Sei sulla pagina 1di 57

# 1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

In this chapter we will give overview of the concept of the Electronic prepaid electricity meter used by us in daily life. Here we are giving the basic idea about prepaid electricity and also the basics of the project.

## 1.1 INRODUCTION TO PREPAID ELECTRICITY

In this project we show that how we interface the digital energy meter to the easy recharge unit and convert this meter into prepaid energy meter. By using this technique we show that how we convert all meter with the prepaid logic. B y using this type of technology it is possible to stop the misuse of electricity. Normally in every postpaid connection bill is much higher then the prepaid. When there is postpaid, no body want to take care of the wastage, but at the end of month when bill is present then bill is paid by the house inch rage, small workers in the office, employees in the school, in all the private and Govt office no body want to take care of the wastage. So we add some innovative idea to avoid and save this valuable energy for every one.In this project we use one LCD screen. LCD screen display the balance amount every time, LCD screen not only show the balance amount but at the same time LCD display the unit consumption. When the balance is zero then output is off. Now for continue the electricity we must need to recharge the unit from the mobile phone. Now we go to any energy shop and tell the shopkeeper to transfer the amount of 100 or any add amount to my this energy meter. Shop keeper transfer the amount with the help of easy recharge. For this purpose first of all he dial the particular gsm number and when phone is automatic on then he transfer the amount in digit code. This data is decoded by the circuit and value is to be added in the unit. This added value is to be shown in the lcd screen automatically. When we want to go any palace then first of all we press the off switch, then unit the stop reading and no energy is consume. When balance is below 5 R/s then alarm is on. This alarm is a indication that you must recharge the unit. By chance if

the supply is off then electronics circuit is also off and there is no supply . In normal electronics circuit is also off, but in this project we provide a memory feedback option. With the help of this memory feedback it is possible to record all the detail of the LCD screen. When supply is again on then first of all memory is on and recall the last detail by auto feedback logic

## 1.1.1 OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT

Following Block Diagram illustrates our project.

## CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF PROJECT

In this project we show that how we interface the digital energy meter to the easy recharge unit and convert this meter into prepaid energy meter. By using this technique we show that how we convert all meter with the prepaid logic. B y using this type of technology it is possible to stop the misuse of electricity. Normally in every postpaid connection bill is much higher then the prepaid. When there is postpaid, no body want to take care of the wastage, but at the end of month when bill is present then bill is paid by the house inch rage, small workers in the office, employees in the school, in all the private and Govt office no body want to take care of the wastage. So we add some innovative idea to avoid and save this valuable energy for every one.

In this project we use one LCD screen. LCD screen display the balance amount every time, LCD screen not only show the balance amount but at the same time LCD display the unit consumption. When the balance is zero then output is off. Now for continue the electricity we must need to recharge the unit from the mobile phone. Now we go to any energy shop and tell the shopkeeper to transfer the amount of 100 or any add amount to my this energy meter. Shop keeper transfer the amount with the help of easy recharge. For this purpose first of all he dial the particular gsm number and when phone is automatic on then he transfer the amount in digit code. This data is decoded by the circuit and value is to be added in the unit. This added value is to be shown in the lcd screen automatically. When we want to go any palace then first of all we press the off switch, then unit the stop reading and no energy is consume. When balance is below 5 R/s then alarm is on. This alarm is a indication that you must recharge the unit. By chance if the supply is off then electronics circuit is also off and there is no supply . In normal electronics circuit is also off, but in this project we provide a memory feedback option. With the help of this memory feedback it is possible to record all the detail of the LCD screen. When supply is again on then first of all memory is on and recall the last detail by auto feedback logic

## 2.1 Circuit Diagram:

Figure 2.1

Our project is divided into 6 parts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 5 VREGULATED POWER SUPPLY MOBILE SIGNAL DECODER MICROCONTROLLER INTERFACE LCD INTERFACE RELAY INTERFACE CIRCUIT MEMORY INTERFACE

## 2.2 MAJOR COMPONENTS USED IN THIS PROJECT

1. LCD FOR DISPLAY PURPOSE DISPLAY THE BALANCE AMOUNT AND UNIT CONSUME ( 2 LINE AND 16 CHARACTER) 2. MICROCONTROLLER. 89C51, 40 PIN CONTROLLER, 128 BYTE RAM, 4 K BYTE RAM. USED HERE FOR LCD DISPLAY AND START STOP FUNCTION. CHECK THE BALANCE AND CONTROL THE LOAD AS PER THE BALANCE. 3. IC 8870 , DTMF DECODER IC. 4. IC 8870 PROVIDE A GSM INTERFACE WITH THIS CIRCUIT. DUE TO THIS IC WE DECODE THE CALL THE PROVIDE A BALANCE IN THE ENERGY METER AUTOMATICALLY. 5. 5 VOLT REGULATED POWER SUPPLY TO PROVIDE A REGULATED VOLTAGE TO THE MICROCONTROLLER UNIT. 6. 24C02 MEMORY ( 8 PIN).

In this project we use one 5 volt regulated power supply with the help of the 7805 regulator we provide a 5 volt regulated power supply. Output of the regulated power supply is displayed by the resistance and led in series. . IC 8870 is here as a dtmf decoder ic. This ic decode the output and converted into bcd signal. Pin no 2 and 3 is connected to the resistor and capacitor network. With the help of this circuit we insert a dtmf input in the decoder. Here we attach a handsfree from the mobile phone. Pin no 7 and 8 is connected to the external crystal. With the help of this crystal we decode the signal. This crystal is a fixed value of the 3.58 Mhz. Output is available on the pin no 11,12,13,14 . his output is bcd output from the circuit. One led with resistor is connected with the pin no 15 .This signal is a ack of decoded signal. If the signal is decoded then this led is on. This signal further connected to the base of the npn transistor and provide a signal to the microcontroller circuit. Microcontroller directly read the code and insert he value on lcd. In this project we use special code to transfer the value into microcontroller. Value is to be transfer into 4 different values. So every time we want to transfer a value to the meter then first of all we insert the code from scratch card and then enter a hash. As the hash value is to be enter then controller compare the code and insert a

value according to the code. Here we use ic 89s52 as a main controller. Pin no 40 of the ic is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 20 is connected to the ground pin. Pin o 18 and 19 is connected to the external crystal oscillator. Pin no 39 to pin no 32 is connected to the lcd data pins. Here we use 8 bit data from the controller to provide a data to the lcd. LCD control pins RS, RW, enable is connected to the pin no 26,27,28.

Memory is connected to the pin no 23,24 of the ic. Pin no 23 and 24 is connected to the non voltaic memory. Pin no 8 is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 7 is connected to the ground. . Use of memory is to retail all the data of variable, which store the data of balance and unit value. When light is off then data is to be saved into non volatic memory. When we press the start switch then if the balance is available then output is available on the pin no 23. On this pin we connect a relay coil. Relay switch on the load circuit. If the load is connected then load provide a feedback by the feedback transformer circuit. This feedback is when connected to the controller then controller decrement the amount.

In this project we use original meter to get a value . for this purpose we connect one photodiode in the front of the meter. When meter light blink then photodiode gets a signal. As the photodiode gets a signal , this signal is compare with comparator circuit. Output of the comparator is further connected to the meter. In the original meter there is total 3200 counts when one unit is consumed. In this project we count the pulse from meter and decrement the amount. For demonstrate purpose we use 32 pulse to decrement the value. Artificial signal is also provided by the ic 555 square wave generator. Now its our option to select the ic 555 pulse generator circuit or check the pulse from original meter.

10

## CHAPTER 3 DESCRIPTION OF HARDWARE COMPONENTS

The hardware components used in project consist of following,we are not giving the description of 89s52,which will be covered in next chapter.

## 3.1 EXTERNAL MEMORY DETAIL

Figure 3.1

In this project we connect pin no 5 and 6 is to the controller directly. Pin no 1to 4 is connected to the ground. Here we ground all the address of the ic. Pin no 8 is also connected to the positive 5 volt supply. Pin no 7 is wp pin. Here pin no 7 is also grounded.

11

SERIAL CLOCK (SCL) The SCL input is used to positive edge clock data into each EEPROM device and negative edge clock data out of each device. When we want to enter a data in the memory then we provide a low to high pulse and when we get a data from the memory then we provide a high to low signal. SERIAL DATA (SDA) The SDA pin is bi-directional for serial data transfer. This pin is open-drain driven and may be wire-ORed with any number of other open-drain or opencollector devices. DEVICE/PAGE ADDRESSES (A2, A1, A0) The A2, A1 and A0 pins are device address inputs that are hard wired for the AT24C01A and the AT24C02. As many as eight 1K/2K devices may be addressed on a single bus system (device addressing is discussed in detail under the Device Addressing section). The AT24C04 uses the A2 and A1 inputs for hard wire addressing and a total of four 4K devices may be addressed on a single bus system. The A0 pin is a no connect. The AT24C08 only uses the A2 input for hardwire addressing and a total of two 8K devices may be addressed on a single bus system. The A0 and A1 pins are no connects. WRITE PROTECT (WP) The AT24C01A/02/04/16 has a Write Protect pin that provides hardware data protection. The Write Protect pin allows normal read/write operations when connected to ground (GND). When the Write Protect pin is connected to VCC, the write protection feature is enabled and operates as shown in the following table. Operation CLOCK and DATA TRANSITIONS The SDA pin is normally pulled high with an external device. Data on the SDA pin may change only during SCL low time periods (refer to Data Validity timing diagram). Data changes during SCL high periods will indicate a start or stop condition as defined below.

12

13

addressing bits on the 4K, 8K and 16K devices should be considered the most significant bits of the data word address which follows.The A0, A1 and A2 pins are no connected.

14

Figure 3.2

## 3.2 5 VOLT REGULATED POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

In this project firstly we use one step down transformer. Step down transformer step down the voltage from 220 volt Ac to 12 volt Ac. This Ac voltage is further converted into DC with the help of rectifier circuit. In rectifier circuit we use four diode. All the diodes are arranges as a bridge rectifier circuit. Output of this rectifier is pulsating Dc. To convert this pulsating DC into smooth dc we use one capacitor as a filter components. Capacitor converts the pulsating Dc into smooth DC with the help of its charging and discharging effect. Output of the rectifier is now regulated with the help of IC regulator circuit. In this project we use positive voltage regulator circuit. Here we use three pin regulator. Output of this regulator is regulated voltage. If we use 7805 regulator then its means its is 5 volt regulator and if we use 7808 regulator then its means that it is 8 volt regulator circuit. In this project we use 5 volt dc regulated power supply for the complete circuit. Separate 9 volt dc power supply is used for the relay coil

15

Figure 3.3

## Figure 3.4 Pin Diagram

Features
1. Output Current up to 1A 2. Output Voltage of 5V 3. Thermal Overload Protection 4. Short Circuit Protection 5. Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

16

Description

The LM7805 is a three terminals, positive regulator available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with 5V fixed output voltage. It employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, it can deliver over 1A output current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, it can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Figure: 3.5

17

## Table: 3.1 Absolute max. ratings

Electrical Characteristics

18

## 3.3 DTMF DECODER - DETAIL OF IC 8870.

CMOS Integrated DTMF Receiver Features Full DTMF receiver Less than 35mW power consumption Industrial temperature range Uses quartz crystal or ceramic resonators Adjustable acquisition and release times

Applications
PABX

Central office Mobile radio Remote control Remote data entry Call limiting Telephone answering systems Paging systems

19

The CAMD CM8870/70C provides full DTMF receiver capability by integrating both the band-split filter and digital decoder functions into a single 18-pin DIP, SOIC, or 20-pin PLCC package. The CM8870/70C is manufactured using state-of-the-art CMOS process technology for low power consumption (35mW, MAX) and precise data handling. The filter section uses a switched capacitor technique for both high and low group filters and dial tone rejection. The CM8870/70C decoder uses digital counting techniques for the detection and decoding of all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code. This DTMF receiver minimizes external component count by providing an on-chip differential input amplifier, clock generator, and a latched three-state interface bus. The on-chip clock generator requires only a low cost TV crystal or ceramic resonator as an external component.

Figure 3.6

The CAMD CM8870/70C DTMF Integrated Receiver provides the design engineer with not only low power consumption, but high performance in a small 18-pin DIP, SOIC, or

20

20-pin PLCC package configuration. The CM8870/70Cs internal architecture consists of a band-split filter section which separates the high and low tones of the received pair, followed by a digital decode (counting) section which verifies both the frequency and duration of the received tones before passing the resultant 4-bit code to the output bus.

Filter Section
Separation of the low-group and high-group tones is achieved by applying the dual-tone signal to the inputs of two 9th-order switched capacitor bandpass filters. The bandwidths of these filters correspond to the bands enclosing the low-group and high-group tones (See Figure 3). The filter section also incorporates notches at 350Hz and 440Hz which provides excellent dial tone rejection. Each filter output is followed by a single order switched capacitor section which smooths the signals prior to limiting. Signal limiting is performed by high-gain comparators. These comparators are provided with a hysteresis to prevent detection of unwanted low-level signals and noise. The outputs of the omparators provide full-rail logic swings at the frequencies of the incoming tones.

Decoder Section
The CM8870/70C decoder uses a digital countingtechnique to determine the frequencies of the limited tones and to verify that these tones correspond to standard DTMF frequencies. A complex averaging algorithm is used to protect against tone simulation by extraneous signals (such as voice) while providing tolerance to small frequency variations. The averaging algorithm has been developed to ensure an optimum combination of immunity to talk-off and tolerance to the presence of interfering signals (third tones) and noise. When the detector recognizes the simultaneous presence of two valid tones (known as signal condition), it raises the Early Steering flag (ESt). Any subsequent loss of signal condition will cause ESt to fall.

21

Steering Circuit
Before the registration of a decoded tone pair, the receiver checks for a valid signal duration (referred to as character-recognition-condition). This check is performed by an external RC time constant driven by ESt. A logic high on ESt causes VC (See Figure 4) to rise as the capacitor discharges. Providing signal condition is maintained (ESt remains high) for the validation period (tGTP), VC reaches the threshold (VTSt) of the steering logic to register the tone pair, thus latching its corresponding 4-bit code (See Figure 2) into the output latch. At this point, the GT output is activated and drives VC to VDD. GT continues to drive high as long as ESt remains high, signaling that a received tone pair has been registered. The contents of the output latch are made available on the 4-bit output bus by raising the three-state control input (TOE) to a logic high. The steering circuit works in reverse to validate the interdigit pause between signals. Thus, as well as rejecting signals too short to be considered valid, the receiver will tolerate signal interruptions (drop outs) too short to be considered a valid pause. This capability together with the capability of selecting the steering time constants externally, allows the designer to tailor performance to meet a wide variety of system requirements.

In situations which do not require independent selection of receive and pause, the simple steering circuit of Figure 4 is applicable. Component values are chosen according to the following formula: tREC = tDP + Tgtp tGTP = 0.67 RC The value of tDP is a parameter of the device and tREC is the minimum signal duration to be recognized by the receiver. A value for C of 0.1F is recommended for most applications, leaving R to be selected by the designer. For example, a suitable value of R

22

for a tREC of 40ms would be 300K. A typical circuit using this steering configuration is shown in Figure 3.6. The timing requirements for most telecommunication applications are satisfied with this circuit. Different steering arrangements may be used to select independently the guard-times for tone-present (tGTP) and tone absent (tGTA). This may be necessary to meet system specifications which place both accept and reject limits on both tone duration and interdigit pause. Guard time adjustment also allows the designer to tailor system parameters such as talk-off and noise immunity. Increasing tREC improves talk-off performance, since it reduces the probability that tones simulated by speech will maintain signal condition for long enough to be registered. On the other hand, a relatively short tREC with a long tDO would be appropriate for extremely noisy environments where fast acquisition time and immunity to drop-outs would be requirements.

Input Configuration
The input arrangement of the CM8870/70C provides a differential input operational amplifier as well as a bias source (VREF) which is used to bias the inputs at mid-rail. Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op-amp output (GS) for adjustment of gain. In a single-ended configuration, the input pins are connected as shown in Figure 1, with the op-amp connected for unity gain and VREF biasing the input at VDD. Figure 6 shows the differential configuration, which permits the adjustment of gain with the feedback resistor R5.

Clock Circuit
The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of a standard television color burst crystal or ceramic resonator having a resonant frequency of 3.579545MHz. The CM8870C in a PLCC package has a buffered oscillator output (OSC3) that can be used to drive clock inputs of other devices such as a microprocessor or other CM887Xs as shown. Multiple

23

CM8870/70Cs can be connected as shown in figure 8 such that only one crystal or resonator is required.

Figure 3.8

24

Table 3.3

Table 3.4

3.4 CAPACITOR
Capacitors store electric charge. Capacitance is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored. Capacitance is measured in farads, symbol F.

3.4.1 Function
. However 1F is very large, so prefixes are used to show the smaller values.

25

## Three prefixes (multipliers) are used, (micro), n (nano) and p (pico):

means 10-6 (millionth), so 1000000F = 1F n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth), so 1000nF = 1F p means 10-12 (million-millionth), so 1000pF = 1nF

Electrolytic capacitors are capacitors in which one or both of the "plates" is a non-metallic conductive substance, an electrolyte. Electrolytes have lower conductivity than metals, so are only used in capacitors when metallic plate is not practical, such as when the dielectric surface is fragile or rough in shape or when ionic current is required to maintain the dielectric integrity. The dielectric material of electrolytic capacitors is produced from the anode metal itself in what is known as the forming or anodizing process. During this process, current flows from the anode metal which must be a valve metal such as aluminum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, or silicon through a conductive bath of a special forming electrolyte to the bath cathode. The flow of current causes an insulating metal oxide to grow out of and into the surface of the anode. The thickness, structure and composition of this insulating layer determine its dielectric strength. The applied potential between the anode metal and the bath cathode must be above the oxide breakdown voltage before significant current will flow. As current flows, the breakdown strength (formed voltage) and oxide thickness increase.

The advantage of electrolytic capacitors is the high capacitance per unit volume and per unit cost. The high capacitance arises from the high dielectric constant, the high breakdown field strength, the rough surface, and the extremely small, uniform thickness of the anodically formed metallic oxide. The reason that electrolytic capacitors have such uniform dielectric stress and can operate at such high field strength, within 80% of their breakdown strength, on the order of 1,000 volts/m, is due to two reasons. First, the original anodization ("formation") process is performed at a fixed voltage, and the dielectric grows everywhere to whatever thickness is required to support that voltage. Second, once the foil is in a capacitor, the capacitor "fill" electrolyte continues the healing work of the original forming electrolyte, repairing and thickening the dielectric locally as required. This healing process is driven by the capacitor's dc leakage current, which is

26

drawn whenever a dc voltage is applied to the capacitor, that is, whenever it is in operation. In fact, electrolytic capacitors often last longer when they are in continuous, mild use that when they are only charged up briefly every year or decade.

The disadvantage of electrolytic capacitors is the non-ideal, lossy characteristics which arise from the semiconductive oxide properties, double-layer effects from the electrolyteoxide charge-space region, resistive losses from the high electrolyte resistivity, frequency response rolloff due to the roughness of the surface oxide, and finite capacitor life due to breakdown and degradation of the electrolyte. Some of these considerations will be discussed below in more detail from the standpoint of the aluminum electrolytic capacitor. Also, the anodic oxide dielectric is polar, and so are the electrolytic capacitors, that is the capacitors must be connected with the correct polarity as marked. Connecting with reverse voltage injects hydrogen ions through the oxide readily, causing high electrical conduction, heating and reduction of the anodic oxide film. Non-polar (or bi-polar) devices can be made by using two anodes instead of an anode and a cathode, or one could connect the positives or negatives of two identical device together, then the other two terminals would form a non-polar device.

## 3.4.4 Uses and applications of electrolytic capacitor

Power supply output filter Blocking and dc bypass Motor start and other non-polar Audio applications Energy discharge applications

27

3.5 RESISTOR

A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR Practical resistors are made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel/chrome).

3.5.1 Characteristics
The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current flow, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance depends upon the materials constituting the resistor as well as its physical dimensions; it's determined by design.

Figure 3.10

3.5.2 Units
The ohm (symbol: ) is a SI-driven unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm. Commonly used multiples and submultiples in electrical and electronic usage are the milliohm (1x103), kilohm (1x103), and megohm (1x106).

28

## 3.5.3 Power dissipation

The power dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is calculated using the following:

All three equations are equivalent. The first is derived from Joule's first law. Ohms Law derives the other two from that. The total amount of heat energy released is the integral of the power over time:

If the average power dissipated is more than the resistor can safely dissipate, the resistor may depart from its nominal resistance and may become damaged by overheating. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it burns out, which could cause a fire in adjacent components and materials. The nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same as the power that it can safely dissipate in practical use. Air circulation and proximity to a circuit board, ambient temperature, and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. Rated power dissipation may be given for an ambient temperature of 25 C in free air. Inside an equipment case at 60 C, rated dissipation will be significantly less; if we are dissipating a bit less than the maximum figure given by the manufacturer we may still be outside the safe operating area, and courting premature failure.

## 3.5.4 Four-band resistors

Four-band identification is the most commonly used color-coding scheme on resistors. It consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor. The first two bands encode the first two significant digits of the resistance value, the third is a power-often multiplier or number-of-zeroes, and the fourth is the tolerance accuracy, or acceptable error, of the value. The first three bands are equally spaced along the resistor; the spacing to the fourth band is wider. Sometimes a fifth band identifies the thermal coefficient, but this must be distinguished from the true 5-color system, with 3 significant digits.For example, green-blue-yellow-red is 56104 = 560 k 2%. An easier description can be

29

as followed: the first band, green, has a value of 5 and the second band, blue, has a value of 6, and is counted as 56. The third band, yellow, has a value of 104, which adds four 0's to the end, creating 560,000 at 2% tolerance accuracy. 560,000 changes to 560 k 2% (as a kilo- is 103).Each color corresponds to a certain digit, progressing from darker to lighter colors, as shown in the chart below

Fig 3.11

## 3.5.5 Failure modes

Like every part, resistors can fail in normal use. Thermal and mechanical stress, humidity, etc., can play a part. Carbon composition resistors and metal film resistors typically fail as open circuits. Carbon-film resistors may decrease or increase in resistance. Carbon film and composition resistors can short if running close to their maximum dissipation. The resistance of carbon composition resistors are prone to drift over time and are easily damaged by excessive heat in soldering (the binder evaporates).

## 3.6 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE

Light emitting diode (LED) is basically a P-N junction semiconductor diode particularly designed to emit visible light. There are infrared emitting LEDs which emit invisible light.

30

The LEDs are available in many colours red, green and yellow. A normal LED emits at 2.4V. The LEDs are made in the form of flat tiny p-n junction enclosed in a semi-spherical dome made up of clear coloured epoxy resin. The dome of a LED acts as a lens and diffuser of light. The diameter of the base is less than a quarter of an inch. The actual diameter varies somewhat with different makes. The common circuit symbols for the LED are shown in Fig. It is similar to the conventional rectifier diode symbol with two arrows pointing out. There are two leads- one for anode and the other for cathode.

## Figure 3.12 Circuit Symbol of LED

LEDs often have leads of dissimilar length and the shorter one is the cathode. All manufacturers do not strictly adhere this to. Sometimes the cathode side has a flat base. If there is doubt, the polarity of the diode should be identified. A simple bench method is to use the ohmmeter incorporating 3-volt cells for ohmmeter function. When connected with the ohmmeter: one way there will be no deflection and when connected the other way round there will be a large deflection of a pointer. When this occurs the anode lead is connected to the negative of test lead and cathode to the positive test lead of the ohmmeter. If low range of the ohmmeter is used the LED would light up in most cases because the low range of ohmmeter can pass sufficient current to light up the LED.

## 3.6.1 Electrical Characteristics of LEDs

Electrically, a LED is similar to the conventional diode in that it has relatively low forward voltage threshold. Once this is exceeded the junction has a low slope resistance and

31

conducts current readily. An external resistor must limit this current. Forward voltage drew across red LED is nominally 1.6 V but spread with commercial diodes, it may be as high as 2 volts or so, while the green LED drops 2.4V. Another important parameter of the LED is its maximum reverse voltage rating. For typical red device it is of the order of 3 volts. The LED produces light only when a d.c. current is passed in the forward direction and the amount of light emitted by a LED is proportional to the forward current over a broad range. It means that light intensity increases in an approximately linear manner with increasing current.

3.7 RELAY
A relay is used to isolate one electrical circuit from another. It allows a low current control circuit to make or break an electrically isolated high current circuit path. We already said that the average remote lead can only handle about one half of an amp of current. If a circuit with a large amount of current must be controlled by the remote output lead of a head unit, a relay could be used to buffer the remote output from the head unit. The basic relay consists of a coil and a set of contacts. The most common relay coil is a length of magnet wire wrapped around a metal core. When voltage is applied to the coil, current passes through the wire and creates a magnetic field. This magnetic field pulls the contacts together and holds them there until the current flow in the coil has stopped. The diagram below shows the parts of a simple relay.

Figure 3.13

32

3.6.1 Relay Specifications There are two specifications that you must consider when selecting a relay for use in an automobile, the coil voltage and the current carrying capability of contacts. The coil voltage for relays used in automobiles is ~12 volts. This means that if you apply 12 volts to the coil, it will pull in and stay there until the applied voltage is removed from the coil. The current rating on relay contacts tells how much current can be passed through the contacts without damage to the contacts.

## 3.7 555 TIMER

The LM555 is a highly stable device for generating accurate time delays or oscillation. Additional terminals are provided for triggering or resetting if desired. In the time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor. For astable operation as an oscillator, the free running frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor. The circuit may be triggered and reset on falling waveforms, and the output circuit can source or sink up to 200mA or drive

3.8.1 Features

Direct replacement for SE555/NE555 Timing from microseconds through hours Operates in both astable and monostable modes Adjustable duty cycle Output can source or sink 200 mA Output and supply TTL compatible Temperature stability better than 0.005% per C Normally on and normally off output Available in 8-pin MSOP package High Current Drive Capability (200mA) Timing From Sec to Hours fig3.14

33

## Turn off Time Less Than 2Sec

3.8.2 APPLICATIONS:
Precision timing Sequential timing Pulse generation Time delay generation Pulse width modulation Pulse position modulation

## 3.8.3 Pin Diagram And Discription:

Figure 3.15

GND: this pin use for ground supply Trigger: use for giving the triggering voltage Output : use for taking output of 555 Timer Reset : use for reseting the flip-flop Control voltage: it is use for controllin the voltage of 555 timer

34

Thresold : it is set the thesold voltage for operating the 555 timer in monostable& astable mode. Di scharge: it is the discharge pin using discharging the capacitor through a trasistor. Vcc : this pin provide 5V supply to 555 timer IC.

## 3.8.4 Working Operation Of 555 Timer

When the low signal input is applied to the reset terminal, the timer output remains low regardless of the threshold voltage or the trigger voltage. Only when the high signal is applied to the reset terminal, the timer's output changes according to threshold voltage and trigger voltage. When the threshold voltage exceeds 2/3 of the supply voltage while the timer output is high, the timer's internal discharge Tr. turns on, lowering the threshold voltage to below 1/3 of the supply voltage. During this time, the timer output is

maintained low. Later, if a low signal is applied to the trigger voltage so that it becomes 1/3 of the supply voltage, the timer's internal discharge Tr. turns off, increasing the threshold voltage and driving the timer output again at high. Basically 555 timer operate in the two mode . 1. Monostable mode 2. Astable mode

## 3.8.5 MONOSTABLE MODE

In this mode of operation, the timer functions as a one-shot. the external capacitor is initially held discharged by a transistor inside the timer. Upon application of a negative trigger pulse of less than 1/3 V to pin 2, the flip-flop is set which both releases the short circuit across the capacitor and drives the output high. the voltage across the capacitor then

35

increases exponentially for a period of t = 1.1 RC, at the end of which time the voltage equals 2/3 Vcc . The comparator then resets the flip-flop which in turn discharges the capacitor and drives the output to its low state. Figure 4.4 shows the waveforms generated in this mode of operation. Since the charge and the threshold level of the comparator are both directly proportional to supply voltage, the timing interval is independent of supply.

## Figure 3.16 Circuit for monostable mode operation.

Fig3.17

36

During the timing cycle when the output is high, the further application of a trigger pulse will not effect the circuit so long as the trigger input is returned high at least 10s before the end of the timing interval. However the circuit can be reset during this time by the application of a negative pulse to the reset terminal (pin 4). the output will then remain in the low state until a trigger pulse again applied.When the reset function is not in use, it is recommended that it be connected to Vcc to avoid any possibility of false triggering.

3.8.6 ASTABLE OPERATION An astable timer operation is achieved by adding resistor R to Figure 1 and configuring as
shown on Figure. in the astable operation, the trigger terminal and the threshold terminal are connected so that a self-trigger is formed, operating as a multi vibrator. when the timer output is high, its internal discharging Tr. turns off and the Vc1 increases by exponential function with the time constant (RA+RB)*C.

Figure 3.18

## Circuit for astable mode operation.

When the Vc1, or the threshold voltage, reaches 2Vcc/3, the comparator output on the trigger terminal becomes high, resetting the F/F and causing the timer output to become low. This in turn turns on the discharging Tr. and the C1 discharges through the

discharging channel formed by R and the discharging Tr. When the Vc1 fall below

37

Vcc/3the coparator output on the trigger terminal become high and timer output become high again.the discharge Tr. Turn Off and the Vc1 rises again. In the above process, the section where the timer output is high is the time it takes for the Vc1 to rise from Vcc/3 to 2Vcc/3, and the section where the timer output is low is the time it takes for the Vc1 to drop from 2Vcc/3 to Vcc/3.

Figure 3.19-Waveform

In this mode of operation, the capacitor charges and discharges between 1/3 V and 2/3 V and since the triggered mode, the charge and discharge times, and therefore the frequency are independent of the supply voltage.

3.9 LM358
In this project we have use LM358 as operational amplifier which amplify the very low voltage, in order of milivolt of temperatue sensor. The LM158 series consists of two independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is

38

also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage. Application areas include transducer amplifiers, dc gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example, the LM158 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics without requiring the additional 15V power supplies

3.9.1 Features

Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Large dc voltage gain: 100 Db Wide bandwidth (unity gain): 1 MHz (temperature compensated) Wide power supply range Single supply: 3V to 32V or dual supplies: 1.5V to 16V Very low supply current drain (500 A)-essentially independent of supply voltage Low input offset voltage: 2 mV Input common-mode voltage range includes ground Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage Single supply: 3V to 32V Internally frequency compensated for unity gain Internally frequency compensated for unity gain

39

## Figure 3.21 circuit diagram of LM358 .

40

Electrical Characteristics: The following specification apply over the range of (V= 5.0V, V= GND, unless otherwise specified)

3.10 BUZZER
A buzzer or beeper is a signalling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a microwave oven.

## Figure: 3.22 Electrical symbol of a buzzer

It is connected to the control unit through the relay that acts as an electronic switch for it. When the switch forms a closed path to the buzzer, it sounds a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound.

## 3.11 LCD INTERFACE

In this project we use lcd for output device. Here in this project we use 2 by 16 lcd for the output device. LCD drive by the microcontroller directly with the port p0. In this project we use 8 data line for the data transfer from the microcontroller to lcd. Our processor inside the controller is 8 bit processor, so we use parallel line transfer from microcontroller to lcd. Three control line R/S, R/W, AND ENABLE is also provided by the microcontroller itself. Lcd display welcome message. In the starting, then after show the recharge value of the money Then display the balance in first line and in the second line show the unit consumption and pulse counter logic.

41

Figure 3.23-LCD interfacing we use 8 data line for the data transfer from the microcontroller to lcd. Our processor inside the controller is 8 bit processor, so we use parallel line transfer from microcontroller to lcd. Three control line R/S, R/W, AND ENABLE is also provided by the microcontroller itself.

42

43

## CHAPTER 4 DESCRIPTION OF MICROCONTROLLER

Look around. Notice the smart intelligent systems? Be it the T.V, washing machines, video games, telephones, automobiles, aero planes, power systems, or any application having a LED or a LCD as a user interface, the control is likely to be in the hands of a microcontroller! Measure and control, thats where the micro controller is at its best.

Micro controllers are here to stay. Going by the current trend, it is obvious that micro controllers will be playing bigger and bigger roles in the different activities of our lives. So where does this scenario leave us? Think about it

4.1Microcontrollers
What is the primary difference between a microprocessor and a micro controller? Unlike the microprocessor, the micro controller can be considered to be a true Computer on a chip.In addition to the various features like the ALU, PC, SP and registers found on a microprocessor, the micro controller also incorporates features like the ROM, RAM, Ports, timers,clock circuits, counters, reset functions etc.

While the microprocessor is more a general-purpose device, used for read, write and calculations on data, the micro controller, in addition to the above functions also controls the environment. We have used a whole lot of technical terms already! Dont get worried about the meanings at this point. We shall understand these terms as we proceed further For now just be aware of the fact, that all these terms literally mean what they say.

4.2Bits
Before starting on the 8051, here is a quick run through on the bits and bytes. The basic unit of data for a computer is a bit. Four bits make a nibble.Eight bits or two nibbles make a byte.Sixteen bits or four nibbles or two bytes make a word.

1024 bytes make a kilobyte or 1KB,and 1024 KB make a Mega Byte or 1MB.

44

Thus when we talk of an 8-bit register,we mean the register is capable of holding data of 8 bit.

4.3The8051
The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability to access external memory. The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. The value of x defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash.

ROM
The early 8051, namely the 8031 was designed without any ROM. This device could run only with external memory connected to it. Subsequent developments lead to the development of the PROM or the programable ROM. This type had the disadvantage of beingunreliable.

The next in line, was the EPROM or Erasable Programmable ROM. These devices used ultraviolet light erasable memory cells. Thus a program could be loaded, tested and erased using ultra violet rays. A new program could then be loaded again.

An improved EPROM was the EEPROM or the electrically erasable PROM. This does not require ultra violet rays, and memory can be cleared using circuits within the chip itself. Finally there is the FLASH, which is an improvement over the EEPROM. While the terms EEPROM and flash are sometimes used interchangeably, the difference lies in the fact that flash erases the complete memory at one stroke, and not act on the individual cells. .

4.3.1Understanding

the

basic

features

of

the

8051

core

Lets now move on to a practical example. We shall work on a simple practical application and using the example as a base, shall explore the various features of the 8051 microcontroller.

45

## Consider an electric circuit as follows,

Fig. 4.1

The positive side (+ve) of the battery is connected to one side of a switch. The other side of the switch is connected to a bulb or LED (Light Emitting Diode). The bulb is then connected to a resistor, and the other end of the resistor is connected to the negative . When the switch is closed or switched on the bulb glows. When the switch is open or the bulboff.

If you are instructed to put the switch on and off every 30 seconds, how would you do it? Obviously you would keep looking at your watch and every time the second hand crosses 30 seconds you would keep turning the switch on and off.

Imagine if you had to do this action consistently for a full day. Do you think you would be able to do it? Now if you had to do this for a month, a year????

The next step would be, then to make it automatic. This is where we use the Microcontroller.

But if the action has to take place every 30 seconds, how will the microcontroller keep trackoftime?

46

## 4.4 89S52 MICROCONTROLLER

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. 4.4.1 Description The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash 256 bytes of RAM 32 I/O lines Watchdog timer Two data pointers Three 16-bit timer/counters A six-vector two-level interrupt architecture A full duplex serial port On-chip oscillator Clock circuitry

In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM con-tents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset

47

## 4.4.2 Pin Configurations

Fig-4.2-pin diagram

## 4.4.3 Block Diagram

Figure 4.7

Fig.4.3
Fig-4.3-block diagram

48

## 4.4.3 Pin Description

VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Ports Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as highimpedance inputs. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

49

Table 4.1 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the following table

50

Table 4.2 Reset input- A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. However one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.

51

EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.

XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

## 4.4.4. Special Function Registers

A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in Table 2.5. Note that not all of the addresses are occupied, and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data, and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect. User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future products to invoke new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will always be 0.

Timer 2 Registers: Control and status bits are contained in registers T2CON and T2MOD for Timer 2. The register pair (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the Capture/Reload registers for Timer 2 in 16-bit capture mode or 16-bit auto-reload mode.

Interrupt Registers: The individual interrupt enable bits are in the IE register. Two priorities can be set for each of the six interrupt sources in the IP register.

52

Table 4.3 Fig 4.3-SFRs Dual Data Pointer Registers: To facilitate accessing both internal and external data memory, two banks of 16-bit Data Pointer Registers are provided: DP0 at SFR address locations 82H-83H and DP1 at 84H-85H. Bit DPS = 0 in SFR AUXR1 selects DP0 and DPS = 1 selects DP1. The user should always initialize the DPS bit to the appropriate value before accessing the respective Data Pointer Register. Power Off Flag: The Power Off Flag (POF) is located at bit 4 (PCON.4) in the PCON SFR. POF is set to 1 during power up. It can be set and rest under software control and is not affected by reset.

## 4.4.5 Memory Organization

53

MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. Up to 64K bytes each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed.

Program Memory If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to external memory. On the AT89S52, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H through 1FFFH are directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 2000H through FFFFH are to external memory.

Data Memory The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel address space to the Special Function Registers. This means that the upper 128 bytes have the same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space. When an instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH, the address mode used in the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM or the SFR space. Instructions which use direct addressing access the SFR space. For example, the following direct addressing instruction accesses the SFR at location 0A0H (which is P2).

MOV 0A0H, #data Instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128 bytes of RAM. For example, the following indirect addressing instruction, where R0 contains 0A0H, accesses the data byte at address 0A0H, rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H). MOV @R0, #data Note that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so the upper 128 bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.

## Watchdog Timer (One-time Enabled with Reset-out)

The WDT is intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may be subjected to software upsets. The WDT consists of a 14-bit counter and the Watchdog Timer Reset (WDTRST) SFR. The WDT is defaulted to disable from exiting reset. To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H). When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. The WDT timeout period is dependent on the external clock

54

frequency. There is no way to disable the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT overflow reset). When WDT overflows, it will drive an output RESET HIGH pulse at the RST pin.

## Using the WDT

To enable the WDT, a user must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H). When the WDT is enabled, the user needs to service it by writing 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST to avoid a WDT overflow. The 14-bit counter overflows when it reaches 16383 (3FFFH), and this will reset the device. When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running. This means the user must reset the WDT at least every 16383 machine cycles. To reset the WDT the user must write 01EH and 0E1H to WDTRST. WDTRST is a write-only register. The WDT counter cannot be read or written. When WDT overflows, it will generate an output RESET pulse at the RST pin. The RESET pulse duration is 98xTOSC, where TOSC = 1/FOSC. To make the best use of the WDT, it should be serviced in those sections of code that will periodically be executed within the time required to prevent a WDT reset.

## WDT during Power-down and Idle

In Power-down mode the oscillator stops, which means the WDT also stops. While in Power-down mode, the user does not need to service the WDT. There are two methods of exiting Power-down mode: by a hardware reset or via a level-activated external interrupt which is enabled prior to entering Power-down mode. When Power-down is exited with hardware reset, servicing the WDT should occur as it normally does whenever the AT89S52 is reset. Exiting Power-down with an interrupt is significantly different. The interrupt is held low long enough for the oscillator to stabilize. When the interrupt is brought high, the interrupt is serviced. To prevent the WDT from resetting the device while the interrupt pin is held low, the WDT is not started until the interrupt is pulled high. It is suggested that the WDT be reset during the interrupt service for the interrupt used to exit Power-down mode. To ensure that the WDT does not overflow within a few states of exiting Power-down, it is best to reset the WDT just before entering Power-down mode. Before going into the IDLE mode, the WDIDLE bit in SFR AUXR is used to determine

55

whether the WDT continues to count if enabled. The WDT keeps counting during IDLE (WDIDLE bit = 0) as the default state. To prevent the WDT from resetting the AT89S52 while in IDLE mode, the user should always set up a timer that will periodically exit IDLE, service the WDT, and reenter IDLE mode. With WDIDLE bit enabled, the WDT will stop to count in IDLE mode and resumes the count upon exit from IDLE.

UART

The UART in the AT89S52 is one of the basic interfaces which you will find in almost all the controllers available in the market till date. This interface provides a cost effective simple and reliable communication between one controller to another controller.

Timer 0 and 1

Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89S52 operate the same way as Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89C51 and AT89C52. The basic unit of the timer is a free-run counter which is in fact a register whose numeric value increments by one in even intervals, so that by taking its value during periods T1 and T2 and on the basis of their difference we can determine how much time has elapsed. This is a very important part of the microcontroller whose understanding required most of our time.

Timer 2

Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event counter. The type of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON. Timer 2 has three operating modes: capture, auto-reload (up or down counting), and baud rate generator. The modes are selected by bits in T2CON. Timer 2 consists of two 8-bit registers, TH2 and TL2. In the Timer function, the TL2 register is incremented every machine cycle. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods, the count rate is 1/12 of the oscillator frequency. In the Counter function, the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external input pin, T2. In this function, the external input is sampled during S5P2 of every machine cycle. When the samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the

56

next cycle, the count is incremented. The new count value appears in the register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which the transition was detected. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) are required to recognize a 1-to-0 transition, the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency. To ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, the level should be held for at least one full machine cycle. Interrupts

The AT89S52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1), three timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2), and the serial port interrupt. Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables all interrupts at once. User software should not write a 1 to this bit position, since it may be used in future AT89 products. Timer 2 interrupt is generated by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON. Neither of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. In fact, the service routine may have to determine whether it was TF2 or EXF2 that generated the interrupt, and that bit will have to be cleared in software. The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the timers overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle. However, the Timer 2 flag, TF2, is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which the timer overflows. Oscillator Characteristics

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 16-1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven, as shown in Figure 162. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

57

REFERENCES

www.datasheetcatalog.com The circuit designers companion by Tim Williams Digital design,2nd edition by Morris Mano The 8051 microcontroller and embedded systems by Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillispie. Scott MacKenzie, The 8051 microcontroller, 2nd edn., Prentice-Hall Inc., USA,1995. Todd D Morton,Embedded Microcontroller, Pearson Education, Inc.,2001 John B Peatman ,Design with Microcontroller, McGraw-hill,USA,1988 Dogan Ibrahim, microcontroller Project in C For the 8051, 1st edn.,Butterworth Heinemann,2000.