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PROJECT

Proposed topic: Identification of Textile Fibers through burning and chemical tests.

INTRODUCTION:
The term Textile fiber means a unit of matter which is being spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by bonding or by interlacing in a variety of methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, twisting, or webbing and which is the basic structural element of textile product. We have discussed different types of textile fibers used in the apparels and also the types and numbering of yarns. Let us discuss how we can identify different textile fibers. The knowledge of identifying the textile fibers helps a producer of garments to identify the type of fiber and the care to be taken in maintaining the fabrics made of particular type of fiber. This is important factor for labeling of the garments, which includes specifying the fiber content in the garment. There are different tests which could be used for the identification of the textile fibers such as burning test, microscopic test, solubility test, optical test, density test etc. We would be discussing the basic tests like burning, and chemical tests of identifying the textile fibers.

Object of fiber identification


Know about the fiber behavior. Information when fibre dissolve. Know about fiber characteristic. Know about the fibre strength physical and chemical behavior. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of identifying textile fibres

BURNING TEST
To recognize the composition of fabrics by the burning test , the sample of fiber, yarn of fabric should be moved slowly towards as mall flame and the reaction to heat carefully observed .One end of the sample should be put directly into flame to determine its burning rate and characteristics. The burning o dour should be noted and the characteristics of the ash such as amount , form, hardness and colour should be examined

Worksheet 1 Fiber identification by burning

Initial Burning reaction Cotton Wool

Description SelfSmell of flame extinguishing

Remains

Silk

Jute

Polyester

Acrylic

Nylon

Viscose

CHEMICAL TESTS

Chemical tests are another technical means of identifying fibers. But chemical tests are not intended for the general consumers. Different types of chemical tests are undertaken to establish the identity of the fibers used. These tests give accurate and precise analysis. The tests are conducted in research laboratories.

Aims of the study


This study aims in identifying a few common textile fibers extensively used in textile manufacturing. It is a very important for textile sector. By, these experiment we have learn how to identify different types of fiber and also know their properties. So this identification is very helpful.

Methodology
Burn test method The burn test is normally made on a small sample of yarns or thread which are twisted together. Since the fiber content of yarns used in one direction of a fabric are not always made up of the same fibers used in the other direction, warp and filling yarns should be burned separately to determine the entire fiber content of the fabric. This test is very helpful in determining whether a fabric is made from synthetic or natural fibers, but it is not foolproof and the characteristics observed during the burning test can be affected by several things. If the fabric /yarn contains blends of fibers, identification of individual

fibers can be difficult. Two or three different kinds of fibers burned together in one yarn may also be difficult to distinguish. The odor and burning characteristics exhibited may be that of several fibers, thus making your results difficult to analyze. Finishes used on the fabric can also change the observed characteristics. Pull a small sample of at least six to eight yarns from your fabric about 4 inches long, and twist them together into a bundle about 1/8 inch in diameter. You can also use a small snippet of the fabric if you only need to determine whether it is a synthetic or natural fiber fabric and you are not seeking to determine the specific fiber(s) that make up the fabric. Pull a small sample of at least six to eight yarns from your fabric about 4 inches long, and twist them together into a bundle about 1/8 inch in diameter. You can also use a small snippet of the fabric if you only need to determine whether it is a synthetic or natural fiber fabric and you are not seeking to determine the specific fiber(s) that make up the fabric. Hold one end of the bundle with tweezers over a sink or a sheet of aluminum foil (about 10 to 12 inches square) to protect your working area. If the sample ignites it can be dropped into the sink or on the foil without damage. Use either a candle or a match (automatic lighters work well) as your flame

Method of chemical test Fiber may dissolve in a common solvent like acetone. Also some highly semicrystalline (thermoplastic) fibers like nylon and polyester will dis- solve only in harsh solvents like formic acid or boiling dimethylformamide (DMF). Here chemical dissolution of the fiber polymer occurs. Natural fibers like the cellulosics and protein fibers are thermosetting polymers. They are found to dissolve chemically in strong acid or base solutions. Other solvents have been

found that are quite specific in dissolving certain fibers. It is this specificity of solubility that allows for the determination of the quantitative composition of various fibers in blended fiber fabrics, e.g. polyester/cotton, nylon/wool. In this experiment, one can study the solubility behavior of various fibers in a series of solvents and observe the unique solubility behavior of textile fibers.

o Chemical testing of textiles


Worksheet 2 Fiber identification by Chemical Acetone, room temperature Formic acid, room temperature DMF, 90 C

Cotton

Wool

Silk

Jute

Polyester

Acrylic ( Orlon )

Viscose

Nylon

Chemical testing of textiles


Use three test tubes each with 10% caustic soda (NaOH) at room temperature (and eventually at 40 C) Use three test tubes each with 70% sulfuric acid at 40 C. Make the same type of observations as described for the synthetic fibers section. Record all the observations in the Worksheets.

Comments
This experiment extra carefull should be taken, as apron, gages, gloves, etc. It is a very important for textile sector. By, these experiment we have learn how to identify different types of fiber and also know their properties. So this identification is very helpful.