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Chapter 35 Study Questions What goals and values were expressed in the various nationalistic movements of the early

twentieth century? What ethnic groups in particular asserted the right of selfdetermination? o Nationalism began to spread after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, the unification of Italy and Germany, and the independence of Belgium from the Netherlands o Self determination, or the idea that each ethnic group has a right to a sovereign state (Slavs, Serbs, Poles, etc.), spread. o Various ethnic g-roups sought to free themselves from Ottoman or Austria-Hungarian rule. o The rapid spread of Pan-slavism, or the nationalist movement of the Slavs supported by Russia, caused many Slavs to seek to free themselves from Austria-Hungary Empire.

How did the imperialistic o rivalries of the European powers contribute to international tensions before World War I? Be specific. o

Tensions between Germany and Britain/France -Britain threatened by Germany's rapid industrialization, Naval Race between Germany and Britain. - Colonial disputes: Germany came late to the colonial race, and French and British already colonized most of the lands -> German antagonism towards French and British (French-Germany conflict at Morocco.) Tensions in Eastern Europe - Russia promoted Pan-slavism, backed the Slavs, and Germany backed the Austria-Hungary Empire. (Tension between Russia and its allies, and Germany and its allies). -Balkan Wars- Various ethnic Eastern Eropean groups rebelled against the Ottoman Empire for independence (Strained European diplomatic relationships, set a tense mood for World War I).

What was the role of women during World War I? How did the war transform civilian life and the role of government. To what extent did the war make fundamental changes in the nature of women in European & American society? What were the essential elements of Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points? Which of his Fourteen Points were included in the final peace treaties? Why was it so difficult to implement his vision?

o Governments began to draft men for the war. Therefore women had to take on men's jobs and roles. o Women took over farms and businesses. Played huge roles in producing shells and TNT. o Middle class and high class women viewed their increased role and importance in the society as liberating, since they no longer were stuck inside their homes and began to feel a sense of mission. o Working class women were affected little, because they were already working even before the war. o Women right greatly increased after the war. Many Western nations granted women the rights to vote.

o Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas in peace and war o Removal of all economic barriers, equality of trade conditions among all nations o reduction in national armaments o equal weight to the interests of the controlling government and the colonial population. o The League of Treaties, "a general association of nations" proposed in the Fourteen Points was c reated o It was difficult for Wilson to implement his vision because many European countries rejected his suggestions and had various different opinions.

It has been argued that the Treaty of Versailles actually contributed to growing discontent in Europe and the growth of independence movements in Asia & Africa. To what extent is this assumption valid? COMPARISONS Submarines & food shortages

o The Treaty of Versailles took harsh measures against the defeated countries, especially Germany. The victorious Allies denied the Germans a navy and air force, greatly reduced the German army, and forced all of the Central Powers to pay for the cost of the wars. This led to an increased discontent among not only the defeated countries, but other countries outside of Europe. o The Treaty of Versailles eventually caused the growth of independence movements in Asia and Africa. Because the treaty rejected the 14 points, which raised hopes for people or ethnic groups from reaching independence, they felt betrayed and started rebelling. Submarines were used by the Germans to disrupt Allied shipping. This would eventually cause food shortages in Allied countries.

Total war & womens Total war is when both armies and societies fight each other. As men went off to fight in the war, women also helped their countries in the suffrage "home front" by becoming nurses to support wounded soldiers, making shells and TNTs for battles, and occupying jobs or positions vacated by men to keep their societies stable. Pan-Slavism & the Russian Revolution Both Pan-Slavism and the Russian Revolution were independence movements that defeated or dissolved a large empire. The success of the revolutionaries for both movements were greatly due to World War I. Various Slavic groups gained independence from Germany, AustriaHungary, and the Ottoman largely because they were weakened after losing World War I. The efforts of the Russian revolutionaries (Bolsheviks) were motivated by the Russian provisional government deciding to continue participating in the war. The chaos and the instability in Russia during those times also enabled the Bolsheviks to succeed in the Russian Revolution. The Easter Rebellion was

Eastern Rebellion & Ataturk