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JournalofBeijingInstituteofTechnology,2011,Vol.20,No.3

Trajectoryshapingguidancelawwithterminal

impactangleconstraint

LIUDa鄄wei(刘大卫) 1, ,摇 XIAQun鄄li(夏群利) 1 ,摇 WUTao(武涛) 2 ,摇 QIZai鄄kang(祁载康) 1

(1.SchoolofAerospaceEngineering,BeijingInstituteofTechnology,Beijing100081,China;

2.ChinaResearchandDevelopmentAcademyofMachineryEquipment,Beijing100089,China)

Abstract:Inordertostrikehardtargetsundergroundorwarshipsandtankswithexpectedimpact anglebymissilesorguidedbombs,trajectoryshapingguidancelawwithterminalpositionandimpact angleconstraintsisderivedbasedonlinearquadraticoptimalcontroltheory. Therequiredaccelera鄄 tionexpressedbyimpactangleandheadingerrorisobtainedinlag鄄freeguidancesysteminorderto findtheoptimalrelationshipofthoseanglesinterminalphase.Theadjointsystemsofmissdistance andimpactangleerroroffirst鄄orderguidancesystemareestablishedbasedonstatisticallinearization adjointmethod(SLAM)inordertostudytheimpactperformancesoftheguidancelaw. Simulation resultsshowthatthemissdistanceandimpactangleerroroftrajectoryshapingguidancelaware bothaccordingwiththeimpactpositionandangleconstraintandtherequiredaccelerationatimpact canbedecreasedbyanoptimalrelationshipofimpactangleandheadingerror.

Keywords:trajectoryshaping;requiredacceleration;missdistance;impactangleerror CLCnumber:V448郾133摇 摇 Documentcode:A摇 摇 ArticleID:1004鄄0579(2011)03鄄0345鄄06

摇 摇 Inordertoattackhardtarget effectively,

guidedweaponshavetoimpactthetargetnotonly

withhighaccuracy inimpact positionbut also

with specific terminal impact angle constraint.

Therefore, optimal terminal guidance law be鄄

comes an important field of homing guidance

nowadays.KimandGriderhaveproposedanop鄄

timalimpactanglecontrolguidancelawforthe

reentryvehicleintheverticalplane [1] . Ryooand

Chohaveinvestigatedanoptimalguidancelawfor

constantspeedmissileswithconstraintsonthe

impact angle and control input [2] . Ernest and

Craighaveproposedandevaluatedanewguid鄄

ancelawtermedgeneralizedvectorexplicitguid鄄

ance [3] . LiuDanandChangChaohaveproposed

anoptimalguidancelawforconstantspeedmis鄄

Received摇 2010鄄10鄄14 SupportedbytheAeronauticalScienceFoundationofChina

(20060112123)

Authorforcorrespondence

E鄄mail:20031145@bit.edu.cn

sileswithconstraintsonsmallimpactangleand extendedtobigimpactangleconstraintinnonlin鄄 earsimulation [4-5] .However,noneofthosepa鄄 persgiveustheoverloadcharacteristic,andwe dontknowthemissdistanceandimpactangle errorofthoseguidancelaws.Inthispaper,first鄄 ly,asimplegeometryisgivenandanoptimal guidancelawbasedonlinearquadraticoptimal controltheoryisobtainedwithimpact position andangle. Then,requiredaccelerationwithlag鄄 freesystemisgiventodisclosetheoverloadchar鄄 acters with initial conditions and impact con鄄 straints. Finally,missdistanceandimpactangle erroroftrajectoryshapingguidancelawarestud鄄 iedbySLAM.Simulationresultsshowthattrajec鄄 toryshapingguidancelawaccordstotheterminal guidanceproblemwithimpactpositionandangle constraintsperfectly.

1摇 Trajectory shaping guidance law

摇 摇 Consideringthehomingguidancegeometry

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JournalofBeijingInstituteofTechnology,2011,Vol.20,No.3

forastationaryoraslowlymovingtarget,three鄄

dimensionalguidanceproblemcanbeanalysedas

twoorthogonalplaneguidance [6] . Theplanarge鄄

ometryofguidanceisshowninFig.1. Here,R

andzdenotetherelativedistancebetweenmissile

andtargetandthedistancetoinitiallineofsight

(LOS),respectively. V,V r andvarethemissile

totalvelocity,therelativevelocityininitialLOS

andthenormalvelocitycomponent,respectively.

q,,q f andaretheangleoflineofmissile鄄target

andinitialLOS,theangleofflightpath,theim鄄

pactangleconstraint,andtheheadingerror,re鄄

spectively,anda m istheaccelerationappliednor鄄

maltothevelocityvector.

m istheaccelerationappliednor鄄 maltothevelocityvector. Fig.1摇 Terminalguidancegeometry

Fig.1摇 Terminalguidancegeometry

Thevelocityofmissileisnotrapidlychanged

interminalphase,wecansupposethatV r iscon鄄

stant,issmall,andthetargetisstationaryor

movingslowly.Sothat,impactconstraintsofthis

optimalguidancelawcanbedescribedasthenor鄄

malvelocityarrivingatv e andthepositioncoming

toz e atthefinalguidetime.

Theimpactconstraintequationsare

z(T)=z e ,

(1)

v(T)=v e .

(2)

Thestateequationsofthesystemare

·

z =v,

(3)

·

v =a z .

(4)

Thecontrolvariableoftheoptimalproblemis

thenormalaccelerationa z (t). Now,letuscon鄄

siderthefollowingoptimalcontrolproblem:find

a z (t),whichminimizesJ,definedby

J(t 0 )=(x(T),T)+ 2 a 2 z (t)dt, (5)

t

0

T

1

where(x(T),T)=c z (z(T)-z e ) 2 /2+c v (v(T)-

v e ) 2 /2.

Thephysicalsignificanceoftheobjectfunc鄄

tionisthecontrolenergyandtheeffectofthein鄄

duced drag to the velocity become minimum.

Here,c z ,c v aretheparameterswhichcanbede鄄

signedtomeetEqs.(1)(2).Thebiggerc z andc v

are,thebetterconstraintsaremet,andthecon鄄

straintsequationswillbemetstrictlyifc z and

c v 肄. TheHamiltonisobtainedas

1

H= 2 a 2 z +v姿 z +a z 姿 v .

(6)

Theadjointequationsthereforeare

·

-姿

z

= H

=

2 a 2 z +v姿 z +a z 姿 =0, (7)

z

v

(

1

)

z

·

-姿

v

= H

=

2 a 2 z +v姿 z +a z 姿 =姿 z . (8)

v

(

1

)

v

Thus,theoptimalcontrolis

1

H a z a

= 2 a 2 z +v姿 z +a z 姿 =a z +姿 v .

z

v

(

)

0=

Thatis,

a z (t)=-姿 v (t).

(9)

(10)

Theconstraintsofimpactcanbedescribedas

é

ê

ê

ê

ë

ê

(T)

z

(T)

v

ù

ú

ú

ú

û

ú

-

é

ê

ê

ë

姿

姿

z (T)

v (T )

ù

ú

û

ú

=0郾

(11)

Wecanobtaintheanalyticexpressionofthe

optimalproblemas

6

a c (t)= (T-t) 2 (z e -z(t))-

4

(T-t) v(t)-

2

T-t v e .

(12)

Eq.(12) showstheoptimalterminalguid鄄

ancelaw with impact position and angle con鄄

straintsbythepositionofmissilez(t),theveloc鄄

ityofmissilev(t),thedesiredpointofimpact

z e ,thepredeterminedimpactnormalvelocityv e

andtimetogot go =T-t.

Wecangettherelationshipbetweentheim鄄

pactangleandthefinalnormalvelocityasthefol鄄

lowing.

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LIUDa鄄wei(刘大卫)etal. /Trajectoryshapingguidancelawwithterminalimpactangleconstraint

Whenz t =0,theangleofLOScanbeex鄄

pressedasthefollowing:

tanq= z t -z

R

= z t -z

V r t go

= -z

V r t go

.

(13)

WhentheangleofLOSissmall,theexpres鄄

sionabovecanberepresentedas

qtanq= z t -z

R

= z t -z

V r t go

= -z

V r t go

.

(14)

Then,therotationalvelocityoftheangleof

LOSis

q (t)=- z

·

·

(t)

t go V r

- z(t)

t 2 go V r

.

(15)

Thepositioncanbereplacedbytheangleof

LOS,timetogot go andtherelativevelocityofthe

LOSV r formEq.(14).

z(t)=-q(t)t go V r .

(16)

FromEq.(15),thederivativeoftheposition

canalsobereplacedas

· z (t)=-q · (t)t go V r -z(t)/t go . (17)

AsdefineinEq.(3),v(t)=z · (t),wecan

getthenormalvelocityas

·

v(t)=-q (t)t go V r +q(t)V r .

(18)

Then,substituteEq.(18)inEq.(12),there

is

a c (t) =4q (t)V r + 2 q(t)V r - 2 v e + z e .

·

t

go

t

go

6

t

2

go

(19)

Attheimpactpoint,z e =z t =0,t go =0,q(t)=

q f ,thereforeEq.(18)becomes

v e =v(T)=q f V r .

(20)

SubstituteEq.(20)inEq.(19),wecanget

a c (t)=4V r q (t)+2V r (q(t)-q f )/t go . (21)

·

Itisnotdifficulttofindthattheoptimalter鄄

minalguidancelawismadeupbytwoparts,one

istheproportionalnavigationtoguaranteehigh

positionaccuracy, another is the impact angle

constrainttoensuretheimpactangle.Wecancall

thisoptimalterminalguidancelawastrajectory

shapingguidancelawbecauseitcanguidemissile

inanoptimaltrajectorytoguaranteeboththeim鄄

pactpositionandangle.

Considerthe terminal phase of the air鄄to鄄

groundmissilestartsatthealtitudeof1kmwith

thevelocityof250m/sinhorizontalplane,and

thetargetisstationaryat5kmfarfromthemis鄄

sileontheground. Inordertopenetratethetar鄄

get,werequireaverticaltopattack,thatis,the

desiredfallingangleis90毅. Trajectoryandflight

pathangleareshowninFig.2,consideringthe

dynamicsofguidancesystemwithatimeconstant

of0郾5s. Simulationresultsshowthatthetrajec鄄

toryissmoothandresultinginamissdistanceof

0郾03mandimpactangleerrorof -0郾67毅. The

highaccuracyofguidanceandsatisfactionofthe

terminalconstrainsrevealsthattheguidancelaw

issuitableforair鄄to鄄groundguidedweaponswith

largefallingangle.

largefallingangle. Fig.2摇 Trajectoryandhistoryofflightpathangle 2摇

Fig.2摇 Trajectoryandhistoryofflightpathangle

2摇 Requiredaccelerationwithlag鄄

freesystem

摇 摇 Requiredaccelerationisoneofthemostim鄄

portantperformanceindexestoaterminalguid鄄

ancelaw. In order to study the guidance law

withouttheeffectofthecontrolsystemdynam鄄

ics,lag鄄freesystemischosen.

Anotherexpressionoftheclosed鄄formofthe

requiredaccelerationcanbegivenbytheinitial

conditionandexpectedconstraintsas

a c (t)=

12z(0)(t go -0郾5T)+Tz · (0)(6t go -2T)+Tz · (T)(6t go -4T)

T 3

.

(22)

Accordingtoassumptionsabove,wehave

z(0)=0,z · (0)=V r ,z (T)=V r q f .

·

TakethoseequationsintoEq.(11),thenthe

requiredaccelerationis

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JournalofBeijingInstituteofTechnology,2011,Vol.20,No.3

a c (t)=- 2V r ( 2-3

T

t

T

)

- 2V r

q f (

T

1-3

t

T

)

.

(23)

Wecanseethattherearetwopartsofthere鄄

quiredacceleration,oneiscausedbytheimpact

angleq f ,anotheriscausedbytheheadingerror

.

ToacertainguidancetimeT,initialcondi鄄

tionandimpactconstraints,accelerationispro鄄

portionabletotheflighttimet,sothemaximal

accelerationappearsattheinitialorfinaltime.

So,wetakemoreattentiontothefollowingtypi鄄

calguidancetimesfromEq.(23):

a c (t=0)=-2(q f +2)V r /T,

ì ï

ï a c (t=T/3)=-2V r /T, ïï

í

a c (t=T/2)=(q f -)V r /T,

ï

ï
ï

î a c (t=T)=2(2q f +)V r /T.

a c (t=2T/3)=2q f V r /T,

(24)

Therequired accelerations at these typical

guidancetimesindifferentrelationshipbetween

headingerrorandimpactanglearegiveninFig.

3,andwecanseethat:

3 , andwecanseethat : Fig.3摇 Requiredaccelerationattypicalguidancetimes 摇 淤

Fig.3摇 Requiredaccelerationattypicalguidancetimes

Theaccelerationcommandsatt=0,T/2,T

lieonimpactangleq f andheadingerror,how鄄

ever,theaccelerationsatt=T/3,2T/3dependon

headingerrorandimpactangleq f ,respectively.

Ifwehopethemissilemaneuveraccelera鄄

tionminimumatimpact,theheadingerrormust

betwiceoftheimpactangleq f ,butinopposite

direction.

3摇 Missdistanceandimpactangle error with first鄄order system basedonSLAM

摇 摇 Thestatisticallinearizationadjointmethodis

anewcomputerizedapproachforthecomplete

statisticalanalysisofnonlinearmissileguidance

systemsthroughthecombinationoftheCADET

methodandtheadjointtechnique [7] . SLAMisan

excellentdesignandanalysistoolformissileguid鄄

ancesystemsthatprovidesanerrorbudgetfor

missdistanceandcontainsinformationconcern鄄

ingthesystembehavior [8] .

Inordertosimplifythehomingguidancesys鄄

tem,thedynamicsofseekerisignoredandthe

dynamicsofautopilotisassumedasfirst鄄order [7] ,

thatis

a L (s)

a c (s) = T g s+1 .

1

(22)

The trajectory shaping guidance loop with

first鄄orderlagsystemisgiveninFig.4. Here,Z t

isthepositionoftarget,Tisthetotalterminal

guidancetime,T g isthetimeconstantofautopi鄄

lot,q f istheimpactangleconstraintandisthe

headingerror,whichrepresentstheinitialdevia鄄

tionofthemissilefromtheLOS.

tionofthemissilefromtheLOS. Fig.4摇 Trajectoryshapingguidanceloop Innarrowsense ,

Fig.4摇 Trajectoryshapingguidanceloop

Innarrowsense,missdistanceisdefinedfo鄄

cusingonthefinalpositiononly. Trajectorysha鄄

pingguidancelawpaysattentiontobothimpact

positionandangle. Wedefinedthegeneralized

misscharacteristicsbothincludingthetwofactors

aboveand study their characteristics based on

SLAM.

3.1摇 MissdistancebasedonSLAM

WecanobtaintheadjointsystemfromFig.4

byadjointsystemtransformmethod. Then,T=

T/T g ,s=sT g ,maketheadjointsystemoutput

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LIUDa鄄wei(刘大卫)etal. /Trajectoryshapingguidancelawwithterminalimpactangleconstraint

non鄄dimensionrelativetotheextraneousparame鄄

ters. Finally,the impulse input is replaced by

stepinputwhichequaltoanimpulsepassaninte鄄

gratorasshowninFig.5.

gratorasshowninFig.5. Fig.5摇 Adjointloopofmissdistance Theadjoint system above

Fig.5摇 Adjointloopofmissdistance

Theadjoint system above is a single鄄input

two鄄outputsystem. So,wecanassumethatthe

headingerrorisktimesofthesizeoftheimpact

angle,thatis,k=/q f . Andtheoutputscanbe

expressedbyoneinputandacoefficientk. The

non鄄dimensionmissdistance characteristic with

thenon鄄dimensiontimeindifferentcoefficientk

isgiveninFig.6.

k isgiveninFig.6. Fig.6摇 Non鄄dimensionmissdistanceofdifferent k 3 . 2摇

Fig.6摇 Non鄄dimensionmissdistanceofdifferentk

3.2摇 ImpactangleerrorbasedonSLAM

Infirst鄄orderlagsystemofimpactangleer鄄

ror,wecanonlyobtainthreeresults -/2,0

and-/2becauseoftheimpactangleiscalculat鄄

edbythemissilepositionzanddistanceofLOS

V r t go ,andthecalculationissingularitywhenz0

andV r t go =0. However,inmissilehomingguid鄄

anceengineering,peoplepaymoreattentionto

thevelocityvector,sotheangleofLOSqisre鄄

placedbyangleofflightpathneartheimpact

point. Andtheangleofflightpathcanbeob鄄

tainedby

/V r .

(23)

Afterreplaceqby,trajectoryshapingguid鄄

anceloopwithfirst鄄orderlaysysteminFig.4can

berewritten,andtheadjointsystemofimpactan鄄

gleerrorcanalsobeobtainedbythesameprinci鄄

pleasoneofthemissdistanceinFig.7.

pleasoneofthemissdistanceinFig.7. Fig.7摇 Adjointloopofimpactangleerror 摇

Fig.7摇 Adjointloopofimpactangleerror

Thenon鄄dimensionimpactangleerrorchar鄄

acterisitcwiththenon鄄dimensiontimeindifferent

coefficientkisgiveninFig.8.

coefficient k isgiveninFig.8. Fig.8摇 Non鄄dimensionimpactangleerrorofdifferent k 摇

Fig.8摇 Non鄄dimensionimpactangleerrorofdifferentk

Simulationresultsofterminalerrorsoftrajec鄄

toryshapingguidancelawduetothefirst鄄order

missileguidancemodelshowthat:

Trajectoryshapingguidancelawcanin鄄

sureboththeimpactpositionandangletomeet

theexpectedvalue.Theconvergencetimesofthe

missdistanceandtheimpactangleerrorarea鄄

bout12and15timesofthefirst鄄ordertimecon鄄

stantT g ,respectively.

Thebiggertheheadingerroris,thebigger

themissdistanceandimpactangleerrorarefor

thesameimpactangleconstraint,andthelonger

theconvergetimeis.

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JournalofBeijingInstituteofTechnology,2011,Vol.20,No.3

4摇 Conclusions

Optimalguidancelawbothwithimpactposi鄄 tionandanglebasedonoptimalcontrolproblem isdeducedandtrajectoryshapingguidancelaw withlagfreesystemisgivenupontheassumption oflinearmodelandsmallangle. Itisconcluded that:淤Trajectoryshapingguidancelawcanbe usedinguidedweapontoimplementtheterminal guideproblembothwithimpactpositionandan鄄 gle;于Inordertoobtainminimalrequiredaccel鄄 erationatimpactinlag鄄freesystem,theheading erroranglemustbetwiceoftheimpactangleex鄄 pected;盂Missdistanceandimpactangleerror willgotozero,whenterminalguidancetimesare

above12and15timesofthefirst鄄ordersystem

timeconstant,respectively. Allofwhichgiveus animportantenlightenmentandreferenceinthe homingguidanceengineering.

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