m
V 2
90
o
t
m , L L
V 3
t
m , L L
V 3
o
t
=
cos
V 3
V
m , L L
o
Average voltage
over 10ms
Average voltage
over 3.33 ms
50Hz
1phase
50Hz
3phase
180
o
ACDC
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDC
I
a
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
V
t
3phase
supply
+
V
t
i
a
 Operation in quadrant 1 and 4 only
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDC
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
e
T
3phase
supply
3
phase
supply
+
V
t
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDC
Q1
Q2
Q3 Q4
e
T
F1
F2
R1
R2
+ V
a

3phase
supply
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDC
Cascade control structure with armature reversal (4quadrant):
Speed
controller
Current
Controller
Firing
Circuit
Armature
reversal
i
D
i
D,ref
i
D,ref
i
D,
e
e
ref
+ +
_
_
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC
control
Uncontrolled
rectifier
Switch Mode DCDC
1Quadrant
2Quadrant
4Quadrant
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC
control
T1 conducts v
a
= V
dc
Q1 Q2
V
a
I
a
T1
T2
D1
+
V
a

D2
i
a
+
V
dc
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Twoquadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Q1 Q2
V
a
I
a
T1
T2
D1
+
V
a

D2
i
a
+
V
dc
D2 conducts v
a
= 0
V
a
E
b
T1 conducts v
a
= V
dc
Quadrant 1 The average voltage is made larger than the back emf
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Twoquadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Q1 Q2
V
a
I
a
T1
T2
D1
+
V
a

D2
i
a
+
V
dc
D1 conducts v
a
= V
dc
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Twoquadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
Q1 Q2
V
a
I
a
T1
T2
D1
+
V
a

D2
i
a
+
V
dc
T2 conducts v
a
= 0
V
a
E
b
D1 conducts v
a
= V
dc
Quadrant 2 The average voltage is made smallerr than the back emf, thus
forcing the current to flow in the reverse direction
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Twoquadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Twoquadrant Converter
+
v
c
2v
tri
v
c
+
v
A

V
dc
0
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
leg A
leg B
+ V
a
Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+
V
dc
v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
Positive current
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Fourquadrant Converter
leg A
leg B
+ V
a
Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+
V
dc
v
a
= V
dc
when D3 and D4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Positive current
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Fourquadrant Converter
v
a
= V
dc
when D3 and D4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Positive current
v
a
= V
dc
when D1 and D2 are ON
Negative current
leg A
leg B
+ V
a
Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+
V
dc
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Fourquadrant Converter
v
a
= V
dc
when D3 and D4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when Q1 and Q2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Positive current
v
a
= V
dc
when Q3 and Q4 are ON
v
a
= V
dc
when D1 and D2 are ON
v
a
= 0 when current freewheels through Q and D
Negative current
leg A
leg B
+ V
a
Q1
Q4
Q3
Q2
D1
D3
D2 D4
+
V
dc
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC DCDC: Fourquadrant Converter
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC
v
AB
V
dc
V
dc
V
dc
0
v
B
v
A
V
dc
0
2v
tri
v
c
v
c
+
_
V
dc
+
v
A

+
v
B

Bipolar switching scheme output
swings between V
DC
and V
DC
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC
Unipolar switching scheme output
swings between V
dc
and V
dc
V
tri
v
c
v
c
v
c
+
_
V
dc
+
v
A

+
v
B

v
c
v
A
V
dc
0
v
B
V
dc
0
v
AB
V
dc
0
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
DC DRIVES
ACDCDC
Bipolar switching scheme
0.04 0.0405 0.041 0.0415 0.042 0.0425 0.043 0.0435 0.044 0.0445 0.045
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
Unipolar switching scheme
0.04 0.0405 0.041 0.0415 0.042 0.0425 0.043 0.0435 0.044 0.0445 0.045
200
150
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
Current ripple in unipolar is smaller
Output frequency in unipolar is effectively doubled
V
dc
V
dc
V
dc
DCDC: Fourquadrant Converter
Armature
current
Armature
current
Power Electronic Converters in ED Systems
AC DRIVES
ACDCAC
control
The common PWM technique: CBSPWM with ZSS
SVPWM
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Control the torque, speed or position
Cascade control structure
Motor
Example of current control in cascade control structure
converter
speed
controller
position
controller
+
e*
1/s
+
+
current
controller
T*
u*
e
u
k
T
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives  Hysteresisbased
i
ref
+
V
dc
i
a
i
ref
v
a
+
V
a
i
err
i
err
q
q
High bandwidth, simple implementation,
insensitive to parameter variations
Variable switching frequency depending on
operating conditions
+
_
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  Hysteresisbased
3phase
AC Motor
+
+
+
i*
a
i*
b
i*
c
Converter
For isolated neutral load, i
a
+ i
b
+ i
c
= 0
control is not totally independent
Instantaneous error for isolated neutral load can
reach double the band
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  Hysteresisbased
i
d
i
q
i
s
Ah Ah
Ah Ah
For isolated neutral load, i
a
+ i
b
+ i
c
= 0
control is not totally independent
Instantaneous error for isolated neutral load can
reach double the band
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  Hysteresisbased
powergui
Continuous
Universal Bridge 1
g
A
B
C
+

To Workspace1
iaref
Subsystem
c1
c2
c3
ina
inb
inc
p1
p2
p3
p4
p5
p6
Sine Wave 2
Sine Wave 1
Sine Wave
Series RLC Branch 3
Series RLC Branch 2
Series RLC Branch 1
Scope
DC Voltage Source
Current Measurement 3
i
+

Current Measurement 2
i
+

Current Measurement 1
i
+

Ah = 0.3 A
Sinusoidal reference current, 30Hz
Vdc = 600V
10O, 50mH load
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  Hysteresisbased
0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
10
5
0
5
10
Actual and reference currents
Current error
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
4 6 8 10 12 14 16
x 10
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  Hysteresisbased
10 5 0 5 10
10
5
0
5
10
Actual current locus
0.04 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.05 0.052 0.054 0.056 0.058 0.06
0.5
0
0.5
0.04 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.05 0.052 0.054 0.056 0.058 0.06
0.5
0
0.5
0.04 0.042 0.044 0.046 0.048 0.05 0.052 0.054 0.056 0.058 0.06
0.5
0
0.5
0.6A
0.6A
0.6A
Current error
v
tri
V
dc
q
v
c
q
V
dc
Pulse width
modulator
v
c
V
dc
Pulse width
modulator
v
c
i
ref
PI
+
q
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives  PIbased
Motor
+
+
+
i*
a
i*
b
i*
c
Converter
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
Sinusoidal PWM
PI
PI
PI
Interactions between phases only require 2 controllers
Tracking error
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives  PIbased
Interactions between phases only require 2 controllers
Tracking error
Perform the control in synchronous frame
 the current will appear as DC
Perform the 3phase to 2phase transformation
 only two controllers (instead of 3) are used
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in DC Drives  PIbased
Motor
i*
a
i*
b
i*
c
Converter
PWM
+
+
+
PWM
PWM
PI
PI
PI
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  PIbased
Motor
i*
a
i*
b
i*
c
Converter
32
32
SVM
23
PI
PI
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  PIbased
i
d
*
i
q
*
PI
controller
dqabc
abcdq
SVM
or SPWM
VSI
IM
v
a
*
v
b
*
v
c
*
i
d
i
q
+
+
PI
controller
Synch speed
estimator
e
s
e
s
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  PIbased
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
4
2
0
2
4
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
4
2
0
2
4
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
0
1
2
3
4
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
0
1
2
3
4
Stationary  i
a
Stationary  i
d
Rotating  i
a
Rotating  i
d
Current controlled converters in AC Drives  PIbased
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
firing
circuit
controlled
rectifier
o
+
V
a
v
c
v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
The relation between v
c
and v
a
is determined by the firing circuit
?
It is desirable to have a linear relation between v
c
and v
a
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Cosinewave crossing control
V
m
v
s
v
c
0 t 2t
3t 4t
Input voltage
Cosine wave compared with v
c
Results of comparison trigger SCRs
Output voltage
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Cosinewave crossing control
V
m
v
s
v
c
0 t 2t
3t 4t
o
o
V
s
cos(et) V
s
cos(o) = v
c


.

\

= o
s
c 1
v
v
cos
( ) o
t
= cos
V 2
V
m
a


.

\



.

\

t
=
s
c
1
m
a
v
v
cos cos
V 2
V
s
c m
a
v
v V 2
V
t
=
A linear relation between v
c
and V
a
V
a
is the average voltage over one period of the waveform
 sampled data system
Delays depending on when the control signal changes normally taken
as half of sampling period
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
V
a
is the average voltage over one period of the waveform
 sampled data system
Delays depending on when the control signal changes normally taken
as half of sampling period
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
s
2
T
H
Ke ) s ( G
=
v
c
(s) V
a
(s)
s
m
V
V 2
K
t
=
Single phase, 50Hz
T=10ms
s
m , L L
V
V 3
K
t
=
Three phase, 50Hz
T=3.33ms
Simplified if control bandwidth is reduced to much lower than the
sampling frequency
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
firing
circuit
current
controller
controlled
rectifier
o
+
V
a
v
c
i
ref
To control the current currentcontrolled converter
Torque can be controlled
Only operates in Q1 and Q4 (single converter topology)
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
powergui
Continuous
Voltage Measurement4
v
+

Voltage Measurement3
v
+

Voltage Measurement2
v
+

Voltage Measurement1
v
+

Voltage Measurement
v
+

Universal Bridge
g
A
B
C
+

acos
To Workspace2
ir
To Workspace1
ia
To Workspace
v
Synchronized
6Pulse Generator
alpha_deg
AB
BC
CA
Block
pulses
Step
Signal
Generator
Series RLC Branch
Scope 3
Scope 2
Scope 1
Scope
Saturation PID Controller 1
PID
Mux
Mux
K
Current Measurement 1
i
+

Current Measurement
i
+

Controlled Voltage Source
s

+
Constant 1
7
AC Voltage Source 2
AC Voltage Source 1
AC Voltage Source
Input 3phase, 240V, 50Hz
Closed loop current control
with PI controller
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with Controlled rectifier
Input 3phase, 240V, 50Hz
Closed loop current control
with PI controller
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
500
0
500
1000
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
0
5
10
15
Voltage
Current
0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28
500
0
500
1000
0.22 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.28
0
5
10
15
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
v
c
+
V
a
v
tri
V
dc
q
Switching signals obtained by comparing
control signal with triangular wave
V
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
We want to establish a relation between v
c
and V
a
?
AVERAGE voltage
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
dt q
T
1
d
t ri
T t
t
tri
}
+
=
tri
on
T
t
=
V
dc
0
T
tri
t
on
0
1
=
0
1
q
V
c
> V
tri
V
c
< V
tri
v
c
dc
dT
0
dc
tri
a
dV dt V
T
1
V
t ri
= =
}
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
V
tri
V
tri
V
tri
v
c
d
v
c
0.5
For v
c
= V
tri
d = 0
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
0.5
V
tri
V
tri
v
c
d
v
c
V
tri
V
tri
For v
c
= V
tri
d = 0
For v
c
= 0 d = 0.5
For v
c
= V
tri
d = 1
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
0.5
v
c
d
V
tri
V
tri
c
tri
v
V 2
1
5 . 0 d + =
V
tri
V
tri
v
c
For v
c
= V
tri
d = 0
For v
c
= 0 d = 0.5
For v
c
= V
tri
d = 1
Thus relation between v
c
and V
a
is obtained as:
c
tri
dc
dc a
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
Introducing perturbation in v
c
and V
a
and separating DC and AC components:
c
tri
dc
dc a
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
c
tri
dc
a
v
~
V 2
V
v
~
=
DC:
AC:
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Taking Laplace Transform on the AC, the transfer function is obtained as:
tri
dc
c
a
V 2
V
) s ( v
) s ( v
=
v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
tri
dc
V 2
V
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
2v
tri
v
c
v
c
v
tri
+
V
dc
q
V
dc
q
V
dc
+ V
AB
v
AB
V
dc
V
dc
c
tri
dc
AB B A
v
V
V
V V V = =
tri
c
A B
V 2
v
5 . 0 d 1 d = =
c
tri
dc
dc B
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V =
v
B
V
dc
0
tri
c
A
V 2
v
5 . 0 d + =
c
tri
dc
dc A
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
v
A
V
dc
0
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Bipolar switching scheme
tri
dc
c
a
V
V
) s ( v
) s ( v
=
v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
tri
dc
V
V
Bipolar switching scheme
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
+
V
dc
v
c
v
tri
q
a
V
dc
v
c
v
tri
q
b
Leg a
Leg b
The same average value weve seen for bipolar !
V
tri
v
c
v
c
tri
c
A
V 2
v
5 . 0 d + =
c
tri
dc
dc A
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V + =
v
A
tri
c
B
V 2
v
5 . 0 d
+ =
c
tri
dc
dc B
v
V 2
V
V 5 . 0 V =
v
B
c
tri
dc
AB B A
v
V
V
V V V = =
v
AB
Unipolar switching scheme
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
tri
dc
c
a
V
V
) s ( v
) s ( v
=
v
a
(s) v
c
(s)
DC motor
tri
dc
V
V
Unipolar switching scheme
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet
Extract the dc and ac components by introducing small
perturbations in V
t
, i
a
, e
a,
T
e
, T
L
and e
m
a
a
a a a t
e
dt
di
L R i v + + =
T
e
= k
t
i
a
e
e
= k
t
e
dt
d
J T T
m
l e
e
+ =
a
a
a a a t
e
~
dt
i
~
d
L R i
~
v
~
+ + =
) i
~
( k T
~
a E e
=
)
~
( k e
~
E e
e =
dt
)
~
( d
J
~
B T
~
T
~
L e
e
+ e + =
ac components
a a a t
E R I V + =
a E e
I k T =
e =
E e
k E
) ( B T T
L e
e + =
dc components
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Perform Laplace Transformation on ac components
a
a
a a a t
e
~
dt
i
~
d
L R i
~
v
~
+ + =
) i
~
( k T
~
a E e
=
)
~
( k e
~
E e
e =
dt
)
~
( d
J
~
B T
~
T
~
L e
e
+ e + =
V
t
(s) = I
a
(s)R
a
+ L
a
sIa + E
a
(s)
T
e
(s) = k
E
I
a
(s)
E
a
(s) = k
E
e(s)
T
e
(s) = T
L
(s) + Be(s) + sJe(s)
DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
T
k
a a
sL R
1
+
) s ( T
l
) s ( T
e
sJ B
1
+
E
k
) s ( I
a
) s ( e ) s ( V
a
+


+
DC motor separately excited or permanent magnet
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
T
c
v
tri
+
V
dc
q
q
+
k
t
Torque
controller
T
k
a a
sL R
1
+
) s ( T
l
) s ( T
e
sJ B
1
+
E
k
) s ( I
a
) s ( e
) s ( V
a
+


+
Torque
controller
Converter
peak , tri
dc
V
V ) s ( T
e

+
DC motor
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Design procedure in cascade control structure
Inner loop (current or torque loop) the fastest
largest bandwidth
The outer most loop (position loop) the slowest
smallest bandwidth
Design starts from torque loop proceed towards
outer loops
Closedloop speed control an example
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
OBJECTIVES:
Fast response large bandwidth
Minimum overshoot
good phase margin (>65
o
)
Zero steady state error very large DC gain
BODE PLOTS
Obtain linear small signal model
METHOD
Design controllers based on linear small signal model
Perform large signal simulation for controllers verification
Closedloop speed control an example
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Ra = 2 O La = 5.2 mH
J = 152 x 10
6
kg.m
2
B = 1 x10
4
kg.m
2
/sec
k
t
= 0.1
Nm/A
k
e
= 0.1 V/(rad/s)
V
d
= 60 V V
tri
= 5 V
f
s
= 33
kHz
Closedloop speed control an example
PI controllers Switching signals from comparison
of v
c
and triangular waveform
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/sec)
50
0
50
100
150
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
90
45
0
45
90
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
compensated
compensated
k
pT
= 90
k
iT
= 18000
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Torque controller design
Openloop gain
Speed controller design
1
Speed
controller
sJ B
1
+
e*
T* T
e
+
Torque loop
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Bode Diagram
Frequency (Hz)
50
0
50
100
150
From: Input Point To: Output Point
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
10
2
10
1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
180
135
90
45
0
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
Openloop gain
compensated
k
ps
= 0.2
k
is
= 0.14
compensated
Speed controller design
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Large Signal Simulation results
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
40
20
0
20
40
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45
2
1
0
1
2
Speed
Torque
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: DC drives with SM Converters
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES
Scalar Control Vector Control
Const. V/Hz
i
s
=f(e
r
)
FOC
DTC
Rotor Flux Stator Flux
Circular
Flux
Hexagon
Flux
DTC
SVM
Control of induction machine based on steadystate model (per phase SS
equivalent circuit):
R
r
/s
+
V
s
R
s
L
ls
L
lr
+
E
ag
I
s
I
r
I
m
L
m
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
e
r
s
T
rated
Pull out
Torque
(T
max
)
T
e
e
s s
m
e
rated
e
rotor
T
L
T
e
Intersection point
(T
e
=T
L
) determines the
steady state speed
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Given a load Te characteristic, the steadystate speed can be
changed by altering the Te of the motor:
Pole changing
Synchronous speed change with no.
of poles
Discrete step change in speed
Variable voltage (amplitude), frequency
fixed
E.g. using transformer or triac
Slip becomes high as voltage reduced
low efficiency
Variable voltage (amplitude), variable
frequency (Constant V/Hz)
Using power electronics converter
Operated at low slip frequency
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Variable voltage, fixed frequency
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
T
o
r
q
u
e
w (rad/s)
Lower speed slip
higher
Low efficiency at low
speed
e.g. 3phase squirrel cage IM
V = 460 V R
s
= 0.25 O
R
r
=0.2 O L
r
= L
s
=
0.5/(2*pi*50)
L
m
=30/(2*pi*50)
f = 50Hz p = 4
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
Approximates constant airgap flux when E
ag
is large
E
ag
= k f 
ag
f
V
f
E
ag
~ =
ag

= constant
Speed is adjusted by varying f  maintaining V/f constant to avoid
flux saturation
To maintain V/Hz constant
+
V
_
+
E
ag
_
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
T
o
r
q
u
e
50Hz
30Hz
10Hz
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
V
rated
f
rated
V
s
f
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
VSI
Rectifier
3phase
supply
IM
Pulse
Width
Modulator
e
s
*
+
Ramp
f
C
V
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant V/Hz
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
To Workspace1
speed
To Workspace
torque
Subsystem
In1Out 1
Step Slider
Gain 1
0.41147
Scope
Rate Limiter
Induction Machine
Va
Vb
Vc
isd
isq
ird
speed
Vd
irq
Vq
Te Constant V /Hz
In1
Out1
Out2
Out3
Constant V/Hz
Simulink blocks for Constant V/Hz Control
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
100
0
100
200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
200
0
200
400
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
100
0
100
200
Constant V/Hz
Speed
Torque
Stator phase current
Problems with openloop constant V/f
At low speed, voltage drop across stator impedance is significant
compared to airgap voltage  poor torque capability at low speed
Solution:
1. Boost voltage at low speed
2. Maintain I
m
constant constant u
ag
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
T
o
r
q
u
e
50Hz
30Hz
10Hz
A low speed, flux falls below
the rated value
With compensation (I
s,rated
R
s
)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
T
o
r
q
u
e
Torque deteriorate at low
frequency hence
compensation commonly
performed at low
frequency
In order to truly
compensate need to
measure stator current
seldom performed
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
With voltage boost at low frequency
V
rated
f
rated
Linear offset
Nonlinear offset varies with I
s
Boost
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Poor speed regulation
Solution:
1. Compesate slip
2. Closedloop control
Problems with openloop constant V/f
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
VSI
Rectifier
3phase
supply
IM
Pulse
Width
Modulator
V
boost
Slip speed
calculator
e
s
*
+
+
+
+
V
V
dc
I
dc
Ramp
f
C
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
A better solution : maintain u
ag
constant. How?
u
ag
, constant E
ag
/f , constant I
m
, constant (rated)
maintain at rated
Controlled to maintain I
m
at rated
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
R
r
/s
+
V
s
R
s
L
ls
L
lr
+
E
ag
I
s
I
r
I
m
L
m
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
T
o
r
q
u
e
50Hz
30Hz
10Hz
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant airgap flux
s
r
m lr
r
lr
m
I
s
R
) L L ( j
s
R
L j
I
+ + e
+ e
=
, I
1 T
1
j
1 T j
I
I
s
R
L
1
j
s
R
L j
I
s
r
r
r
slip
r slip
m
s
r
r
r
r
r
r
m
+


.

\

o +
o
e
+ e
=
+


.

\

o +
o
e
+ e
=
, I
1 T j
1 T
1
j
I
m
r slip
r
r
r
slip
s
+ e
+


.

\

o +
o
e
=
Current is controlled using current
controlled VSI
Dependent on rotor parameters
sensitive to parameter variation
Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant airgap flux
VSI
Rectifier
3phase
supply
IM
e*
+
+ I
s

e
slip
C
Current
controller
e
s
PI
+
e
r

Modeling and Control of Electrical Drives
Modeling of the Power Converters: IM drives
Constant airgap flux
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