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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP-30, NO.

6 , NOVEMBER 1982

1237

Radiation from Aperture Antennas Radiating the in Presence of a Dielectric Sphere M. S . NARASIMHAN, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE AND
S . RAVISHANKAR, STUDENT MEMBER, IEEE
Absrract-A more systematic and rigorous procedure for analyzing the radiation patterns of an open-ended Waveguide radiating in the presence of a dielectric sphere is presented. The analysisis based on the formula developed earlier [5] for radial translation of the sphericalvectorwavefunctions. An experimentalprogram is described which confirms the validity of the analysis presented.

tx

Fig. 1. Coordinate system for analysis of radiation patterns.

I. INTRODUCTION The radiation characteristics of a dielectric sphere mounted infront of anopen-endeddominantmode waveguidehave received considerable attention inthe past [ 1 ] -[ 31. This study is ofsignificance in multiple- or adaptive-beam parabolic antennas, dielectric in heating, and in beam switching using dielectric lenses. This problem is also of significance in studies on interaction of microwaves with biological objects modeled asdielectricspheres [4]. However, no systematicapproach was presented in the past t o analyze radiation characteristics of aperture antennas, radiating in the presence of a dielectric sphere. The techniques presented in the past involved approximating the aperture antenna to be a combination of electric and magnetic Hertzian dipoles [ 1I , [ 21 o r taking recourse t o "ray tracing" procedure whenever the radiating aperture exhibited rotational symmetry[3 J . Inthiscommunication,suchapproximationsareavoided and the radiating near fields of the open-ended waveguide are accurately expressed in terms of spherical vector wave functions. Subsequently making use of radial translation of spherical vector wave functions [ 51, [6] the scattering problem is analyzedmorerigorously. A systematicexperimental program was also carried out t o establish every good agreement betweenthetheoretically derived and experimentally measof ured results. The analysis presented holds good for any type aperture antenna.

n(n 1) cos 1Voremn= - , ( k ~ ' p , ~e') ~ (COS m@'$ kR ' Sin

1 +7

kR

kR' sin 0' aR'

- [R'Z,(kR')]PHm(COS e')

Sin

m@'$,

cos

Inorder to determine ain and bin accurately for aprescribed diameter of the open-ended cylindrical guide excited in the transverse electric (TE, 1) mode, the near fields of the guide are estimated accurately over a hemisphere of radius Ro where Ro-<-OO' using Silver's aperture integration formula [7]. The E , H thus determined was subsequently used to calculate ain, bin appearing in (1) and (2). Analysis of the fields scattered by the dielectric sphere could be considerably simplified withoutintroducinganyapproximationforthe incident field if origin ofthecoordinatesystemforexpressing ' the incident field could be shifted from 0 t o 0. This is made possible by expressing the spherical vector wave function appearingin (1) and (2) about adisplacedorigin 0 (Fig. 1) [SI, [ 6 ] w i t h i n d e x m = 1 , a s

Zi(R, e , @ )=

(Ainzoemn

+ BinNOemn)

11. ANALYSIS The geometry of the open-endedwaveguide radiating in the presence of the sphereis shown in Fig. 1. Itis ensured that the (02') the cylindrof center of the sphereis located on the axis ical waveguide. vector wave functionandarefunctions If the center of the aperture (of the open-endedwaveguide) andthe spherical of unprimed coordinates (origin 0) R , 8 , @. The expressions is is located at O ' , the fieldradiated at any arbitrary point for coefficients A U nand Bun are as follows: given by I81

E,.(R', e',

x
n

(ainMofemn bi,Noremn)

(1) (2)

Z i ( ~ 'e', 4') =+Yo ,


where

x
n

(ai,Noremn

+ binZOfemn)

- [n(n + 1) + u(u + 1)

a(m, n, -m, u , p )

Manuscript received July 8, 1981; revised November 30, 1981. This work mas supported by DRDO, Governmentof India. Theauthorsarewith the ElectromagneticsandAntennasGroup, Institute of Technology, Madras Centre for Systems and Devices, Indian 600 036, India.

0018-926X/82/1100-1237$00.75 0 1982 IEEE

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IEEE TF&TSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP-30, NO. 6 , NOVEMBER 1982

where the coefficients ~ ( m n, -m, U, p ) = ap are obtained , from therecursion relation [ 5 ]

ap- 3 u p - 4 - (ap-2 + apfor

- 4m2)c7p-2 + apup= o
- (n - v)2]

(9) (10)

p=n+v,n+v-2-ln-ul and

aP = 1)

[(n

+ D + 1)* -p2]

[p2

4p2 - 1

(1

The startingvalues for therecursion relation are


an+v =

(2n - 1)!!(2v- l)!! (2n

(n + u)!

+ 2v - I)!!

(n - m)!(v

+ m)
un+u

(12)

and
un+v-2 =

(2n+2v-3)[nu-m2(2n (2n - 1)(2u - l)(n

+u )

2 ~ -l)]

(13)

where

(2q - l)! ! = (2q

- 1)(2q - 3) ..-3.1.

(14)

Once the incident field is expressed in terms of spherical which is also the modes with respect to the displaced origin 0, center of the dielectricsphere, the fieldsscattered by the sphere could bedescribedfollowinga procedure outlined in [ 81, [ 91 and applying the boundary conditions

[Ete + Ese 1 r=ro = [ E d e 1 r=ro

(1 5) (16) 7)(1
Fig. 2 .

(b)

[Ei@+ Esol r=ro = [Ed@] r=ro [Hie + HSe 1r=rO = [&e

1r=ro

(a)Open-endedwaveguidepositioned in front of dielectric sphere. @) Disassembled view of open-ended waveguide and dielectric sphere.
l a

vector mode function (1) and ( 2 ) integrating over 9 and applying the orthogonality relations for associated Legendre the expressions the for functions [ 8 ] we obtain following four unknowns for each value of n :

and kR aR l a DHN2 =- - [ R h n 2 ( k R ) ] . kR aR Having determined ~ d , ,a , b d n , and b,, the field at any , of the incident point in space may be obtained by addition adn = [ ~ J ~ ~ k ~ 0 ) ~ , 2 ( ~ 0 ) - i ~ ~ ~ 0 ) D ~ ~ 2 ( andscattered , fields. In the analysis presentedabove it was (19) ~ o ) l A i presumed that the presence of the dielectric sphere does not W1 significantly affect the aperture distribution in the waveguide. The assumptionwas experimentally verified as follows. The input voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) of the YO Qsn = Ain ( 2 0 ) open-ended circular cylindrical waveguide without the dielecW1 tric sphere was measured over a band (9.5 to 9.9 GHz). The input VSWR of the open-ended waveguide was also measured in the presence of the dielectric sphere over the same band. Both the VSWR patterns matched satisfactorily whichjustifies the assumption made.

[Hie + HsgI r=ro = [HdeI r=ro* (1 8) Substituting for Ei, Hi, E,, H,, E d , Hd in terms of spherical

with

DJN=-

- [Rj,(kR)]

111. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY A dielectricspherewithadiameter of 8.0 cm was con= structed with Teflon ( ~ d 2.08). An open-ended waveguide with an aperture diameter of 2.3 cm was also constructed. The dielectricspherewaspositionedinfront of the open-ended guide with its axis coinciding with the axis of the open-ended is waveguide such that the center of the sphere (0) located at the a distance of 5.6 cm from O, center of the radiating aperture. sphere The was supported expanded by polystyrene whose relative permittivity was 1.008. Photographs of the waveguide sphere assembly employed in our experimental setup are shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). The waveguide sphere

where

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. AP-30, NO. 6 ,NOVEIMBER 1982
0.
E-PLANE

1239

-4-

-8-

1
R

9.81

= 92cms.

m
U

-12-

-Calculated
8 0.

5 -16-

z
W

Measurmd

g n
2 -20W

% J
a -24

-28

- 36
-36
I

-32

t
I

3 !

IO

20 30 40 50 POLAR ANGLE I N DEGREES

(a)

60

'

1 0 20 30 40 POLAR ANGLE I N DEGREES

50
C

(b)
240

E -PLANE

9.87GHz

R = 92cms.

R = S2cms.

-Calculated
m a Measured

I -Calculated

t
m
W W

I2O80-

a
0

; 40I

z m
4 W

0'

POLAR ANGLE IN OEG.

a
W

30
40

50

F
l -

>
a
I

POLAR ANGLE I N DEGREES


-20-

a
2

-80-

-eo

-120-

-120

-160-

-160

-200

-200 -

- 240 -%Ot
THEO. 303 EA9346

Fig. 3.

(4 (a) H-plane radiation pattern (amplitude) of waveguide radiating in front of sphere. (b) E-plane radiation pattern (amplitude) of waveguide radiating in front of sphere. (c) H-plane phase pattern of waveguide radiating in front of sphere. (d) E-plane phase pattern of waveguide radiating in front of sphere.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS

ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. APSO, NO. 6 , NOVEMBER 1982 designusingdielectric lenses," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.. vol. MTT-23,pp.1058-1061. Dec. 1975. J. H . Bruning and Y. T. Lo, "Multiple scattering by spheres." Antenna University Lab, of Illinois, Urbana, Tech. Rep. 69-5. 1969. , "Multiple scattering of EM waves by spheres-Pan IMultipoleexpansion andray opticalsolution." IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-19, pp. 378-390, May 1971. S. Silver, Microwave Antenna Theory and Design. New York: Dover, 1965. ch. 6. J . A. Sratton. Electromagnetic Theory. New York: McCraw-Hill Book Co.. 1941. ch. 7. R . F. Harrington, Time Harmonic EM Fields. New York: McCraw-Hill,1961.

assembly was mountedonanazimuthpositionerinside an anechoic chamber' such that the axis of rotation of the posiwere tioner passed through 0. The E- and H-plane patterns measured at a frequency of 9.87 GHz. The distance of separation between transmitter (source the horn antenna) and receiver (test) antenna (viz.waveguideradiatingin the presence of the sphere) was 92 cm. The measured E- and H-plane amplitude and phase patterns are shown in Figs. 3(a),3(b), 3(c), 3(d) forR = 92 cm. The calculated results show satisfactory agreement with the measured results. Whenever disagreement is found in the E-plane, the error could be attributed to the fact that while calculating the incidentfield, the edge diffraction was not in the taken account, into which is somewhat significant E-plane. IV. CONCLUSION A more systematic approach to the problem of analysis of radiation patterns of open-ended guides radiating in the presence of a dielectric sphere has been presented. The validity of the analysis has been supported by measured results based on asystematicexperimentalstudy.The analysis could beemployed any for type of aperture antenna including flared horns. The study reported here is expected to be of value in a number of applications. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are thankful to P. Ramanujam, V. Prithviraj, and K. R. Govind of our group for their interest in our work and their assistance in the experimental work. NOMENCLATURE Spherical polar coordinates of a point in space. 8, Unit vectors associated with (R, 4). Associated legendre polynomial of first kind. Spherical hankel function. Free space propagation constant. Free space admittance. Incident electric field amplitude coefficients. Electric amplitude field coefficients the for scattered field located outside the sphere. Electric amplitude field coefficients the for fields located inside the sphere. Relative permittivity of the dielectric. REFERENCES
V . B. Mason, "The electromagnetic radiationfromsimplesources inthe presence of a homogeneousdielectricsphere," Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Michigan. AnnArbor, 1972. [2] W. F. Crosswell. J . S . Chatterjee, V . B. Mason, and C. T. Tai. "Radiation from a homogeneous spheremounted on a waveguide aperture.'' IEEE Trans. Antennas Propugat., vol. AP-23. no. 5. pp. 647-656. Sept. 1975. [3] P. S. Neelakantaswamy and D. K . Bannerjee, "Radiation characteristics of a dielectricsphere-loadedcorrugatedpipe," fEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-23, no. 5 , pp. 728-730. Sept. 1975. [4] H . S . Ho, G . J . Hagan. and M. R . Foster,"Microwaveirradiation

[5]

[6]
[7] [8] [9]

A Simplified Model for Interpreting the Doppler Spectrum of Forward-Scatter Radar Signals
ROBERT E.POST, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, AND HOSNY M. IBRAHIM

Absrrucr-An approximate form of Birkemeier's anisotropic scattering function is developed. This Gaussian scattering model is mcan to be used for interpretingthe Doppler spectraof signals taken from a forwardscatterradarsystemequippedwitha Rake receiver. The n from model offers advantagesi extracting the anisotropy coefficient the Doppler spectrum of the received signal.

I. INTRODUCTION
Records of the Doppler frequency of signals received by a Rake forward scatter radar sounding system indicate considerable variability in the shape of the Doppler spectra. Much of this variability is caused by winds in the scattering volume. However, even after the effect of the wind has been taken into account, the half-power width of the Doppler spectrum can fluctuate a great deal. is This effect, which evidence of fluctuations in the azimuthal angle dependence of the scattered signal, has been explained inananisotropicscatteringmodeldevelopedbyBirkemeier e t al. [2]. The anisotropy in the scatteringmodelaccounts diffor the differences in the correlation lengths along the ferent axes. In Birkemeier's model the ratio of the horizontal correlation distance to the vertical correlation distance is defined as the anisotropy coefficient A . This coefficient can be considered a basic parameter characterizing the state the atof mosphere. Efforts to evaluate theanisotropycoefficientfromRake forwardscatterradar signals using Birkemeier's modelare complicated by the fact that data, in the form power versus of Doppler frequency or power versus cross-path position, must be fit to a family of theoretical curves using the samevariables, butwith A as aparameter [ 5 ] . Thesimplifiedanisotropic in t i communication hs permits scattering model described simple, direct evaluationof the anisotropy coefficient.
I . DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL I

z:( k d ) k

adn, bdn

[I]

The anisotropic scattering model developed by Birkemeier is based on ascatteringtheory developed byTatarski [4].

1 The anechoicchamber was built out of ECCOSORB-CVH-NRL Manuscript received October 30,1981; revised March 1,1982. absorbers and was used previously to measure the patterns of a number The authors are with theDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Iowa of feed horns at X-band with very successful and repeatable measured State University, Ames, IA 50011. results.

0018-926X/82/1100-1240$00.75 1982 IEEE 0