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ELECTRICAL DRIVES:

An Application of Power Electronics


CONTENTS
Power Electronic Systems
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Power Electronic Converters in Electrical Drives
:: DC and AC Drives
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
:: Current controlled Converters
:: Modeling of Power Converters
:: Scalar control of IM
Power Electronic Systems
What is Power Electronics ?
A field of Electrical Engineering that deals with the application of
power semiconductor devices for the control and conversion of
electric power
Power Electronics
Converters
Load
Controller
Output
- AC
- DC
Input
Source
- AC
- DC
- unregulated
Reference
POWER ELECTRONIC
CONVERTERS the
heart of power a power
electronics system
sensors
Power Electronic Systems
Why Power Electronics ?
Power semiconductor devices Power switches
ON or OFF
+ v
sw

= 0
i
sw

+ v
sw


i
sw
= 0
P
loss
= v
sw
i
sw
= 0
Losses ideally ZERO !
Power Electronic Systems
Why Power Electronics ?
Power semiconductor devices Power switches


V
ak


+
i
a
G
K
A


V
ak


+
i
a
K
A


V
ak


+
i
a
G
K
A
Power Electronic Systems
Why Power Electronics ?
Power semiconductor devices Power switches
D
S
G
+

V
DS



i
D
G
C
E
+

V
CE



i
c
Power Electronic Systems
Why Power Electronics ?
Passive elements High frequency
transformer
+

V
1



+

V
2



Inductor
+ V
L

i
L

+ V
C

i
C

Power Electronic Systems
Why Power Electronics ?
Power Electronics
Converters
sensors
Load
Controller
Output
- AC
- DC
Input
Source
- AC
- DC
- unregulated
Reference
IDEALLY LOSSLESS !
Power Electronic Systems
Why Power Electronics ?
Other factors:
Improvements in power semiconductors fabrication
Decline cost in power semiconductor
Advancement in semiconductor fabrication
ASICs
FPGA DSPs
Faster and cheaper to implement complex
algorithm
Power Integrated Module (PIM), Intelligent Power
Modules (IPM)
Power Electronic Systems
Some Applications of Power Electronics :
Power rating of < 1 W (portable equipment)
Tens or hundreds Watts (Power supplies for computers /office equipment)
Typically used in systems requiring efficient control and conversion of
electric energy:
Domestic and Commercial Applications
Industrial Applications
Telecommunications
Transportation
Generation, Transmission and Distribution of electrical energy
kW to MW : drives
Hundreds of MW in DC transmission system (HVDC)
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
About 50% of electrical energy used for drives
Can be either used for fixed speed or variable speed
75% - constant speed, 25% variable speed (expanding)
Variable speed drives typically used PEC to supply the motors
AC motors
- IM
- PMSM
DC motors (brushed)
SRM
BLDC
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Classic Electrical Drive for Variable Speed Application :
Bulky
Inefficient
inflexible
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Power
Electronic
Converters
Load
Moto
r
Controller
Reference
POWER IN
feedback
Typical Modern Electric Drive Systems
Power Electronic Converters
Electric Energy
- Unregulated -
Electric Energy
- Regulated -
Electric Motor
Electric
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Example on VSD application
motor pump
valve
Supply
Constant speed
Variable Speed Drives
Power
In
Power loss
Mainly in valve
Power out
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Example on VSD application
Power
In
Power loss
Mainly in valve
Power out
motor pump
valve
Supply
motor
PEC pump
Supply
Constant speed
Variable Speed Drives
Power
In
Power loss
Power out
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Power
In
Power loss
Mainly in valve
Power out
Power
In
Power loss
Power out
motor pump
valve
Supply
motor
PEC pump
Supply
Constant speed
Variable Speed Drives
Example on VSD application
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Electric motor consumes more than half of electrical energy in the US
Fixed speed
Variable speed
HOW ?
Improvements in energy utilization in electric motors give large
impact to the overall energy consumption
Replacing fixed speed drives with variable speed drives
Using the high efficiency motors
Improves the existing power converterbased drive systems
Example on VSD application
DC drives: Electrical drives that use DC motors as the prime mover
Regular maintenance, heavy, expensive, speed limit
AC drives: Electrical drives that use AC motors as the prime mover
Less maintenance, light, less expensive, high speed
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Overview of AC and DC drives
Easy control, decouple control of torque and flux
Coupling between torque and flux variable spatial angle
between rotor and stator flux
Before semiconductor devices were introduced (<1950)
AC motors for fixed speed applications
DC motors for variable speed applications
After semiconductor devices were introduced (1960s)
Variable frequency sources available AC motors in variable
speed applications
Coupling between flux and torque control
Application limited to medium performance applications
fans, blowers, compressors scalar control
High performance applications dominated by DC motors
tractions, elevators, servos, etc
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Overview of AC and DC drives
After vector control drives were introduced (1980s)
AC motors used in high performance applications elevators,
tractions, servos
AC motors favorable than DC motors however control is
complex hence expensive
Cost of microprocessor/semiconductors decreasing predicted
30 years ago AC motors would take over DC motors
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Overview of AC and DC drives
Overview of AC and DC drives
Extracted from Boldea & Nasar
Modern Electrical Drive Systems
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Converters for Motor Drives
(some possible configurations)
DC Drives
AC Drives
DC Source AC Source
AC-DC-DC AC-DC
AC Source
Const.
DC
Variable
DC
AC-DC-AC AC-AC
NCC
FCC
DC Source
DC-AC DC-DC-AC
DC-DC DC-AC-DC
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Converters for Motor Drives
Configurations of Power Electronic Converters depend on:
Sources available
Type of Motors
Drive Performance - applications
- Braking
- Response
- Ratings
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
Available AC source to control DC motor (brushed)
AC-DC-DC
AC-DC
Controlled Rectifier
Single-phase
Three-phase
Uncontrolled Rectifier
Single-phase
Three-phase
DC-DC Switched mode
1-quadrant, 2-quadrant
4-quadrant
Control
Control
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
+

V
o



+

V
o



o
t
= cos
V 2
V
m
o
o
t
=

cos
V 3
V
m , L L
o
Average voltage
over 10ms
Average voltage
over 3.33 ms
50Hz
1-phase
50Hz
3-phase
AC-DC
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44
-400
-200
0
200
400
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44
0
5
10
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44
-500
0
500
0.4 0.405 0.41 0.415 0.42 0.425 0.43 0.435 0.44
0
10
20
30
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
+

V
o



+

V
o



o
t
= cos
V 2
V
m
o
90
o
180
o

t
m
V 2
t

m
V 2
90
o

t
m , L L
V 3
t

m , L L
V 3
o
t
=

cos
V 3
V
m , L L
o
Average voltage
over 10ms
Average voltage
over 3.33 ms
50Hz
1-phase
50Hz
3-phase
180
o

AC-DC
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC
I
a

Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
V
t

3-phase
supply
+

V
t



i
a

- Operation in quadrant 1 and 4 only
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
e
T
3-phase
supply
3-
phase
supply
+

V
t


Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
e
T
F1

F2

R1

R2

+ V
a
-
3-phase
supply
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC
Cascade control structure with armature reversal (4-quadrant):
Speed
controller
Current
Controller
Firing
Circuit
Armature
reversal
i
D

i
D,ref

i
D,ref

i
D,

e
e
ref

+ +
_
_
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC
control
Uncontrolled
rectifier
Switch Mode DC-DC
1-Quadrant
2-Quadrant
4-Quadrant

Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC
control
T1 conducts v
a
= V
dc

Q1 Q2
V
a

I
a

T1
T2
D1
+

V
a

-
D2
i
a

+

V
dc




DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Q1 Q2
V
a

I
a

T1
T2
D1
+

V
a


-
D2
i
a

+

V
dc




D2 conducts v
a
= 0
V
a
E
b
T1 conducts v
a
= V
dc

Quadrant 1 The average voltage is made larger than the back emf
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Q1 Q2
V
a

I
a

T1
T2
D1
+

V
a


-
D2
i
a

+

V
dc




D1 conducts v
a
= V
dc
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Q1 Q2
V
a

I
a

T1
T2
D1
+

V
a


-
D2
i
a

+

V
dc




T2 conducts v
a
= 0
V
a
E
b
D1 conducts v
a
= V
dc

Quadrant 2 The average voltage is made smallerr than the back emf, thus
forcing the current to flow in the reverse direction

DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter
+

v
c
2v
tri

v
c

+
v
A

-
V
dc
0

Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
leg A
leg B
+ V
a

Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+

V
dc



v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
Positive current
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A
leg B
+ V
a

Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+

V
dc



v
a
= -V
dc
when D3 and D4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Positive current
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
v
a
= -V
dc
when D3 and D4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Positive current
v
a
= V
dc
when D1 and D2 are ON
Negative current
leg A
leg B
+ V
a

Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+

V
dc



Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
v
a
= -V
dc
when D3 and D4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Positive current
v
a
= -V
dc
when Q3 and Q4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when D1 and D2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Negative current
leg A
leg B
+ V
a

Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+

V
dc



Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC
v
AB
V
dc
-V
dc
V
dc
0

v
B
v
A
V
dc
0

2v
tri

v
c

v
c
+

_

V
dc
+
v
A

-
+
v
B

-
Bipolar switching scheme output
swings between V
DC
and -V
DC
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC
Unipolar switching scheme output
swings between V
dc
and -V
dc
V
tri

v
c

-v
c

v
c
+

_

V
dc
+
v
A

-
+
v
B

-
-v
c
v
A
V
dc
0

v
B
V
dc
0

v
AB
V
dc
0

Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
AC-DC-DC
Bipolar switching scheme

0.04 0.0405 0.041 0.0415 0.042 0.0425 0.043 0.0435 0.044 0.0445 0.045
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
Unipolar switching scheme

0.04 0.0405 0.041 0.0415 0.042 0.0425 0.043 0.0435 0.044 0.0445 0.045
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
Current ripple in unipolar is smaller

Output frequency in unipolar is effectively doubled

V
dc
V
dc
V
dc
DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
Armature
current
Armature
current
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
AC DRIVES
AC-DC-AC
control
The common PWM technique: CB-SPWM with ZSS
SVPWM
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Control the torque, speed or position
Cascade control structure
Motor
Example of current control in cascade control structure
converter
speed
controller
position
controller

+
e*
1/s
+
+

current
controller
T*
u*
e
u
k
T

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives - Hysteresis-based
i
ref

+


V
dc




i
a

i
ref

v
a

+

V
a


i
err

i
err

q
q
High bandwidth, simple implementation,
insensitive to parameter variations

Variable switching frequency depending on
operating conditions
+
_
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - Hysteresis-based
3-phase
AC Motor
+
+
+
i*
a

i*
b

i*
c

Converter
For isolated neutral load, i
a
+ i
b
+ i
c
= 0
control is not totally independent

Instantaneous error for isolated neutral load can
reach double the band
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - Hysteresis-based
i
d

i
q

i
s

Ah Ah
Ah Ah
For isolated neutral load, i
a
+ i
b
+ i
c
= 0
control is not totally independent

Instantaneous error for isolated neutral load can
reach double the band
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - Hysteresis-based
powergui
Continuous
Universal Bridge 1
g
A
B
C
+
-
To Workspace1
iaref
Subsystem
c1
c2
c3
ina
inb
inc
p1
p2
p3
p4
p5
p6
Sine Wave 2
Sine Wave 1
Sine Wave
Series RLC Branch 3
Series RLC Branch 2
Series RLC Branch 1
Scope
DC Voltage Source
Current Measurement 3
i
+
-
Current Measurement 2
i
+
-
Current Measurement 1
i
+
-
Ah = 0.3 A
Sinusoidal reference current, 30Hz
Vdc = 600V
10O, 50mH load
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - Hysteresis-based
0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
-10
-5
0
5
10
Actual and reference currents
Current error
-0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
x 10
-3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - Hysteresis-based
-10 -5 0 5 10
-10
-5
0
5
10
Actual current locus
0.04 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.05 0.052 0.054 0.056 0.058 0.06
-0.5
0
0.5
0.04 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.05 0.052 0.054 0.056 0.058 0.06
-0.5
0
0.5
0.04 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.05 0.052 0.054 0.056 0.058 0.06
-0.5
0
0.5
0.6A
0.6A
0.6A
Current error
v
tri

V
dc

q
v
c

q
V
dc

Pulse width
modulator
v
c

V
dc

Pulse width
modulator
v
c

i
ref

PI
+

q
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives - PI-based
Motor
+
+
+
i*
a

i*
b

i*
c

Converter
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
Sinusoidal PWM
PI
PI
PI
Interactions between phases only require 2 controllers
Tracking error
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives - PI-based
Interactions between phases only require 2 controllers
Tracking error
Perform the control in synchronous frame
- the current will appear as DC
Perform the 3-phase to 2-phase transformation
- only two controllers (instead of 3) are used
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives - PI-based
Motor
i*
a

i*
b

i*
c

Converter
PWM
+
+
+
PWM
PWM
PI
PI
PI
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - PI-based
Motor
i*
a

i*
b

i*
c

Converter
3-2
3-2
SVM
2-3
PI
PI
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - PI-based
i
d
*

i
q
*

PI
controller
dqabc
abcdq
SVM
or SPWM
VSI

IM
v
a
*
v
b
*
v
c
*
i
d

i
q

+
+


PI
controller
Synch speed
estimator
e
s

e
s

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives - PI-based
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
-4
-2
0
2
4
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
-4
-2
0
2
4
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
0
1
2
3
4
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
0
1
2
3
4
Stationary - i
a

Stationary - i
d

Rotating - i
a
Rotating - i
d

Current controlled converters in AC Drives - PI-based
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
firing
circuit
controlled
rectifier
o
+

V
a



v
c

v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
The relation between v
c
and v
a
is determined by the firing circuit

?
It is desirable to have a linear relation between v
c
and v
a
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Cosine-wave crossing control
V
m

v
s
v
c
0 t 2t
3t 4t
Input voltage
Cosine wave compared with v
c
Results of comparison trigger SCRs

Output voltage

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Cosine-wave crossing control
V
m

v
s
v
c
0 t 2t
3t 4t
o
o
V
s
cos(et) V
s
cos(o) = v
c

|
|
.
|

\
|
= o

s
c 1
v
v
cos
( ) o
t
= cos
V 2
V
m
a
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
=

s
c
1
m
a
v
v
cos cos
V 2
V
s
c m
a
v
v V 2
V
t
=
A linear relation between v
c
and V
a

V
a
is the average voltage over one period of the waveform
- sampled data system

Delays depending on when the control signal changes normally taken
as half of sampling period
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
V
a
is the average voltage over one period of the waveform
- sampled data system

Delays depending on when the control signal changes normally taken
as half of sampling period
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
s
2
T
H
Ke ) s ( G

=
v
c
(s) V
a
(s)
s
m
V
V 2
K
t
=
Single phase, 50Hz
T=10ms
s
m , L L
V
V 3
K
t
=

Three phase, 50Hz
T=3.33ms
Simplified if control bandwidth is reduced to much lower than the
sampling frequency


Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
firing
circuit
current
controller
controlled
rectifier
o
+

V
a



v
c

i
ref

To control the current current-controlled converter
Torque can be controlled
Only operates in Q1 and Q4 (single converter topology)
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
powergui
Continuous
Voltage Measurement4
v
+
-
Voltage Measurement3
v
+
-
Voltage Measurement2
v
+
-
Voltage Measurement1
v
+
-
Voltage Measurement
v
+
-
Universal Bridge
g
A
B
C
+
-
acos
To Workspace2
ir
To Workspace1
ia
To Workspace
v
Synchronized
6-Pulse Generator
alpha_deg
AB
BC
CA
Block
pulses
Step
Signal
Generator
Series RLC Branch
Scope 3
Scope 2
Scope 1
Scope
Saturation PID Controller 1
PID
Mux
Mux
-K-
Current Measurement 1
i
+
-
Current Measurement
i
+
-
Controlled Voltage Source
s
-
+
Constant 1
7
AC Voltage Source 2
AC Voltage Source 1
AC Voltage Source
Input 3-phase, 240V, 50Hz
Closed loop current control
with PI controller
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Input 3-phase, 240V, 50Hz
Closed loop current control
with PI controller
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
-500
0
500
1000
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0
5
10
15
Voltage
Current
0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28
-500
0
500
1000
0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28
0
5
10
15
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
v
c

+

V
a


v
tri

V
dc

q
Switching signals obtained by comparing
control signal with triangular wave
V
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
We want to establish a relation between v
c
and V
a

?
AVERAGE voltage
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
dt q
T
1
d
t ri
T t
t
tri
}
+
=
tri
on
T
t
=
V
dc
0

T
tri

t
on

0
1

=
0
1
q
V
c
> V
tri

V
c
< V
tri

v
c

dc
dT
0
dc
tri
a
dV dt V
T
1
V
t ri
= =
}
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
-V
tri

V
tri

-V
tri

v
c

d
v
c

0.5

For v
c
= -V
tri
d = 0
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
0.5
V
tri

V
tri

v
c

d
v
c

-V
tri

-V
tri

For v
c
= -V
tri
d = 0
For v
c
= 0 d = 0.5
For v
c
= V
tri
d = 1

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
0.5
v
c

d
-V
tri

-V
tri

c
tri
v
V 2
1
5 . 0 d + =
V
tri

V
tri

v
c

For v
c
= -V
tri
d = 0
For v
c
= 0 d = 0.5
For v
c
= V
tri
d = 1
Thus relation between v
c
and V
a
is obtained as:
c
tri
dc
dc a
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
Introducing perturbation in v
c
and V
a
and separating DC and AC components:
c
tri
dc
dc a
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
c
tri
dc
a
v
~
V 2
V
v
~
=
DC:
AC:
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Taking Laplace Transform on the AC, the transfer function is obtained as:
tri
dc
c
a
V 2
V
) s ( v
) s ( v
=
v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
tri
dc
V 2
V
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
2v
tri

v
c

v
c

v
tri

+


V
dc



q
-V
dc

q
V
dc

+ V
AB

v
AB
V
dc
-V
dc
c
tri
dc
AB B A
v
V
V
V V V = =
tri
c
A B
V 2
v
5 . 0 d 1 d = =
c
tri
dc
dc B
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V =
v
B
V
dc
0

tri
c
A
V 2
v
5 . 0 d + =
c
tri
dc
dc A
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
v
A
V
dc
0

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Bipolar switching scheme
tri
dc
c
a
V
V
) s ( v
) s ( v
=
v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
tri
dc
V
V
Bipolar switching scheme
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
+


V
dc



v
c

v
tri

q
a

V
dc

-v
c

v
tri

q
b

Leg a
Leg b
The same average value weve seen for bipolar !
V
tri

v
c

-v
c

tri
c
A
V 2
v
5 . 0 d + =
c
tri
dc
dc A
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
v
A

tri
c
B
V 2
v
5 . 0 d

+ =
c
tri
dc
dc B
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V =
v
B

c
tri
dc
AB B A
v
V
V
V V V = =
v
AB

Unipolar switching scheme
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
tri
dc
c
a
V
V
) s ( v
) s ( v
=
v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
tri
dc
V
V
Unipolar switching scheme
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet
Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small
perturbations in V
t
, i
a
, e
a,
T
e
, T
L
and e
m

a
a
a a a t
e
dt
di
L R i v + + =
T
e
= k
t
i
a
e
e
= k
t
e
dt
d
J T T
m
l e
e
+ =
a
a
a a a t
e
~
dt
i
~
d
L R i
~
v
~
+ + =
) i
~
( k T
~
a E e
=
)
~
( k e
~
E e
e =
dt
)
~
( d
J
~
B T
~
T
~
L e
e
+ e + =
ac components
a a a t
E R I V + =
a E e
I k T =
e =
E e
k E
) ( B T T
L e
e + =
dc components
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components
a
a
a a a t
e
~
dt
i
~
d
L R i
~
v
~
+ + =
) i
~
( k T
~
a E e
=
)
~
( k e
~
E e
e =
dt
)
~
( d
J
~
B T
~
T
~
L e
e
+ e + =
V
t
(s) = I
a
(s)R
a
+ L
a
sIa + E
a
(s)
T
e
(s) = k
E
I
a
(s)
E
a
(s) = k
E
e(s)
T
e
(s) = T
L
(s) + Be(s) + sJe(s)
DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
T
k
a a
sL R
1
+
) s ( T
l
) s ( T
e
sJ B
1
+
E
k
) s ( I
a
) s ( e ) s ( V
a
+
-
-
+
DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
T
c
v
tri
+

V
dc


q

q

+


k
t
Torque
controller

T
k
a a
sL R
1
+
) s ( T
l
) s ( T
e
sJ B
1
+
E
k
) s ( I
a
) s ( e
) s ( V
a
+
-
-
+
Torque
controller
Converter
peak , tri
dc
V
V ) s ( T
e
-
+
DC motor
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Design procedure in cascade control structure
Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest
largest bandwidth
The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest
smallest bandwidth
Design starts from torque loop proceed towards
outer loops
Closed-loop speed control an example
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
OBJECTIVES:
Fast response large bandwidth
Minimum overshoot
good phase margin (>65
o
)
Zero steady state error very large DC gain
BODE PLOTS
Obtain linear small signal model
METHOD
Design controllers based on linear small signal model
Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification
Closed-loop speed control an example
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Ra = 2 O La = 5.2 mH
J = 152 x 10
6
kg.m
2
B = 1 x10
4
kg.m
2
/sec
k
t
= 0.1
Nm/A
k
e
= 0.1 V/(rad/s)
V
d
= 60 V V
tri
= 5 V
f
s
= 33
kHz
Closed-loop speed control an example
PI controllers Switching signals from comparison
of v
c
and triangular waveform
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/sec)
-50
0
50
100
150
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
-90
-45
0
45
90
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
compensated
compensated
k
pT
= 90

k
iT
= 18000

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Torque controller design
Open-loop gain
Speed controller design
1
Speed
controller
sJ B
1
+
e*
T* T
e

+
Torque loop
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
-50
0
50
100
150
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e

(
d
B
)
10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
P
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
Open-loop gain
compensated
k
ps
= 0.2

k
is
= 0.14

compensated
Speed controller design
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Large Signal Simulation results
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
-40
-20
0
20
40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
-2
-1
0
1
2
Speed
Torque
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES
Scalar Control Vector Control
Const. V/Hz
i
s
=f(e
r
)
FOC
DTC
Rotor Flux Stator Flux
Circular
Flux
Hexagon
Flux
DTC
SVM
Control of induction machine based on steady-state model (per phase SS
equivalent circuit):
R
r
/s
+

V
s


R
s

L
ls
L
lr


+

E
ag


I
s
I
r

I
m
L
m
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
e
r
s

T
rated
Pull out
Torque
(T
max
)

T
e
e
s s
m
e
rated
e
rotor
T
L

T
e

Intersection point
(T
e
=T
L
) determines the
steady state speed
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Given a load Te characteristic, the steady-state speed can be
changed by altering the Te of the motor:
Pole changing
Synchronous speed change with no.
of poles
Discrete step change in speed
Variable voltage (amplitude), frequency
fixed
E.g. using transformer or triac
Slip becomes high as voltage reduced
low efficiency
Variable voltage (amplitude), variable
frequency (Constant V/Hz)
Using power electronics converter
Operated at low slip frequency
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Variable voltage, fixed frequency
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
T
o
r
q
u
e
w (rad/s)
Lower speed slip
higher
Low efficiency at low
speed
e.g. 3phase squirrel cage IM
V = 460 V R
s
= 0.25 O
R
r
=0.2 O L
r
= L
s
=
0.5/(2*pi*50)
L
m
=30/(2*pi*50)
f = 50Hz p = 4
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
Approximates constant air-gap flux when E
ag
is large
E
ag
= k f |
ag
f
V
f
E
ag
~ =
ag
|
= constant
Speed is adjusted by varying f - maintaining V/f constant to avoid
flux saturation
To maintain V/Hz constant
+
V
_


+
E
ag
_


Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
T
o
r
q
u
e
50Hz
30Hz
10Hz
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
V
rated

f
rated

V
s
f

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
VSI
Rectifier
3-phase
supply
IM
Pulse
Width
Modulator
e
s
*
+
Ramp
f
C
V
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
To Workspace1
speed
To Workspace
torque
Subsystem
In1Out 1
Step Slider
Gain 1
0.41147
Scope
Rate Limiter
Induction Machine
Va
Vb
Vc
isd
isq
ird
speed
Vd
irq
Vq
Te Constant V /Hz
In1
Out1
Out2
Out3
Constant V/Hz
Simulink blocks for Constant V/Hz Control
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-100
0
100
200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-200
0
200
400
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-100
0
100
200
Constant V/Hz
Speed
Torque
Stator phase current
Problems with open-loop constant V/f
At low speed, voltage drop across stator impedance is significant
compared to airgap voltage - poor torque capability at low speed
Solution:
1. Boost voltage at low speed
2. Maintain I
m
constant constant u
ag
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
T
o
r
q
u
e
50Hz
30Hz
10Hz
A low speed, flux falls below
the rated value
With compensation (I
s,rated
R
s
)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
T
o
r
q
u
e
Torque deteriorate at low
frequency hence
compensation commonly
performed at low
frequency

In order to truly
compensate need to
measure stator current
seldom performed
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
With voltage boost at low frequency
V
rated

f
rated

Linear offset
Non-linear offset varies with I
s
Boost
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Poor speed regulation
Solution:
1. Compesate slip
2. Closed-loop control

Problems with open-loop constant V/f
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
VSI
Rectifier
3-phase
supply
IM
Pulse
Width
Modulator
V
boost

Slip speed
calculator
e
s
*
+
+
+
+
V
V
dc
I
dc

Ramp
f
C
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
A better solution : maintain u
ag
constant. How?
u
ag
, constant E
ag
/f , constant I
m
, constant (rated)

maintain at rated
Controlled to maintain I
m
at rated

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
R
r
/s
+

V
s


R
s

L
ls
L
lr


+

E
ag


I
s
I
r

I
m
L
m
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
T
o
r
q
u
e
50Hz
30Hz
10Hz
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant air-gap flux
s
r
m lr
r
lr
m
I
s
R
) L L ( j
s
R
L j
I
+ + e
+ e
=
, I
1 T
1
j
1 T j
I
I
s
R
L
1
j
s
R
L j
I
s
r
r
r
slip
r slip
m
s
r
r
r
r
r
r
m
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o +
o
e
+ e
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o +
o
e
+ e
=
, I
1 T j
1 T
1
j
I
m
r slip
r
r
r
slip
s
+ e
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
o +
o
e
=
Current is controlled using current-
controlled VSI

Dependent on rotor parameters
sensitive to parameter variation
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant air-gap flux
VSI
Rectifier
3-phase
supply
IM
e*
+
+ |I
s
|
e
slip

C
Current
controller
e
s

PI
+
e
r

-
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant air-gap flux
THANK YOU