Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems
Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems
Winter 2011
Winter 2011
Lecture 1:
Lecture 1:
Introduction; Course Overview;
Introduction; Course Overview;
Modeling Physical Systems,
Modeling Physical Systems,
LumpedParameter
Lumped
Parameter Equilibrium
Equilibrium Systems
Systems
M.G. Lipsett
M.G. Lipsett
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Alberta
University of Alberta
http://www.ualberta.ca/~mlipsett/ENGM541/ENGM541.htm
Internet Sources: www.coolestgadgets.com; www.nasa.gov; www.microway.com.au; www.pbs.org; www.emercedesbenz.com; www.syncrude.com
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Engineering analysis: formulating governing equations that 
describe the behaviour of physical and technological 

systems, for the purpose of analysis and design 

• 
Numerical analysis: solving mathematical equations using 
algorithms 

• 
Scientific computing: development of reliable numerical 
models that can be tested in a range of cases (including
known benchmarks)
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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A model is a representation of knowledge 

– Rules, physical analogs, algebraic equations of physical laws 

• 
A system is a bounded region comprising known elements 

that each interact in understandable ways 

• 
Applied numerical modeling has joined empirical 

experimentation and analytical methods for solving 

problems of mathematical physics 

• 
The types of systems of interest in this course include: 

• 
Models of physical systems 

– 
Mechanical, electrical, thermal, structural, hydraulic, etc. 

– Combinations of different physical systems (mixed systems) 

• 
Models of material, energy, and information flow for 
engineering decisions
– 
Production systems 
– Economics 

– Scheduling 
– Inventory, and so on, and so on,…
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Simulations are solutions of equations that are functions of time 

• 
For continuous systems, we develop (and solve) differential 

• 
equations Examples: 

– Vehicle dynamics – Thermofluid interactions – Industrial processes – Biological processes – Climate change, and so on, and so on,… 

• 
Often the equations can not be solved in closedform 

• 
Sometimes simulations are based on empirical understanding of timevarying behaviour that is not expressed as differential equations (correlations, discrete events, etc.). These are valuable for systems that are not characterised well by differential equations. 

© MG Lipsett, 2011 _{5} 
ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems 
Interesting 

Data from 

Understanding 
problem 
the problem 
of the problem 


•Defining the system 

•Uncertainty 

Modeling the 
•Sensitivity 

system 
•Parameter identification 


•Statistical analysis 

•Geometry and mesh/network 

Computer 
•Governing equations & analysis 

•Numerical approximation 

simulation & 
•Algorithms for solving 
postprocessing
•Visualisation of results
•Comparison to known results
•Benchmark cases
•Experiments
(Adapted from A. Quarteroni, “Mathematical Models in Science and Engineering, Notices of the American Mathematical Society Jan 2009)
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© MG Lipsett, 2011
ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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• 
Why do engineers need to learn about modeling and 

simulation? 

• 
Most engineering problems are too complicated or complex 

to solve analytically 

• 
Engineers rely on numerical modeling and simulation to 

analyse and design systems that have timevarying aspects 

• 
Engineering managers use models of technologies and 

business processes for decision making 

• 
You may want do develop models to solve a technical or 

business problem, by designing a solution and modeling 

how you expect it to perform 

• 
You may need to interpret the results of models created by 

others 

© MG Lipsett, 2011 
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems 
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• 
Understanding concepts of formulating mathematical models 
based on physics (and other rules of interaction) between the 

elements of a system 

• 
Formulating governing equations and choosing solution 
methods for different types of analyses of physical systems 

• 
Understanding advantages and limitations of numerical 
solution methods 

• 
Understanding simple models for financial decisions and 
technological systems that have eventbased dynamics 

• 
Using modeling and simulation for design 
• 
Presenting and interpreting analysis and simulation results 
• 
Analysing engineering systems and processes using general 
purpose programs: MATLAB ^{®} and SIMULINK ^{®}
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
• 
Lecture Room: 
ETLE 2001 
• 
Time Slots: 
Lectures: Wednesdays 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm 
• 
Instructor: 
Laboratories: Thursdays 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm in ETLE 2005 (required for ENGM 541 only) MG Lipsett (michael.lipsett@ualberta.ca) 
• 
Office: 
Room 58J, Mechanical Engineering Building 
• 
Office Hours: 
(5th Floor West) Wednesdays 1:00–3:00 pm (other times by appointment) 
• 
TA: 
Masoud Mashkournia 
• 
Course Text: 
Modeling and Analysis of Dynamic Systems, by R. Esfandiari & B. Lu (CRC Press) 
• 
EClass & Course Web Site: 
http://www.ualberta.ca/~mlipsett/ENGM541/ENGM541.htm 



 FAQ and announcements
 Worked examples and sample test questions
CHECK ECLASS & THE WEB SITE OFTEN !!
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Assignments: 25% 
Will be due in class and cannot be accepted after solutions are posted 

• 
ENGM 541 Labs: 5% 
• 
ENGM 541 Project: 15% (ENGM 670 & MECE 758: 20%) 
Individual, criteria to be announced, due April 6 2011 (before the exam) 

• 
Midterm Examination: 20% 
Wednesday March 2, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:00 pm in ETLE 2001 

• 
Final Examination: 30% 
Wednesday April 13, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:30 pm in ETLE 2001 

• 
Examinations will be open book & open notes 
• 
Calculators are allowed but communication features must be 
turned off (no computers)
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Lectures will be the same for ENGM 541, ENGM 758, and 

ENGM 670 

• 
But there are additional requirements for grad students: 

• 
Supplementary readings 

– MECE 758: more on physical systems – ENGM 670 more on technological systems 

• 
More assignment problems 

• 
Additional scope for the individual project 

• 
Different exam questions 

© MG Lipsett, 2011 
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems 
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• 
Assignments: 25% 
Will be due in class and cannot be accepted after solutions are posted 

• 
Lab attendance is not required; but you are responsible for 
being able to do the Matlab coding covered in the labs 

• 
Project: 20% 
Individual, criteria to be announced, due April 6 2011 (before the exam) 

• 
Midterm Examination: 25% 
Wednesday March 2, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:00 pm in ETLE 2001 

• 
Final Examination: 30% 
Wednesday April 13, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:30 pm in ETLE 2001 

• 
Examinations will be open book & open notes 
• 
Calculators are allowed but communication features must be 
turned off (no computers)
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
– Do the homework to master model building
– Try the examples in MATLAB
– Check EClass and the web site often
• FAQ, worked examples, sample tests…
– Ask questions! (but think first…)
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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– Reliability of complex systems (anomalies, machinery diagnostics) – Robotics and automation (excavation, remote embedded sensing)
– More sustainable processes for oilsands bitumen production and reclamation
•
Industrial Experience
– Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (R&D in robotic inspection, hazardous waste site remediation, reliability)
– Syncrude Canada Ltd (mining automation & space robotics teleoperation, extraction process R&D, mine maintenance & reliability)
– Seven years in leadership and management roles (Operations, R&D, Projects)
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© MG Lipsett, 2011
ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Types of analysis: 
• 
Two means of modeling physical systems: 
• 
Once a model has been developed, then numerical 
procedures can be used to study system behaviour using
computers
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Consider a beam: 
• 
This is an inherently continuous structure. When we 
analyse this beam for deflections, natural frequencies, etc.,
we can start from one of two approaches.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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The properties of the continuous system are visualised as 
being separate from one another 

• 
The beam is modeled as a linkage mechanism 
• 
We find a set of algebraic equations from which we can 
determine the deflections 

• 
The price we pay is one of approximating the physical 
system at the modeling level.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Alternatively, the beam is modeled by deriving differential 
equations that represent the continuous system 

• 
The solution to the differential equations requires that they 
be approximated by algebraic equations (e.g. finite
difference expressions), for almost all nontrivial cases
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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In either case, we are solving algebraic equations. 

• 
After the modeling is complete, we choose the type of 

solution: 

• 
We want to have a consistent way to set up problems – and 

to solve them. 

© MG Lipsett, 2011 
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems 
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We are looking for steadystate solutions to problems where 

the continuous system has been modeled using lumped 

parameters. 

• 
We are concerned with systems of interconnected 

elements. The elements within the problem have properties elements 

that we must know before we can proceed. 

• 
Elements are connected at nodes. nodes. Here is an example of a 

system network: 

• 
Loops are paths that start at a particular node, pass through 
a number of elements, and return to the original node.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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A system will have both loop and node variables. 
• 
Loop variables describe the path around the loop. 
Examples: 

• 
Node variables describe variables that come together at a 
node. 

Examples: 

• 
Loop and node variables: 
• 
The loop and node variables are related by the constitutive 
relationships of the elements.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
1. State the variables
2. Describe the element
3. Sketch the constitutive relationship.
4. Use an analytic expression for the relationship
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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1. State variables:
2. Describe element:
3. Sketch:
4. Write analytical relationship:
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
1. State variables:
2. Describe element:
3. Sketch:
4. Write analytical relationship:
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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• 
The node laws satisfy the admissibility requirement that the 
node variable is conserved at a node 

• 
The loop laws are similar (but different). Loop variables are 
governed by loop admissibility laws that require the value of
the loop variable at a node to have only one value
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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We use a general approach for system networks using the 

principles of Kirchoff’s Laws. 

• 
Kirchoff’s Laws for electrical circuits use the physical laws 

of conservation of charge (node law) and conservation of 

energy added or taken by a potential field (around loops, 

mesh law), including dissipation. Gain or loss around an 

entire loop has to be zero (because there is no net change 

in the location with respect to the field). 

• 
For other types of physical systems, we construct our 

variable assignments so that we can exploit similar physical 

laws: 

– Conservation of momentum law (D’Alembert’s law for forces) – Conservation of mass law for flows, etc., etc. 

• 
For nonphysical systems, we need similar loop & node 

laws 
ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems 

© MG Lipsett, 2011 
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Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems 
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R 1
C
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
Type 
Node Variable 
Loop Variable 

Mechanical 

Electrical 

Fluid Flow 

Heat Transfer 

© MG Lipsett, 2011 
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems 
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expressed
2. Choose variables so as to satisfy the pertinent admissibility requirement
3. Choose other variable type & write as many equations as necessary to check that admissibility is satisfied.
4. Relate the loop and node variables using the constitutive relationships.
5. Eliminate all but the chosen variables (all of one type) from the equations. Substitute in the equations, and group terms.
6. Nondimensionalise the variables.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
To model this system, we have two possible approaches:
1) Find the forces in the springs (node variables) 2) Find the displacements of the carts (loop variables)
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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2)
Satisfy node admissibility.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
and ensure they satisfy loop admissibility.
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© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
2) Satisfy loop admissibility.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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3) Choose node variables (forces at nodes) and ensure they
satisfy node admissibility.
4) Apply constitutive relationships.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
5) Substitute into node equations.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Are we done yet? Well, not quite.
From the solution for y _{1} , y _{2} , go back to the definition of the non
dimensional variables to solve for the displacement (the
loop variables); then, from their solution, we can find forces
using the constitutive relationships.
These two methods are called Direct Direct Approaches. Approaches
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
• 
The other way of formulating the equations governing 
systems is to use extremum functions. This includes 

energy methods. 

• 
We make up a scalar function from the constitutive 
relationships of all the elements in the system, and search 

for an extreme value of the function (e.g. minimum 

potential energy). 

• 
We go back to our original definition of a constitutive 
relationship to define two quantities:
1. Content U (energy)
2. CoContent U* (coenergy)
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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• 
Area under the curve is the energy U in the element: 
• 
We write p (which is a node variable) as a function of q 
(loop variable) and U becomes a function of q only.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
• 
Similarly to energy, with coenergy U* as a function of p only 
• 
For all sets of state variables satisfying node (loop) 
admissibility, those also satisfying loop (node) admissibility
will render the coenergy (energy) an extreme value.
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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Each problem is an equation, which can be solved by substituting the appropriate words for the letters. Examples:
3F = 1Y (3 Feet = 1 Yard) 4LC = GL (4 Leaf Clover = Good Luck)
• 
8D – 24H = 1W 
• 
C + 6D = NYE 
• 
3P = 6 
• 
Y – S – S – A = W 
• 
HH & MH @ 12 = N or M 
• 
NN = GN 
• 
4J+4Q+4K = All the FC 
• 
N + P + SM = S of C 
• 
S&M&T&W&T&F&S are D of W 
• 
1 + 6Z = 1M 
• 
23Y – 3Y = 2D 
• 
R = R = R 
• 
E – 8 = Z 
• 
1B in the H = 2 in the B 
• 
Y + 2D = T 
Source: A Whack on the Side of the Head, R.von Oech
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670X5, MECE 758X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; LumpedParameter Equilibrium Systems
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