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ENGM 541, ENGM 670--X5X5

ENGM 541, ENGM 670

&& MECE 758--X5X5

MECE 758

Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems

Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems

Winter 2011

Winter 2011

ENGM 541, ENGM 670--X5X5 ENGM 541, ENGM 670 && MECE 758--X5X5 MECE 758 Modeling and Simulation

Lecture 1:

Lecture 1:

Introduction; Course Overview;

Introduction; Course Overview;

Modeling Physical Systems,

Modeling Physical Systems,

Lumped--Parameter

Lumped

Parameter Equilibrium

Equilibrium Systems

Systems

M.G. Lipsett

M.G. Lipsett

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering

University of Alberta

University of Alberta

http://www.ualberta.ca/~mlipsett/ENGM541/ENGM541.htm

ENGM 541, ENGM 670--X5X5 ENGM 541, ENGM 670 && MECE 758--X5X5 MECE 758 Modeling and Simulation
Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Introduction Introduction • Engineering systems often comprise complicated assemblies
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Introduction
Introduction
Engineering systems often comprise complicated assemblies of
components, which can have complex behaviours that are difficult to predict
ENGM 541, ENGM 670--X5X5 ENGM 541, ENGM 670 && MECE 758--X5X5 MECE 758 Modeling and Simulation

Internet Sources: www.coolestgadgets.com; www.nasa.gov; www.microway.com.au; www.pbs.org; www.emercedesbenz.com; www.syncrude.com

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Mathematical Mathematical Analysis Analysis inin Engineering Engineering
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Mathematical
Mathematical Analysis
Analysis inin Engineering
Engineering

Engineering analysis: formulating governing equations that

describe the behaviour of physical and technological

systems, for the purpose of analysis and design

Numerical analysis: solving mathematical equations using

algorithms

Scientific computing: development of reliable numerical

models that can be tested in a range of cases (including

known benchmarks)

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group What isis Modeling? What Modeling?
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
What isis Modeling?
What
Modeling?

A model is a representation of knowledge

– Rules, physical analogs, algebraic equations of physical laws

A system is a bounded region comprising known elements

that each interact in understandable ways

Applied numerical modeling has joined empirical

experimentation and analytical methods for solving

problems of mathematical physics

The types of systems of interest in this course include:

Models of physical systems

Mechanical, electrical, thermal, structural, hydraulic, etc.

– Combinations of different physical systems (mixed systems)

Models of material, energy, and information flow for

engineering decisions

Production systems

– Economics

– Scheduling

– Inventory, and so on, and so on,…

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group What isis Simulation? What Simulation?
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
What isis Simulation?
What
Simulation?

Simulations are solutions of equations that are functions of time

For continuous systems, we develop (and solve) differential

equations Examples:

– Vehicle dynamics – Thermofluid interactions – Industrial processes – Biological processes – Climate change, and so on, and so on,…

Often the equations can not be solved in closed-form

Sometimes simulations are based on empirical understanding of time-varying behaviour that is not expressed as differential equations (correlations, discrete events, etc.). These are valuable for systems that are not characterised well by differential equations.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Scientific Computing at aa Glance Scientific Computing at Glance
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Scientific Computing at aa Glance
Scientific Computing at
Glance

Interesting

Interesting Data from Understanding

Data from

Interesting Data from Understanding

Understanding

problem

the problem

of the problem

 
•Defining the system

•Defining the system

•Uncertainty

 

Modeling the

•Sensitivity

system

 

•Parameter identification

•Statistical analysis

•Statistical analysis

•Geometry and mesh/network

Computer

 

•Governing equations & analysis

•Numerical approximation

 

simulation &

•Algorithms for solving

post-processing

•Visualisation of results

Validation / Verification
Validation /
Verification

•Comparison to known results

•Benchmark cases

•Experiments

(Adapted from A. Quarteroni, “Mathematical Models in Science and Engineering, Notices of the American Mathematical Society Jan 2009)

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© MG Lipsett, 2011

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Engineering Analysis for Design at Engineering Analysis for Design
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Engineering Analysis for Design at
Engineering Analysis for Design at aa Glance
Glance
Problem
definition
Performance
specifications
Decision
Possible
Assessment of
solution
Performance
of proposed solution
Design
Modeling to predict
how a design will perform
Model of
is key to a successful
System behaviour
solution
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems
Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems
Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group ENGM 541 Course Introduction ENGM 541 Course Introduction
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
ENGM 541 Course Introduction
ENGM 541 Course Introduction

Why do engineers need to learn about modeling and

simulation?

Most engineering problems are too complicated or complex

to solve analytically

Engineers rely on numerical modeling and simulation to

analyse and design systems that have time-varying aspects

Engineering managers use models of technologies and

business processes for decision making

You may want do develop models to solve a technical or

business problem, by designing a solution and modeling

how you expect it to perform

You may need to interpret the results of models created by

others

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group General Course Outline General Course Outline
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
General Course Outline
General Course Outline

Understanding concepts of formulating mathematical models

based on physics (and other rules of interaction) between the

elements of a system

Formulating governing equations and choosing solution

methods for different types of analyses of physical systems

Understanding advantages and limitations of numerical

solution methods

Understanding simple models for financial decisions and

technological systems that have event-based dynamics

Using modeling and simulation for design

Presenting and interpreting analysis and simulation results

Analysing engineering systems and processes using general

purpose programs: MATLAB ® and SIMULINK ®

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group ENGM 541 Course Overview (1) ENGM 541 Course Overview
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
ENGM 541 Course Overview (1)
ENGM 541 Course Overview (1)

Lecture Room:

ETLE 2-001

Time Slots:

Lectures: Wednesdays 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm

Instructor:

Laboratories: Thursdays 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm in ETLE 2-005 (required for ENGM 541 only) MG Lipsett (michael.lipsett@ualberta.ca)

Office:

Room 5-8J, Mechanical Engineering Building

Office Hours:

(5th Floor West) Wednesdays 1:00–3:00 pm (other times by appointment)

TA:

Masoud Mashkournia

Course Text:

Modeling and Analysis of Dynamic Systems, by R. Esfandiari & B. Lu (CRC Press)

E-Class & Course Web Site:

http://www.ualberta.ca/~mlipsett/ENGM541/ENGM541.htm

 
  • - Lecture slides

  • - Assignments

  • - FAQ and announcements

  • - Worked examples and sample test questions

CHECK ECLASS & THE WEB SITE OFTEN !!

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group ENGM 541 Course Overview (2) ENGM 541 Course Overview
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
ENGM 541 Course Overview (2)
ENGM 541 Course Overview (2)
Marks:
Marks:

Assignments: 25%

Will be due in class and cannot be accepted after solutions are posted

ENGM 541 Labs: 5%

ENGM 541 Project: 15% (ENGM 670 & MECE 758: 20%)

Individual, criteria to be announced, due April 6 2011 (before the exam)

Midterm Examination: 20%

Wednesday March 2, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:00 pm in ETLE 2-001

Final Examination: 30%

Wednesday April 13, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:30 pm in ETLE 2-001

Examinations will be open book & open notes

Calculators are allowed but communication features must be

turned off (no computers)

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group ENGM 670 && MECE 758 Course Outline ENGM 670
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
ENGM 670 && MECE 758 Course Outline
ENGM 670
MECE 758 Course Outline

Lectures will be the same for ENGM 541, ENGM 758, and

ENGM 670

But there are additional requirements for grad students:

Supplementary readings

– MECE 758: more on physical systems – ENGM 670 more on technological systems

More assignment problems

Additional scope for the individual project

Different exam questions

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group ENGM ENGM 670 670 && MECE MECE 758 758
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
ENGM
ENGM 670
670 && MECE
MECE 758
758 Course
Course Overview
Overview (2)
(2)
Marks:
Marks:

Assignments: 25%

Will be due in class and cannot be accepted after solutions are posted

Lab attendance is not required; but you are responsible for

being able to do the Matlab coding covered in the labs

Project: 20%

Individual, criteria to be announced, due April 6 2011 (before the exam)

Midterm Examination: 25%

Wednesday March 2, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:00 pm in ETLE 2-001

Final Examination: 30%

Wednesday April 13, 2011, 5:00 pm – 7:30 pm in ETLE 2-001

Examinations will be open book & open notes

Calculators are allowed but communication features must be

turned off (no computers)

© MG Lipsett, 2011

13

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group General General Course Course Success Success Factors Factors •
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
General
General Course
Course Success
Success Factors
Factors
• Keys to success:

– Do the homework to master model building

– Try the examples in MATLAB

– Check E-Class and the web site often

• FAQ, worked examples, sample tests…

– Ask questions! (but think first…)

• This is a demanding course – but you will gain a

valuable approach to analysis and design

• We have to “unlearn” some things to do general

systems analysis correctly

We will also learn by doing

I’ll do my best to be interesting

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group ENGM 541 Course Overview (4) ENGM 541 Course Overview
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
ENGM 541 Course Overview (4)
ENGM 541 Course Overview (4)
University policy: suspected cheating or plagiarism will be
reported and investigated
Professional ethics and integrity
Do the right thing.
It will gratify some people
and astonish the rest. -Mark Twain
© MG Lipsett, 2011
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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems
Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems
Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Your Instructor: MGMG Lipsett Your Instructor: Lipsett • Professional
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Your Instructor: MGMG Lipsett
Your Instructor:
Lipsett
Professional Engineer since 1986
Research

– Reliability of complex systems (anomalies, machinery diagnostics) – Robotics and automation (excavation, remote embedded sensing)

– More sustainable processes for oilsands bitumen production and reclamation

Industrial Experience

– Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (R&D in robotic inspection, hazardous waste site remediation, reliability)

– Syncrude Canada Ltd (mining automation & space robotics teleoperation, extraction process R&D, mine maintenance & reliability)

– Seven years in leadership and management roles (Operations, R&D, Projects)

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© MG Lipsett, 2011

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Engineering Analysis Engineering Analysis
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Engineering Analysis
Engineering Analysis

Types of analysis:

Two means of modeling physical systems:

Once a model has been developed, then numerical

procedures can be used to study system behaviour using

computers

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Modeling Physical Systems Modeling Physical Systems
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Modeling Physical Systems
Modeling Physical Systems

Consider a beam:

This is an inherently continuous structure. When we

analyse this beam for deflections, natural frequencies, etc.,

we can start from one of two approaches.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Lumped Lumped--Parameter Parameter Model Model
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Lumped
Lumped--Parameter
Parameter Model
Model

The properties of the continuous system are visualised as

being separate from one another

The beam is modeled as a linkage mechanism

We find a set of algebraic equations from which we can

determine the deflections

The price we pay is one of approximating the physical

system at the modeling level.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Continuous Model Continuous Model
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Continuous Model
Continuous Model

Alternatively, the beam is modeled by deriving differential

equations that represent the continuous system

The solution to the differential equations requires that they

be approximated by algebraic equations (e.g. finite

difference expressions), for almost all non-trivial cases

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Solving Algebraic Equations of the Model Solving Algebraic Equations
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Solving Algebraic Equations of the Model
Solving Algebraic Equations of the Model

In either case, we are solving algebraic equations.

After the modeling is complete, we choose the type of

solution:

We want to have a consistent way to set up problems – and

to solve them.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Equilibrium Problems for Lumped Equilibrium Problems for Lumped--Parameter Parameter
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Equilibrium Problems for Lumped
Equilibrium Problems for Lumped--Parameter
Parameter Systems
Systems

We are looking for steady-state solutions to problems where

the continuous system has been modeled using lumped

parameters.

We are concerned with systems of interconnected

elements. The elements within the problem have properties

elements

that we must know before we can proceed.

Elements are connected at nodes.

nodes. Here is an example of a

system network:

Loops are paths that start at a particular node, pass through

a number of elements, and return to the original node.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Loop and Node Variables Loop and Node Variables
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Loop and Node Variables
Loop and Node Variables

A system will have both loop and node variables.

Loop variables describe the path around the loop.

Examples:

Node variables describe variables that come together at a

node.

Examples:

Loop and node variables:

The loop and node variables are related by the constitutive

relationships of the elements.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Formulating Constitutive Relationships Formulating Constitutive Relationships
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Formulating Constitutive Relationships
Formulating Constitutive Relationships
  • 1. State the variables

  • 2. Describe the element

  • 3. Sketch the constitutive relationship.

  • 4. Use an analytic expression for the relationship

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Constitutive Relationship Example #1#1 Constitutive Relationship Example
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Constitutive Relationship Example #1#1
Constitutive Relationship Example
  • 1. State variables:

  • 2. Describe element:

  • 3. Sketch:

  • 4. Write analytical relationship:

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Constitutive Relationship Example #2#2 Constitutive Relationship Example
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Constitutive Relationship Example #2#2
Constitutive Relationship Example
  • 1. State variables:

  • 2. Describe element:

  • 3. Sketch:

  • 4. Write analytical relationship:

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Admissibility Laws Admissibility Laws
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Admissibility Laws
Admissibility Laws

The node laws satisfy the admissibility requirement that the

node variable is conserved at a node

The loop laws are similar (but different). Loop variables are

governed by loop admissibility laws that require the value of

the loop variable at a node to have only one value

© MG Lipsett, 2011

27

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Generalising Generalising Kirchoff’s Kirchoff’s Law Law
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Generalising
Generalising Kirchoff’s
Kirchoff’s Law
Law

We use a general approach for system networks using the

principles of Kirchoff’s Laws.

 

Kirchoff’s Laws for electrical circuits use the physical laws

of conservation of charge (node law) and conservation of

energy added or taken by a potential field (around loops,

mesh law), including dissipation. Gain or loss around an

entire loop has to be zero (because there is no net change

in the location with respect to the field).

For other types of physical systems, we construct our

variable assignments so that we can exploit similar physical

laws:

– Conservation of momentum law (D’Alembert’s law for forces) – Conservation of mass law for flows, etc., etc.

For non-physical systems, we need similar loop & node

laws

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems

© MG Lipsett, 2011

28

Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Example: Lumped Example: Lumped--Parameter Parameter Electrical Electrical Network Network
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Example: Lumped
Example: Lumped--Parameter
Parameter Electrical
Electrical Network
Network

R 1

R 2 L
R 2
L

C

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Some Equilibrium Element Types Some Equilibrium Element Types
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Some Equilibrium Element Types
Some Equilibrium Element Types
 

Type

Node Variable

Loop Variable

 

Mechanical

   

Electrical

   

Fluid Flow

   

Heat Transfer

   

© MG Lipsett, 2011

30

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group General Procedure for Setting UpUp AA Problem General Procedure
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
General Procedure for Setting UpUp AA Problem
General Procedure for Setting
Problem
1.
Choose the variable in which you want your final equations

expressed

  • 2. Choose variables so as to satisfy the pertinent admissibility requirement

  • 3. Choose other variable type & write as many equations as necessary to check that admissibility is satisfied.

  • 4. Relate the loop and node variables using the constitutive relationships.

  • 5. Eliminate all but the chosen variables (all of one type) from the equations. Substitute in the equations, and group terms.

  • 6. Non-dimensionalise the variables.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Example: Lumped Example: Lumped--Parameter Parameter Mechanical Mechanical System System
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Example: Lumped
Example: Lumped--Parameter
Parameter Mechanical
Mechanical System
System
K/6
K/6
2P
P
K/3
K/2

To model this system, we have two possible approaches:

1) Find the forces in the springs (node variables) 2) Find the displacements of the carts (loop variables)

© MG Lipsett, 2011

32

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 1: Find the Forces inin the Springs Case
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 1: Find the Forces inin the Springs
Case 1: Find the Forces
the Springs
1) Choose a set of node variables (forces at nodes).
Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 1: Find the Forces inin the Springs Case

2)

Satisfy node admissibility.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 1: Find the Forces inin the Springs Case

© MG Lipsett, 2011

33

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 1: Forces inin Springs (2) Case 1: Forces
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 1: Forces inin Springs (2)
Case 1: Forces
Springs (2)
3) Choose loop variables (displacements across elements)

and ensure they satisfy loop admissibility.

K/6 K/6 2P P K/3 K/2 © MG Lipsett, 2011 34 ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE
K/6
K/6
2P
P
K/3
K/2
© MG Lipsett, 2011
34
ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems
Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems
Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 1: Forces Case 1: Forces inin Springs (3)
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 1: Forces
Case 1: Forces inin Springs (3)
Springs (3)
4) Apply constitutive relationships. For linear spring element,
this will be:
f i = k i δ i
node variable
loop variable

© MG Lipsett, 2011

35

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 1: Forces inin Springs (4) Case 1: Forces
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 1: Forces inin Springs (4)
Case 1: Forces
Springs (4)
5) Substitute into the loop equations.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

36

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 1: Forces inin Springs (5) Case 1: Forces
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 1: Forces inin Springs (5)
Case 1: Forces
Springs (5)
6) Try to express in non-dimensional form.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

37

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 2: Find the Displacements inin the Nodes Case
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 2: Find the Displacements inin the Nodes
Case 2: Find the Displacements
the Nodes
1) Choose a set of loop variables.
K/6 K/6 2P P K/3 K/2
K/6
K/6
2P
P
K/3
K/2

2) Satisfy loop admissibility.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

38

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (2) Case 2: Displacement
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (2)
Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (2)

3) Choose node variables (forces at nodes) and ensure they

satisfy node admissibility.

4) Apply constitutive relationships.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

39

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (3) Case 2: Displacement
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (3)
Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (3)

5) Substitute into node equations.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

40

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (4) Case 2: Displacement
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (4)
Case 2: Displacement of Nodes (4)

Are we done yet? Well, not quite.

From the solution for y 1 , y 2 , go back to the definition of the non-

dimensional variables to solve for the displacement (the

loop variables); then, from their solution, we can find forces

using the constitutive relationships.

These two methods are called Direct Direct Approaches. Approaches

© MG Lipsett, 2011

41

ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Extremum Functions Extremum Functions
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Extremum Functions
Extremum Functions

The other way of formulating the equations governing

systems is to use extremum functions. This includes

energy methods.

We make up a scalar function from the constitutive

relationships of all the elements in the system, and search

for an extreme value of the function (e.g. minimum

potential energy).

We go back to our original definition of a constitutive

relationship to define two quantities:

  • 1. Content U (energy)

  • 2. Co-Content U* (co-energy)

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Energy Energy
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Energy
Energy
Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Energy Energy • Area under the curve is the

Area under the curve is the energy U in the element:

We write p (which is a node variable) as a function of q

(loop variable) and U becomes a function of q only.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Co- Co-Energy Energy
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Co-
Co-Energy
Energy
Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Energy Energy • Area under the curve is the

Similarly to energy, with co-energy U* as a function of p only

For all sets of state variables satisfying node (loop)

admissibility, those also satisfying loop (node) admissibility

will render the co-energy (energy) an extreme value.

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems

Department of Mechanical Engineering Engineering Management Group Break Time: Flexibility of Thinking Problems Break Time: Flexibility
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Management Group
Break Time: Flexibility of Thinking Problems
Break Time: Flexibility of Thinking Problems

Each problem is an equation, which can be solved by substituting the appropriate words for the letters. Examples:

3F = 1Y (3 Feet = 1 Yard) 4LC = GL (4 Leaf Clover = Good Luck)

8D – 24H = 1W

C + 6D = NYE

3P = 6

Y – S – S – A = W

HH & MH @ 12 = N or M

NN = GN

4J+4Q+4K = All the FC

N + P + SM = S of C

S&M&T&W&T&F&S are D of W

1 + 6Z = 1M

23Y – 3Y = 2D

R = R = R

E – 8 = Z

1B in the H = 2 in the B

Y + 2D = T

Source: A Whack on the Side of the Head, R.von Oech

© MG Lipsett, 2011

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ENGM 541, ENGM 670-X5, MECE 758-X5 – Modeling and Simulation of Engineering Systems Lecture 1: Course Introduction; Lumped-Parameter Equilibrium Systems