APS sub-groups reflected in PW status A GW/ RNC AC redundancy: – APS -

A GW/

RNC

AC redundancy:

– APS

- LAG

Protects against PE and AC failures

PE configured with multiple pseudowires per service with multiple end-

points Local precedence indicates primary PW for forwarding if multiple PWs are

operationally UP PW status exchanged end-to-end to notify PEs of operational state of both PWs & ports / attachment circuits (PW Status Notification).

54 draft-ietf-pwe3-pw-redundancy & draft-ietf-pwe3-redundancy-bit

/ attachment circuits (PW Status Notification). 54 draft-ietf-pwe3-pw-redundancy & draft-ietf-pwe3-redundancy-bit
Packet Synchronization and Timing
Packet Synchronization and Timing
Packet Synchronization and Timing
Packet Synchronization and Timing

Packet Synchronization and Timing

Packet Synchronization and Timing
Packet Synchronization and Timing
Packet Synchronization and Timing
Packet Synchronization and Timing
The Need for Synchronization in Mobile Networks RNC RNC NobeB 1: Radio Framing Accuracy Mobile
The Need for Synchronization in
Mobile Networks
RNC
RNC
NobeB
1: Radio Framing
Accuracy
Mobile Core
NodeB
Network(s)
A GW
eNB or BS
2 : Handoff
Control
3 : Backhaul
Transport Reliability
eNB or BS

Synchronization is vital across many elements in the mobile network In the Radio Access Network (RAN), the need is focused in three principal areas

56

in the mobile network    In the Radio Access Network (RAN), the need is focused
Radio Framing Accuracy
Radio Framing Accuracy

In Time Division Duplexing (TDD), the base station clocks must be time synchronized to ensure no overlap of their transmissions within the TDD frames

Ensuring synchronization allows for tighter accuracies and reduced guard-bands to ensure high bandwidth utilization

In Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) centre frequencies must be accurate for receivers to lock

57

utilization    In Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) centre frequencies must be accurate for receivers to
Handoff Control For Reliable Mobility Performance
Handoff Control For Reliable Mobility
Performance

Synchronization is vital to ensure service continuity (i.e successful handoff)

Studies have shown significant reduction in call drops when good synchronization is in place; enhanced QoE

58

   Studies have shown significant reduction in call drops when good synchronization is in place;
Backhaul Transport Reliability Backhaul network eNB/BS/ A GW/ NodeB/BTS X RNC/ BSC
Backhaul Transport Reliability
Backhaul network
eNB/BS/
A GW/
NodeB/BTS
X
RNC/
BSC
Backhaul network eNB/BS/ A GW/ NodeB/BTS X RNC/ BSC TCP end-to-end windowed transmission    Wander
Backhaul network eNB/BS/ A GW/ NodeB/BTS X RNC/ BSC TCP end-to-end windowed transmission    Wander

TCP end-to-end windowed transmission

Wander and Jitter in the Backhaul and Aggregation Network can cause underflows and overflows

Slips in the PDH framing will cause bit errors leading to packet rejections

Packet rejections lead to retransmissions and major perceptible slow down in TCP windowed sessions

59

rejections    Packet rejections lead to retransmissions and major perceptible slow down in TCP windowed
Clock distribution methods   Physical layer clock
Clock distribution methods
  Physical layer clock

Using synchronous TDM interfaces, e.g. PDH/SDH Using synchronous Ethernet as per G.8261/G.8262, and G. 8264 for ESMC/SSM External Timing Interface

GPS synchronization Clock distribution over packet network

IEEE 1588-2008 – ITU-T Q13/SG15 currently developing an IEEE Std 1588-2008 "telecom profile" for frequency distribution NTP – The IETF is currently developing NTPv4*

Adaptive & Differential Clock Synchronization Multiple methods might be deployed in a network

60

*Note: NTPv3 requires equipment with high quality oscillators

   Multiple methods might be deployed in a network 60 *Note: NTPv3 requires equipment with
MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI
MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI
MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI
MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI

MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI

MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI
MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI
MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI
MPLS Mobile Backhaul Initiative – MMBI
MMBI Scope
MMBI Scope

MPLS technology to transport mobile traffic (user plane and control plane) over access, aggregation and core networks 4G (LTE), 3G, 2.5G and 2G networks, including evolution RAN and Core equipments with range of physical interfaces (e.g. FE, GE, E1/T1, STM1/OC-3, DSL, etc.) and technologies (PDH, SDH/SONET, ATM and ATM/IMA, PPP, FR, Ethernet, etc.), either directly attached or through an intervening access network Different kinds of access transmission technologies: pt-to-pt access (xDSL, microwave, P2P Fiber), pt-to-mp access (GPON) Address coexistence of legacy and next generation mobile equipment in the same network infrastructure. Support a smooth migration strategy for network operators as newer TNLs (Transport Network Layers) are introduced and legacy TNLs are phased out

62

strategy for network operators as newer TNLs (Transport Network Layers) are introduced and legacy TNLs are
MMBI Scope (continued)
MMBI Scope (continued)

MPLS facilities in Access and/or Aggregation networks leased from a third party, and which may be shared by more than one mobile operator Converged access/aggregation network supporting both wireline, e.g. residential and enterprise, and wireless services. QoS for support of distinct service types (e.g. real-time services and associated delay and jitter requirements) Support for clock distribution to the base stations, including frequency, phase and time synchronization Resiliency capabilities, including failover times appropriate for wireless backhaul networks. E.g. dual attachment at the BSC/ RNC and methods for failover. OAM mechanisms

63

for wireless backhaul networks. E.g. dual attachment at the BSC/ RNC and methods for failover. 
Multiple TNLs – Successive Generations of Mobile Architecture Network Specification Transport Network Layer (TNL)
Multiple TNLs – Successive Generations of
Mobile Architecture
Network
Specification
Transport Network
Layer (TNL)
GSM/GPRS/EDGE
TDM, IP*
(2G/2.5G)
UMTS
R3, R99/R4
ATM
R99/R5, R6, R7
ATM
IP
CDMA 1x-RTT
IS-2000
HDLC or TDM
CDMA 1x EV-DO
IS-856
IP
LTE
R9, R10
IP

64 *Note: some 2G and 2.5G equipment can be upgraded to use an IP TNL

TDM CDMA 1x EV-DO IS-856 IP LTE R9, R10 IP 64 * Note: some 2G and
MMBI Architecture and Use Cases
MMBI Architecture and Use Cases

Deployment Scenarios -- Location for MPLS functions is intended to be flexible

MPLS interworking functions could be located either:

In the edge node, or in the access node, or in the access gateway or directly integrated into the base station.

TNL (Transport Network Layer) Scenarios – Support for a range of access technologies at base stations and controller elements

Case 1: TDM TNL

Base stations and controller elements communicating using TDM bit streams

Case 2: ATM TNL

Base stations and controller elements communicating using ATM cells

Case 3: IP TNL

Base stations and controller communicating using IP packets

Case 4: HDLC TNL

Base stations and controller elements communicating using HDLC- encoded bit streams (e.g. CDMA)

65

4: HDLC TNL    Base stations and controller elements communicating using HDLC- encoded bit streams
Typical 2G and 3G RAN Topology
Typical 2G and 3G RAN Topology

Star topology enabling communication from BS to Controller and from Controller to BS Centralized topology

66

Star topology enabling communication from BS to Controller and from Controller to BS    Centralized
Typical LTE RAN Topology
Typical LTE RAN Topology

Star topology enabling communication from BS to aGW and communication from aGW to BS. Neighboring any-to-any topology enabling communication between BSs Flat topology

67

from aGW to BS.    Neighboring any-to-any topology enabling communication between BSs    Flat
MMBI Reference Architecture – 2G/3G 68
MMBI Reference Architecture – 2G/3G 68

MMBI Reference Architecture – 2G/3G

MMBI Reference Architecture – 2G/3G 68
MMBI Reference Architecture – 2G/3G 68

68

MMBI Reference Architecture – 2G/3G 68
Example of SS-PW Deployment TNL TNL TNL TNL PW TNL PW TNL PW LSP LSP
Example of SS-PW Deployment
TNL
TNL
TNL
TNL PW
TNL PW
TNL PW
LSP
LSP
LSP
LSP
LSP
LSP
LSP
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1

Generic TNL Protocol Stack – 2G/3G Architecture:

TNL

L1

MPLS network

BS

TDM

ATM

PE

CSG

Ethernet

P Aggregation

network

Access

network

P

TNL PW

PE

Access

Node

MPLS

Node

MPLS

Node

MASG

TDM

ATM

Ethernet

RC

PW extends from PE to PE Each TNL Type supported by corresponding TNL PW In deployment scenario shown, PW extends from Cell Site Gateway (CSG) to Mobile Aggregation Site Gateway (MASG)

69

  In deployment scenario shown, PW extends from Cell Site Gateway (CSG) to Mobile Aggregation Site
Example of MS-PW Deployment TNL TNL TNL PW TNL PW TNL PW TNL PW TNL
Example of MS-PW Deployment
TNL
TNL
TNL PW
TNL PW
TNL PW
TNL PW
TNL PW
LSP
LSP
LSP
LSP
LSP
LSP
L2
L2
L2
L2
L2
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1
L1

Generic TNL Protocol Stack – 2G/3G Architecture:

TNL

L1

MPLS network

BS

S-PE

Aggregation

network

T-PE

T-PE

network Access

TNL PW

TDM

ATM

CSG

Ethernet

Access

Node

MPLS

MASG

TDM

ATM

Ethernet

TNL

L1

RC

PW extends from T-PE to T-PE; switched at S-PE Each TNL Type supported by corresponding TNL PW In deployment scenario shown, PW extends from Cell Site Gateway (CSG) to Mobile Aggregation Site Gateway (MASG)

70

  In deployment scenario shown, PW extends from Cell Site Gateway (CSG) to Mobile Aggregation Site
MMBI: Timing deployment scenarios Access Aggregation BTS /Node B CSG BTS /Node B MASG A
MMBI: Timing deployment scenarios
Access
Aggregation
BTS /Node B CSG
BTS /Node B MASG
A
BNG
Access
Edge
Access
Gateway
2G -3G
BSC / RNC
Complex
A
Node
Node
TNL
Gb
Core
TNL
mobile
Aggregation
network
BTS / Node B
network
Iu -CS
Gb
Access network
Iu -PS
xDSL,
microwave,
Iu -PS
Leased Line,
SGSN 3G
PRC
GPON,
via
Optical Eth
GPS

Iu-CS

MSC 2G

/MPLS MSC 3G

SGSN 2G

Optical Eth GPS Iu-CS MSC 2G /MPLS M S C 3 G SGSN 2G ( a

( a 1 )

(

(

a 2 )

a 3 )

( a 4 )

PHY clock

PKT clock

71

GPS Iu-CS MSC 2G /MPLS M S C 3 G SGSN 2G ( a 1 )
GPS Iu-CS MSC 2G /MPLS M S C 3 G SGSN 2G ( a 1 )

( b )

( c )

( d )

GPS Iu-CS MSC 2G /MPLS M S C 3 G SGSN 2G ( a 1 )
IP transformation in mobile networks with evolution to LTE CS Core TODAY Backhaul (TDM/ATM) PS
IP transformation in mobile networks
with evolution to LTE
CS Core
TODAY
Backhaul (TDM/ATM)
PS Core
Node B
SGSN
RNC
GGSN
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
Radio
Backhaul
RNC bearer
intelligence
transition
mobility
Best effort
Internet
moving to
to IP/
evolves to
to
eNodeB
Ethernet
the SGW
MCS voice and
SGSN packet
mobility evolves
into the SGW
CS and PS
evolve into a
unified all-IP
domain
e2e QoS
RNC control
distributed into
the MME/eNB
SGSN control
evolves into
the MME

LTE

72

Backhaul (IP/Ethernet) PCRF MME Service and mobile aware all-IP network eNB SGW PDN GW
Backhaul (IP/Ethernet)
PCRF
MME
Service and mobile aware
all-IP network
eNB
SGW
PDN GW

Multimedia

Services

LTE 72 Backhaul (IP/Ethernet) PCRF MME Service and mobile aware all-IP network eNB SGW PDN GW
LTE 72 Backhaul (IP/Ethernet) PCRF MME Service and mobile aware all-IP network eNB SGW PDN GW
LTE Evolved Packet System (EPS) Backhaul (IP TNL Application) UE EUTRAN EPC Applications IMS Apps
LTE Evolved Packet System (EPS)
Backhaul (IP TNL Application)
UE
EUTRAN
EPC
Applications
IMS
Apps
eNB
S10
HSS
MME
S6a
PCRF
Rx
X2
S1-MME
S11
Gx
S5/S8
SGi
eNB
S-GW
P-GW
PDN
S1-U
S5
S1-MME S11 Gx S5/S8 SGi eNB S-GW P-GW PDN S1-U S5 The Evolved Packet System consists
S1-MME S11 Gx S5/S8 SGi eNB S-GW P-GW PDN S1-U S5 The Evolved Packet System consists

The Evolved Packet System consists of the following sub-systems:

User Equipment (UE) which includes specialized security cards often identified as part of the EUTRAN (detail not shown) • Evolved UTRAN (EUTRAN) which consists of the evolved Node B (eNB) • Evolved Packet Core (EPC) which includes the following nodes:

Serving Gateway (S-GW) which serves as a mobility anchor for inter-eNB handover PDN Gateway (P-GW) which is the cross-technology mobility anchor in the EPS The Mobility Management Entity (MME) which handles authentication and signaling for connection and mobility management The Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) supports per session QoS and associated billing • Applications include IMS as well as non-IMS UEs signal directly to the applications

as non-IMS −   UEs signal directly to the applications 73 H S S : H

73

HSS: Home Subscriber Server

  eNodeB:   all radio access functions   Radio admission control   Scheduling of UL
  eNodeB:
  all radio
access functions
  Radio
admission control
  Scheduling of UL and DL data
  Scheduling and transmission of
paging and system broadcast
  IP header compression (PDCP)
PCRF
  Outer-ARQ (RLC)
Policy
Decisions

74

Mobility Management Entity   Authentication   Tracking area list management   Idle mode UE reachability
Mobility Management Entity
  Authentication
  Tracking area list management
  Idle mode UE reachability
  S-GW/PDN-GW selection
  Inter core network node signaling for
mobility between 2G/3G and LTE
  Bearer management functions

Evolved Packet Core: Overview of components and functionality

Packet Core: Overview of components and functionality Policy, Charging & Rules Function   Network
Policy, Charging & Rules Function   Network control of Service Data Flow (SDF) detection, gating,
Policy, Charging & Rules Function
  Network control of Service Data Flow (SDF)
detection, gating, QoS & flow based charging
  Dynamic policy decision on service data flow
treatment in the PCEF (xGW)
  Authorizes QoS resources
PDN Gateway   IP anchor point for bearers   UE IP address allocation   Per-user
PDN Gateway
  IP anchor point for bearers
  UE IP address allocation
  Per-user based packet filtering
  Connectivity to packet data network
Serving Gateway
  Local mobility anchor for inter-eNB handovers
  Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP handovers
  Idle mode DL packet buffering
  Lawful interception
  Packet routing and forwarding
MMBI Reference Architecture - LTE   Flat Topology RANs using IP TNL:
MMBI Reference Architecture - LTE
  Flat Topology RANs using IP TNL:

Network

Specification

TNL

HSPA+ flat

3GPP R7

IP

LTE

3GPP R8

MPLS provides two solutions that can be applied to combination of any-to-any and star topologies:

Layer 2 VPNs e.g. VPLS Layer 3 VPNs e.g. BGP IP/VPNs RFC 4364

75

of any-to-any and star topologies: –   Layer 2 VPNs e.g. VPLS –   Layer 3
Access Aggregation Core Cell SIte Mobile Gateway Aggregation (CSG) Site Gateway (MASG) aGW BS1 Edge
Access
Aggregation
Core
Cell
SIte
Mobile
Gateway
Aggregation
(CSG)
Site Gateway
(MASG)
aGW
BS1
Edge
Node
CSG1
S1
Access
S5/S8a
Access
IP TNL
network
Node
Edge
IP/MPLS
Node
S1
IP TNL
Core
BS2
Aggregation
CSG2
S3/S4
network
S1
network
IP TNL
S6a
Edge
BS3
Node
CSG3
S1
Access
IP TNL
network
aGW
L2VPN MPLS transport network solutions
CSG1
CSG2
VPLS
Ethernet
CSG3
CSG1
VPLS
CSG2
Ethernet
VPLS
CSG3
Eth PW
CSG1
VPLS
CSG2
Full
mesh
VSI
CSG3
Spoke
PWs
H-VPLS
CSG1
H
- VPLS
CSG2
CSG3

MMBI Reference Architecture – VPLS Use Cases

S3/S4

S5/S8a

S6a

SGSN

PDN GW

HSS

MPLS PE function could be integrated into the aGW (MME GW, S- GW, ASN GW)

Note: BS supports Ethernet interface. One Cell Site Gateway can connect multiple BS.

76

the aGW (MME GW, S- GW, ASN GW) Note: BS supports Ethernet interface. One Cell Site
MMBI Reference Architecture – L3VPN Use Cases Access Aggregation Core Cell SIte Mobile Gateway Aggregation
MMBI Reference Architecture – L3VPN Use
Cases
Access
Aggregation
Core
Cell
SIte
Mobile
Gateway
Aggregation
(CSG)
Site Gateway
(MASG)
aGW
BS1
Edge
CSG1
Node
S1
Access
Access
IP TNL
network
Edge
S5/S8a
Node
Node
IP/MPLS
S1
IP TNL
BS2
Core
Aggregation
CSG2
S3/S4
network
S1
network
IP TNL
S6a
Edge
BS3
Node
CSG3
S1
Access
IP TNL
network
aGW
L3VPN MPLS transport network solutions
CSG1
CSG2
L3VPN
IP
CSG3
L3VPN
CSG1
CSG2
IP
L3VPN
CSG3
MPLS
VRF
CSG1
CSG2
L3VPN
CSG3

S3/S4

S5/S8a

S6a

SGSN

PDN GW

HSS

MPLS PE function could be integrated into the aGW (MME GW, S- GW, ASN GW)

Note: BS supports Ethernet interface. One Cell Site Gateway can connect multiple BS.

77

the aGW (MME GW, S- GW, ASN GW) Note: BS supports Ethernet interface. One Cell Site
Abstract Test Suite for TDMoMPLS   TDMoMPLS –   46 Test Cases
Abstract Test Suite for TDMoMPLS
  TDMoMPLS
–  
46 Test Cases

Additional 11 Synchronization Test Cases

The Abstract Test Suite for TDM Services over MPLS describes test procedures based on the requirements for encapsulating TDM signals over MPLS networks and distributing timing using pseudo-wires over a MPLS network. Test cases in this specification are defined for T1, E1, T3 and E3 services.

An overview of the different groups of requirements that compose the TDM circuit emulation

Services over MPLS is provided as follows:

Packet format and encapsulation layer Usage of optional RTP header Structure-agnostic emulation Structure-aware emulation Packetization and depacketization TDMoMPLS defects Performance monitoring Synchronization distribution and performance (Normative Annex)

78

defects    Performance monitoring    Synchronization distribution and performance (Normative Annex) 78
Abstract Test Suite for ATMoMPLS   ATMoMPLS
Abstract Test Suite for ATMoMPLS
  ATMoMPLS

Draft Currently 50 Test Cases

The Abstract Test Suite for ATM over MPLS describes test procedures based on requirements for encapsulating Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) over MPLS networks.

An overview of the different groups of requirements that compose the Abstract Test Suite for ATMoMPLS is provided as follows:

Packet format and encapsulation OAM - Fault & Performance management QOS Mapping Synchronization (ref: ATS for TDMoMPLS Annex S)

79

- Fault & Performance management    QOS Mapping    Synchronization (ref: ATS for TDMoMPLS
   Ethernet over MPLS    IP over MPLS Future Certification Test Suite Development

Ethernet over MPLS IP over MPLS

Future Certification Test Suite Development

80

   Ethernet over MPLS    IP over MPLS Future Certification Test Suite Development 80
Certification Benefits
Certification Benefits

Service Provider community Vendor meets requirements Potential savings of resources Vendor community Marketing tool Shortening test cycle Carefully written test cases, better specifications User community Purchase equipment with confidence

81

written test cases, better specifications    User community –   Purchase equipment with confidence 81
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors

MPLS in Mobile Backhaul

Summary of Success Factors

MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul Summary of Success Factors
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul: Critical Success Factors   Backhaul transformation is essential for 2G/3G (scalability
MPLS in Mobile Backhaul: Critical
Success Factors
  Backhaul transformation is essential for
2G/3G (scalability and cost reduction) and
evolution to a LTE all IP flat architecture
  Co-existence of multiple transport options
(ATM, TDM, Ethernet) for investment
protection
  Carrier Grade IP/MPLS services
–  
High Availability
Fast reconvergence
  Efficient End-to-End Management and
OAM for rapid mass deployment
  Scalability to large numbers of cell sites
  Base Station synchronization
–  

83

Carrier frequency accuracy of 50 PPB for LTE, WiMAX, GSM/W, CDMA Need to preserve synchronization & timing with Carrier Ethernet transport

of 50 PPB for LTE, WiMAX, GSM/W, CDMA Need to preserve synchronization & timing with Carrier
Focus from the Broadband Forum   Rapid growth in mobile backhaul bandwidth demand
Focus from the Broadband Forum
  Rapid growth in mobile backhaul bandwidth demand

Scaling the backhaul in TDM way for all traffic is expensive Industry is shifting towards IP based networks

Can migrate entire mobile RAN OR Hybrid model - Use MPLS for the data traffic and voice remains on TDM

IP/MPLS offers many benefits and has been deployed globally in mobile core. Similar drivers apply to backhaul. Standards for backhaul transport - leaning towards IP In recent years, the Broadband Forum has published implementation agreements to facilitate the migration of ATM and TDM to MPLS-based infrastructure Broadband Forum aims to complement the cost benefits of Ethernet with the proven track record of MPLS for building converged, reliable and QoS-aware mobile grade infrastructure.

84

with the proven track record of MPLS for building converged, reliable and QoS-aware mobile grade infrastructure.
Broadband Forum Mobile Backhaul work in progress
Broadband Forum Mobile Backhaul
work in progress

Technical Specifications for MPLS Based Mobile Backhaul Networks for LTE (WT-221)

Technical Specifications for MPLS Based Mobile Backhaul Networks for 2G & 3G (WT-222)

Equipment Requirements for MPLS over Aggregated Interfaces – e.g., MPLS over Ethernet LAG (WT-223)

MPLS in Carrier Ethernet Networks – network architecture for providing carrier Ethernet services (WT-224)

Abstract Test Suite for ATM over MPLS – Certification testing

(WT-225)

85

carrier Ethernet services ( WT-224)    Abstract Test Suite for ATM over MPLS – Certification
Related Standards Organizations and Consortiums   3GPP: http://www.3gpp.org
Related Standards Organizations and
Consortiums
  3GPP: http://www.3gpp.org

Broadband Forum: http://www.broadband-forum.org

IEEE: http://www.ieee.org

IETF: http://www.ietf.org

ITU-T SG 15: http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com15/index.asp

Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF): http://metroethernetforum.org

Next Generation Mobile Network Initiative (NGMN):

86

http://www.ngmn.org

WiMAX Forum: http://www.wimaxforum.org

Next Generation Mobile Network Initiative (NGMN): 86 http://www.ngmn.org    WiMAX Forum: http://www.wimaxforum.org

MPLS in Mobile

The Broadband Forum is a non-profit corporation organized to create guidelines for broadband network system development and deployment. This Broadband Forum educational presentation has been approved by members of the Forum. This Broadband Forum educational presentation is not binding on the Broadband Forum, any of its members, or any

developer or service provider. This Broadband Forum educational presentation is subject to change, but only with approval of members of the Forum. This educational presentation is copyrighted by the Broadband Forum, and all rights are reserved. Portions of this educational presentation may be copyrighted by Broadband Forum members or external sources.

Thank you for attending the

Backhaul Tutorial

For more information, visit us at http://

www.broadband-forum.org

sources. Thank you for attending the Backhaul Tutorial For more information, visit us at http:// www.broadband-forum.org
sources. Thank you for attending the Backhaul Tutorial For more information, visit us at http:// www.broadband-forum.org
sources. Thank you for attending the Backhaul Tutorial For more information, visit us at http:// www.broadband-forum.org
Abbreviations
Abbreviations

2G – Second generation mobile network 3G – Third generation mobile network 4G – Fourth generation mobile network AG – Access gateway aGW– Access gateway ASN – Access service node BS – Base station BSC – Base station controller BTS – Base transceiver station CDMA – Code division multiple access CS – Circuit switched CSG – Cell site gateway EDGE – Enhance data rates for GSM evolution eNB - – 4G/LTE base station eNode B – 4G/LTE base station EPC – Evolved packet core EUTRAN – Evolved UTRAN EV-DO – Evolution data optimized FEC – Forwarding equivalence class FRR – Fast re-route GGSN – Gateway GPRS support node GPRS – General packet radio service GSM – Global system for mobile communications GW – Gateway HSPA – High speed packet access HSS – Home subscriber server LSP – Label switched path LTE – Long term evolution MASG – Mobile aggregation site gateway

MGW – Message gateway MMBI – MPLS in mobile backhaul initiative MME – Mobility management entity MPLS – Multiprotocol label switching MPLS-TP – MPLS Transport Profile MSC – Mobile switching center MTSO – Mobile telephone switching office Node B – Base station transceiver with UMTS/WCDMA PCRF – Policy and charging function PDN – Packet data network PDSN – Packet data serving node P-GW – PDN gateway PS – Packet switched PW – Pseudowire RAN – Radio access network RNC – Radio network controller RSVP – Resource reservation protocol SGSN – Serving GPRS support node S-GW – Serving gateway TE – Traffic engineering TNL – Transport network layer UE – User equipment UMB – Ultra mobile broadband UMTS – Universal mobile telecommunications system VLAN – Virtual local area network VPN – Virtual private network WAC – WiMAX wireless access controller WiMAX – Worldwide interoperability for microwave access

88

private network WAC – WiMAX wireless access controller WiMAX – Worldwide interoperability for microwave access 88