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Readings

Cherry(2010).TheWorshipArchitect.Chapters13&14(pp.221257) Pinson(2009).PerspectivesonChristianWorship:5views.Read completetext. Robinson(2011).ContemporaryWorshipSingers:Construct,Culture, EnvironmentandVoice.Chapters2&6(pp.3545;196207).Thistext canbeaccessedonline bit.ly/IXArES

TodaysWorshipConstructs
Objectives:
1. Surveymultiplemodelsusedtoillustrateworshipconstructs 2. Understandanddistinguishbetweenthefivemodernworshipstyles 3. Clearlydefinethethreeworshipformsutilisedinmodernworshipsettings

Outcomes:
ThissessionhasbeenpurposefullydesignedtosurveythevarietyofoptionsavailabletotheChristian worshipper, and the worshipping community at large, during the commencement of the 21st century. Seekingtoviewtheoptionsasequal,thestudentsareencouragedtoidentifydistinguishingfeaturesof thedifferentconstructswhilealsoclassifyingeachsettingsstrengthsandweaknesses.

1. Illustrating the Worship Construct Spectrum


Having already surveyed the developmental history of the Christian Church and the evolution of her worship practices in previous sessions it is apparent that the multiplicity of worship expression in the 21stcenturychurchisdiverse.Thissamediversitymakesitdifficulttoidentifyandcategorisemodern church constructs. For example, it is no longer possible to attend a particular denomination with the expectationthatyouwillenterintoanarchetypicalworshipexpression.Specifically,withintheBaptist denomination, one might expect to experience worship ranging from a Traditional service (utilising predominantlyhymns)throughtoaCharismaticexpression(utilisingmainlymodernchoruses). OneofthebestwaystodeterminewhatwemeanbyChristianworshipistodescribethe outwardandvisibleformsofworshipbyChristians.(White,2000,pp.1819)

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AmongthefirsttoarticulatethemodernvariantsofworshipstylewasBarryLiesch(1996).Inhisbook, The New Worship: Straight Talk on Music and the Church, Liesch lays out three forms for worship: Liturgical, Thematic and Flowing Praise (below). Liesch also notes, The three forms are not mutually exclusive; they can be blended (p. 72). This blending of the styles is a crucial consideration in the continuingdevelopmenttowardscodificationofworshipforms.

Liesch'sThreeFormatsofWorship(Liesch,1996,p.81)

ThreeyearslaterPaulBasden(1999)tookupthecauseofcodificationwithhisbookTheWorshipMaze: Finding a style to fit your Church. Basden suggested that, at the time of his writing, presenting the variousformsofworshiparebestshownasalinerworshipspectrum(p.36).
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Fiveyearslater,BasdeneditedthetextExploringtheWorshipSpectrum:6Views(2004).Interestingly the text labels six worship styles: FormalLiturgical, Traditional Hymnbased, Contemporary Music Driven, Charismatic, Blended, and Emerging. The first two labels, FormalLiturgical and Traditional HymnBasedfallneatlyinlinewithBasdensearlierwritings,buttheremainingfourlabelsrepresenta definiteshiftinthelesstraditionalstyles. To further exemplify the miscellany of classification in the current dialogue of codification, Dyrness (2009)recentrepresentationofcontemporarymovementsisofinterest:

TheSpectrumofWorshipRenewal,20002005 (Dyrness,2009,p.70)

DyrnessseeminglybuildsonBasdens(1999)worshipspectrum,butinseekingtoupdatethecurrencyof terms,hedoesawaywiththelabelsCharismatic(Basden,2004)aswellasRevivalistandPraiseand Worship (Basden, 1999) and groups them under the label Contemporary Worship. In qualifying his SpectrumofWorshipRenewal(above)Dyrnesspurports,
On the left are those whose services are most distant from the medieval pattern, but who attempt to makethestrongestconnectionwiththeculturearoundthem.Ontheright,bycontrast,arethosewho wouldholdmorecloselytothetraditionalpatternsofworshipandwanttostandagainstanyinfluence fromtheculture.(p.69)

Todeclarethatonegroupseekstomakeastrongerconnectionwithsurroundingculturethananother whilst the other group reject outside cultural influences seems to be heavily reductionist running the risk of error, especially when advocates of Emergent Church (Kimball, 2004; Morgenthaler, 2004) declareadesiretoconnectwiththeirimmediatecultures.Morgenthaler(2004)passionatelypromotes thenotionthatAttheircore,emergingworshipservicesareencounterswithGodbornoutofadual passionfortheologicalrootednessandadeeplytransformingconnectionwitharadicallydeconstructed culture(p.230).
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MappingEmergingChurch Theology (Patton,2008)

In2010IputforwardfivemainAustralianworshipstyles:Liturgical,Traditional,Contemporary,Blended and Charismatic/Pentecostal (Robinson, 2010). Certainly, as considered previously in the review of Basden and Dyrnesss work, Liturgical and Traditional were conventional uses of term, but the acknowledgement of Contemporary, Blended and Charismatic/Pentecostal remains arguable. In my chapteronTeachingtheContemporaryWorshipSingerIclarifiedtheomissionofEmergingWorshipin mycategoriesbystating,
Otherworshipstyles(suchastheEmergingWorshipstyle)haveenjoyedwideuseintheUnitedStatesbut thescopeofthischapterisonthefivestylesthathavewideacceptancethroughoutAustralianchurches. Of these, it is also important to recognise that American worship liturgy incorporated Charismatic/PentecostalunderthedefinitionofContemporary.WhilethistrendisdevelopinginAustralia, therearestillobservabledistinctionsbetweenthetwostyles.(p.277)

Qualifiers of both geography and time are important. While Charismatic/Pentecostal styles are still readilyobservableontheAustralianworshiplandscapetheyarebecominglessso;evenwiththepassing of only 24 to 36 months. Additionally, Emerging worship styles arebecomingmoreprevalent.TheAustralianworshipscenecan now be categorised under J. Matthew Pinsons (2009) editorial work in Perspectives on Christian Worship: 5 Views, Constance M. Cherrys (2010) The Worship Architect: A Blueprint for DesigningCulturallyRelevantandBiblicallyFaithfulServicesand my doctoral dissertation Contemporary Worship Singers: Construct,Culture,EnvironmentandVoice(Robinson,2011). Not dissimilar to Basdens (2004) Exploring the Worship Spectrum: 6 Views, Pinsons, Cherrys and Robinsons works independently gather the definitions under five headings: Liturgical, Traditional Evangelical, Contemporary, Blended and Emerging. Pinsons and Cherrys labels will be utilised from this point forward,acknowledgingthemasarecentworkonthesubjectofworshipsettingcodification.Pinsons (2009) introductory chapter concedes that radical oversimplification ofcomplex historical
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expressions (p. 13) would accompany the inclusion of groups such as Pentecostal and Charismatic movementstherebyjustifyingtheirinclusionundertheContemporaryheading. Before defining the five modern worship styles in detail, review the following model that I developed (Robinson, 2011) as a framework over which further definition (worship forms and cultural tensions) mightbelaid:

TheFiveWorshipStyles(Robinson,2011,p.204)

Before continuing, take the time to attempt your own illustrative modelling of the modernworshipsettings.Doyouagreeordisagreewiththedistillationofworshipstyles intoLiturgical,Traditional,Contemporary,Blended,andEmerging?Ifyoudisagree,how wouldyoulabelthemodernworshipsettings?

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2. 21st Century Worship Styles


Before we qualify each of todays five worship styles currently in practice across the Australian (and most of the Westernised world) church landscape it is helpful to briefly survey the cultural climate in which these settings are placed. As with previous historical periods Christian worship does not take placeinasocialvacuum.JohnD.Hannah(2004)writes,
Theimpactofpostmodernculturalvaluesonthe missionofthechurchisneitherallevilnorallgood.The modern assumption of objective truth acquired solely through reason slighted the necessity of divine revelation.Christianfaithisneitherrationalnorirrational;itissupernatural.Itconfessestotruthbeyondour senses.Further,postmodernismshouldhelpustoseeafreshthevalueofpersonaltestimonyinwitnessingto theChristianfaith.(p.132)

Hannahpresentsthefollowingchartasareportonthedifferencesbetweenmodernandpostmodern viewsoftruth:

ModernandPostmodernViewofTruth(Hannah,2004,p.132)

JohnSweetman(2012c,pp.56)outlinesfivepossibleimplicationsforcorporateworshipwhichmight bebroughtaboutbypostmodernism:
1. Ancient:Postmodernsarekeentoexploreaspectsofcorporateworshipthatwerepracticedandvalued bytheirforefathers 2. Future: Worship in the postmodern age may also be characterised by variety, creativity, multimedia presentations,anddiverseimagesandexperiences. 3. Involvement:ItislikelythatPostmodernswillwanttoparticipateincorporateworship,interactingwith theliturgy. 4. Networking:Postmodernsaresuspiciousofinstitutionsbutarecomfortablewithnetworks. 5. Community:Postmodernshaveastrongcapacityforattachmentandgrouporientation.
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LiturgicalWorship
Theoldestworshipstyle,LiturgicalWorship,hasdevelopedfrom theRomanCatholicservicedesignofthemiddleages(5001500 AD). The label Liturgical should not be confused with the term liturgy.Dawn(1995)explainsthatthetermleitourgia[liturgy], composedoftheGreekwordsergon(work)andlaos(people), actually means the work of the people and thus designates every action of the laity (p. 242). While every worship style employs a liturgy, Liturgical Worship is distinguished by its LiturgicalWorshipisoftencentredon predominant use of classic hymns and prescriptive rites. An theEucharist. exampleofthisstyleistheHighAnglicanChurchwhichtypically accompanies the congregational singing with an organ while directing its progression through the serviceusingtheBookofCommonPrayer(Wainwright&Tucker,2006,p.527).Thisworshipstylemight also be observed in the post VaticanII Roman Catholic Mass as well as many of todays Lutheran services. ThestructureoftheLiturgicalworshipstyleistypicallymodular(see21stCenturyWorshipForms,p.16) and is designed around two main points: service of the Word and service of Holy Communion. Sweetman(2012a)outlinesthefollowingstructuralexampleoftheLutheranliturgy(p.3): ThePreparation TrinitarianInvocationcallingonGodtheTrinitytobepresentashehaspromised. ConfessionandAbsolutionthereistimeforconfessionofsinaspeoplekneel,thenthepastor maysaysomethinglike:InthesteadandbythecommandofmyLordJesusChrist,Iforgiveyou allyoursinsinthenameoftheFatherandoftheSonandoftheHolySpirit. ServiceoftheWord Introit(EntrancePsalm)partsofapsalmaresungasthecelebrantandministersmovetotheir seats KyrieLordhavemercy,Christhavemercy,Lordhavemercy(Mt.9:27,Luke17:13,Mt.15:22) GloriainExcelsis(Gloryinthehighest)asongofpraiseandjoy,likethatoftheangels(Lk. 2:14) Salutation and Response Leader: The Lord be with you Response: And with your spirit (Judg.6:12,Ruth2:4,Luke1:28) CollectoftheDayapetitionaryprayer OldTestamentReadingsetfortheday,usuallyreadbyalayperson Gradual(takenfromthepsalms)usuallychanted EpistleReadingsetfortheday VerseandAlleluiaaverseandasongthatexpressjoyathearingGodsWord HolyGospelthecongregationstandstolistentothereadingfromtheGospels HymnoftheDay Sermonthetopicisdeterminedbythereadingsintheliturgy
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CreedrecitationoftheNicenecreed Offertorywithappropriateactionsbythepastorandresponsebythepeople PrayeroftheFaithfulasetprayerfortheworldandthechurchwiththeregularcongregational response:Hearourprayer ServiceofHolyCommunion Prefaceachantedintroductionbythepastorandresponsebythepeople Sanctus(holy)asetsongcommencingHoly,holy,holy EucharistPrayerprayerofconsecrationofthebreadandwine LordsPrayer WordsofInstitutionreflectingthewordsofJesusattheLastSupper Peace Pastor: The peace of Christ be always with you. The people pass the peace to each other. AgnusDei(theLambofGod)sungorrecited,startingLambofGod,youtakeawaythesins oftheworld,havemercyonus Communion FinalPrayerthankingGodforhisgiftandprayingforfaithtoloveGodandothers DismissalorBlessingNum.6:24 Recessionalhymnthepastorleaves IteMissaEstthepastorreturnsandsays:GoinpeacetoloveandservetheLord Constance M. Cherry (2010) in her text The Worship Architect provides us with a list of general characteristicsobservedintheLiturgicalstyle(p.231):

VerticalDirection FocusonthetranscendenceofGod Godcentred Classicprayers,hymns,anthems,etc. Weekly(orfrequent)Eucharist Prominent use of symbols, use of paraments1, intentional placement of furniture,symbolicarchitecture Muchcongregationparticipation Theliturgyisviewedholisticallyasprayer

Critique: Whatarethe strengthsof Liturgical Worship?What arethepossible weaknesses?

Interestingly,Scripturesaturatestheliturgicalservicemorethanit doesanyotherworshipstyle.(Basden,1999,p.53)

Paraments:Clothadornmentsforliturgicalfurniture(e.g.pulpitscarf,communiontablerunner),thecolourscorresponding totheliturgicalseasonoroccasion(Provance,2009,p.96). Page8 TodaysWorshipConstructs 2012DrDanielK.Robinson


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TraditionalWorship
The Traditional Worship style developed as a reaction to the prescriptive form of Liturgical worship. J. Ligon Duncan (2009) statesthatthepreachedwordisthecentralfeatureofReformed [Traditional]worship(p.106),whichisdifferenttoitspredecessor (Liturgical Worship) that holds the celebration of the Eucharist as central.EvolvingfromthePietistandMethodistrenewal(ca.18th Century)TraditionalWorshipemployshymnswhicharewrittento accommodate untrained voices and thus to permit the maximum TraditionalWorshipemploys participationofthemassesintheworshipservice.Typically,hymns mostlyhymns are short, strophic, and rhythmically simple, and they usually do notmodulatetoremotekeys(Russell,1997,p.99).StereotypicallyobservedinPresbyterian,Wesleyan andSalvationArmychurches,TraditionalWorshipshymnsmaybewrittenfortheunskilledvoicebutas Evans (2006) contends, The evangelical hymn writers greatly increased the vocabulary of their congregationsandtheirabilitytocopewithcomplextheologicallanguageandthought(p.35).

Upuntilthe1960s,liturgyandtraditionalhymnsingingdominatedtheworshiplandscapeof churchesacrosstheWesternworld.(Wilt,2009,p.168) Itisdifficulttooutlinethetypicaltraditionalorderofservice.Sweetman(2012a)offersanexampleof thetraditionalevangelicalserviceasitmighthavebeenexperiencedinthemid20thcentury(p.6): SpecialMusicusuallyquietandreverenttopreparetheworshipperstomeetwiththeirholy God.Peoplewouldenterthesanctuaryquietlyandspendsometimebowedinpersonalprayer beforetheservice. CalltoWorship/IntroitafixedsongsungbythecongregationaskingGodtobepresentandto behonouredbytheworshipservice.(Forexample,oneintroitbegan:Jesus,standamongusin thyrisenpower.Maythistimeofworshipbeahallowedhour.) Prayeraprayerofworshipandthanksgivingprayerbythepastor. HymnofPraiseasongofworship,fulloftheology,usuallyaccompaniedbyanorgan. OldTestamentReadingaScripturereadingchosenbythepastor,oftenapsalm,sometimes readresponsivelywiththepastorreadingoneverseandthecongregationthenext. Solo/ChildrensTalk/Choirasegmentthatcouldincludeatalkforthechildrenorsomespecial musicprovidedbyachoirorsoloist. Announcementslettingthecongregationknowaboutimportantevents.Usuallypresentedby theChurchSecretary. OfferingandPrayerthecollectionoftheofferingisfollowedbyaprayerbythepastorwhile theofferingispresentedatthefrontofthechurch. Hymn
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New Testament Reading a Scripture reading chosen by the pastor, often the text for the sermon. PastoralPrayerawiderangingprayerbythepastorcoveringtheneedsofthecongregation, churches,community,missionaries,andtheworld. Hymn Sermonbasedononeofthereadings. Hymn Benedictionspokenbythepastororsungbythecongregation. Cherry(2010)outlinesthefollowingcharacteristicsasgenerallyfoundintraditionalworship(p.233): Committedtothefourfoldorder(yetwithouttheTableonmanySundays) Hymnbased Choirbased(agelevelchoirsandinstrumentalensembles) Useofstandardchoralliterature Primaryinstrumentationprovidedbyorganand/orpiano Lectionarybased(oftenbutnotalways) Useofstandardprayertypes(collect,prayerofconfession,theLordsPrayer,etc.)

Cherry further qualifies traditional worship by outlining a rangeofProsandCons(p.233): PROS:

Usesarichheritageofcontent Hymns and prayers are a treasure trove of good


theology Generallymoreobjective Tendstowardintergenerational CONS:

TraditionalWorshipmaytendtoward performancewhereworshipisdoneforthepeople bychoirsandspecialmusic

Tendstoignorethefreshcreativityofthepresentage Maytendtowardperformanceworshipbecauseofthehighinvolvementofchoirsandspecial
music Mayemphasiseworshipasprogramversusworshipasprayer

Ifmeretraditionalismforthesakeofaestheticsissuspect,surelythesameistrueofmere innovationforthesakeofexcitement.(Carson,2002,p.33)

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ContemporaryWorship
The twentieth century observed the development of three new movementsofworshipexpression.Thefirst,Pentecostalworship began with the Azusa Street revival (1906) in Los Angeles. The second new movement of the 20th century, the Charismatic Renewal, often referred to as neoPentecostalism (Williams, 2001) developed within historic churches (p. 220) during the 1950s.Mostrecently,
ContemporaryWorshipiscentredon musicandtheworshipparticipant

In the last decades of the twentieth century, charismatic worship has exerted a great influence on worship of all faiths. The charismatic model of freeflowing praise, Old Testament worship pattern, accommodation of contemporary culture, use of popular sounding music, embrace of technology, and emotionalappealhasalteredworshippracticeinmanycongregationsaroundtheglobe.Particulartothis phenomenonisthemusicusuallyreferredtoaspraiseandworshipmusic.(Segler&Bradley,2006,p. 47)

The third new movement was predominantly a musical one. Known as the Praise and Worship movementthereformationofhymnody,sawthedevelopmentofthemodernchorus.LeonNeto(2010) assets that in the same way traditional hymns were the sound image of the Great Awakening [TraditionalWorship]andtentrevivals,PraiseandWorshipsongsarethefaceofthenewmillennium Christianchurch(p.196). CollectivelyPentecostalism,theCharismatic,andPraiseandWorshipmovementsaregroupedunderthe labelContemporaryWorship.TheContemporarystylecanbeobservedinPentecostalchurcheslikethe Assemblies of God and the denomination that birthed the Praise and Worship movement: John WimbersVineyard.Importantlythough,theContemporaryworshipstyleisnotrestrictedtoPentecostal and Charismatic churches alone; with many mainline churches embracing the Contemporary styles capacitytoengagecultureonthelevelsoflanguage,music,intimacy,emotion,simplicity,andstory (Wilt,2009,p.159). Dr John Sweetman (2012b), in his Christian Worship module Contemporary Worship makes the bold claim It appears that the worship wars have been won by contemporary worship, or at least a peaceful agreement has been reached(p.3).Aseagerasmanyofusaretoobservethecessationofheated debatewithinthebodyofChristaroundthesubjectofworship,itisunlikelythat any worship style can claim victory over the other expressions of worship; regardlessofitsseeminglydominantuse.MarvaDawn(1995)remindsusthat,
idolatryofpowerisoftenattherootofmanycongregationsdivisionsoverthe style and format of worship services. The war between traditionalist and those who advocate cotemporary styles often becomes a subtle battle for power insteadofacommunitarianconversationthatcouldresultinablendingoftheold andnewtreasurestobefoundintheWordandinmusic.(pp.5253)

Sadly,itwouldseemthatwhileeverourinherentsinfulnessandresultinglustful pursuitforpowerremains(howeversubtle)thefieryworshipwarswillcontinue.

Doyouagreeor disagreewith Sweetman'sview thattheworship warshavebeen wonby Contemporary Worship?

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DespiteSweetmansvictorydeclaration(orconcedingdefeat)heisratherpointedinhissummationof theContemporaryworshipstylewhenhewrites,
To put it bluntly, contemporary worship is in danger of becoming singlefaceted, neglectful of the rich resources for worship, and boring. A preponderance of singing has lessened the opportunity for the creativitythatGodislookingforinourresponsetohisrevelation.Wedoneedtofindwaystodiversify theelementsinourworshipandtobemorecreative.(2012b,p.14)

Sweetman is not alone in his criticism of Contemporary Worship. In her textARoyalWasteofTimeDawn(1999)listssixconcernsregardingwhat shetermsconsumerorientatedworship(pp.6365;Sweetman,2012b): 1. Relativism: We are offering less truth and becoming therapeutic ratherthantheological. Allworshipstylesareatriskof 2. Entertainment: We sacrifice content for entertainment and becoming'ConsumerOrientated' confuse worship with evangelism and evangelism with marketing. WorshipformshouldreflectthetypeoflifetowhichJesuscallsus. 3. Pluralistic: We blur our unique identity as the people of God instead of accentuating it with lovingcommitment. 4. Rootless:Wegiveupourheritageascommunitieswithlonghistoriesandglobalconnections. 5. Loss of moral authority: We become tolerant to the point where we cease to be a people formedbythenarrativesofScripture. 6. Consumerism:Weofferarangeofoptionstomeetfeltneedsandmakedecisionsbymajority preferencesinsteadofembracingwhatistrulyneedful. It is important to temper Dawns critical overview here by acknowledging that in our 21st century postmodernist society all worship styles are at risk of succumbing to the temptations of the age and developingaconsumerorientatedexperienceinworship. The typical order of service for the Contemporary worship style is heavily reduced to only a few key components: Worship Set: using between 3 & 5 modern worship choruses the worship set commences the serviceisofteninterjectedbyashortwelcometoworshipandexhortationstoparticipate. Announcements & Prayer: generally a short 5 to 10 minute segment, the announcements are often delivered in an engaging and humorous manner. This also the time when children are dismissedtotheSundayschoolprogram. 12 Worship Songs or Communion: more often the period preceding the sermon is given to song,butitmightalsoobservecommunion. Sermon:a20to40minutetalkisdelivered(typicallybytheSeniorPastor).Thecentralmessage ofthesermonisnotnecessarilyconnectedthematicallytotherestoftheservice(seeError!Not avalidbookmarkselfreference.,p.16).Thesermonoftenculminatesinaprayerofcommitment givingtimefortheworshipteamtowalkbackontotostage. 12 Worship Songs and Closing Prayer: At times these songs will reinforce the subject matter coveredbythesermon;moreoftenthannottheyaresimplyanenergeticbookendtoclosethe service.
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BlendedWorship
It is the widespread infiltration of contemporary styled worship into mainline churches that has led to a widely utilised hybrid: Blended Worship. Michael Lawrence and Mark Dever (2009) defineBlendedworshipascorporateworshipthatconsistsofits biblical elements (prayer, singing, reading and preaching Gods Word,theordinancesofbaptismandtheLordsSupper)butina variety of styles or forms (p. 223). Essentially Blended worship BlendedWorshipseekstocombine style combines, or blends, the strengths of the Liturgical or theoldandthenew TraditionalstylewiththeemploymentoftheContemporarystyle andmoreimportantly,contemporarymusic(worshipchoruses).SometimesreferredtoasConvergence Worship, this style is often observed as a specially designed service held by churches conventionally giventoLiturgicalorTraditionalstyleservices.SomeAnglicanchurches,forexamplemayholdaSunday nightchurchservicewhichwillalsoemploythestylisticfeaturesofaContemporaryworshipstylewhile holdingtothenarrationof[the]Anglicanliturgy(Robinson,2010,p.278).TheBlendedworshipstyle usesacombinationofoldandnewhymnsaswellasrecentlywrittenchoruses. The father of Blended (Convergence) worship is Robert Webber. While writing about convergence worshipWebber(1993)outlinesfourguidingprinciplesfortheworshipstyle(p.122): OpenDiscourse:Thoseengaginginblendedworshipareencouragedtoaskwhatisworshipand why do we worship. Convergence worshipers believe these basic questions need to be continuallyaddressedfromthebiblical,historical,andsocialscienceperspectives. Teachable:Keentolearnfromtheentireworshippingcommunityconvergenceworshiperslook sympathetically at both liturgical worship and the worship of evangelicals, blacks, Anabaptists, Pentecostalsandcharismatics. Respect for History: Convergence worshippers seek to understand and engage with the rich tapestryofChristianworshipshistory. ContemporaryRelevance:Despiteanactiveconnectionwiththehistoryof Christianworshipconvergenceworshippersaremindfulthatworshipisan actofcommunicationbetweenGodandGodspeople.Consequentlythese worship leaders feel worship must touch the lives of people, stimulate personal and spiritual formation, and result in the healing of the inner personandofrelationships.

Blendedworshipemploysafourfoldpatternofworship(Sweetman,2012c,p.9):
Gathering:includingworship,prayer,confessionandlingeringinthepresence ofGod. Word:hearingGodsstorythroughScripture,sermonandperhapsdiscussion Eucharist: songs, Table, intimacy and opportunity for anointing and prayer ministry Dismissal
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Critique: Whatarethe strengthsof Blended Worship?What arethepossible weaknesses?

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EmergingWorship
Themostrecentdevelopmentinworshipservicedesignhasbeen the Emerging Worship style. Emerging worship seeks to move away from the linear employment of the worship service elements. Emerging worship advocate Dan Kimball (2004) suggests there is no model of an emerging worship gathering because each one is unique to its local church context, community,people,andspecificleadersofthechurch(p.73).In seeking to restructure the linear progression of the worship EmergingWorshipseekstoemploya servicethedesignofEmergingworshipisreliantonenablingthe nonlinearliturgy worship participant to freely move between worship stations at 2 their own discretion. Emerging worship seeks to utilise music in much the same way as the Blended style,withbothhymnsandchorusesemployed.IndescribinghisownEmergingchurchsuseofmusic, Kimball(2009)writes,wegenerallystartoffwithabouttenminutesofmusicalworshipthebandleads inpopworshipsongsthatareusuallyupbeatandmainlycelebratory.Themusicalworshipleaderselects both modern popworship songs and hymns (p. 312). Again, similar to the Blended worship style, Emergingworshipisoftenfound(thoughnotexclusivelyso)asaspecificallydesignedservice,createdas anadjuncttoestablishedchurchesofvariousdenominationalpersuasions.
As in many emerging churches, much of the appeal is to young people turned off by what they perceive as the lack of authenticity in traditional churches and the consumer mindset of many contemporarychurches.Thelongingforauthenticity,relationalconnection,andculturalengagement means these churches are intent on shedding themselves of cultural baggage (such as bulletins, formaldress,andchurchceremony)inordertoliveauthenticallyintheirculture(ministeringtothe needy,deeplyconnectingwithoneanother,andlisteningtoGodsWordstraight,i.e.,withdirect applicationandwithoutembellishment).(Chapell,2009,pp.271272)

Given that this style is still emerging (pun intended) it is difficult to fully quantify the service design. Nevertheless,Cherry(2010)suppliesuswithareliablelistofgeneralcharacteristics(pp.237238): Postmodernview(recognitionofpersonalandsocietalbrokenness) Nonidealisticaboutthehumanspirit Sensoryinnature(valuestheuseofallfivesensesinworship) Highlyexperiential(handsoninvolvementinworship) Commonlyledratherthanhierarchyofleadership Views contemporary worship as utterly selfreferencing (focused on human needs, feelings, desires) Appreciationforancientformsofworshipinterpretedincontemporaryways Appreciationforallartforms(allartformsassistinexperiencingGod) Hasmoderateinterestintechnology(viewstechnologyassomewhatartificial StrivestoengagepeoplewiththepersonofChrist Worshipasrealignment(IrealigntoGod;Goddoesnotrealigntome)

2 Kimball(2004)describesthevarietyofworshipstationsasincludingwaterbasins,claytables,orotherscripturallybased
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PerhapsbecauseofitsrelativenewnessEmergingworshipseems toformadistinctpolemicbetweenthosewhoendorseandthose whodisapproveofthestyle.Sweetman(2012c)deliversabalanced reviewofthestylecritiquingtheprosandthecons(pp.1314): PROS:

It returns worship to the people. They are heavily involved in the


worship and not just part of the audience. This helps develop worshippersnotconsumers.

It provides a helpful correction to the monochrome, musicbased worship that defines contemporary
worship.Itremindsusthatnoteveryoneseesworshipthesameway.

Itoffersworshipthatisrelevant topostmodernsandavarietyofculturesthatdontfitintocontemporary
worship.

Itofferssomethingforeveryone,especiallythenonsingers.Thechildren,theoutsiders,theuneducated,the
depressed, the doubting, etcetera, can all find expressions of worship that are meaningful for them. It involvesallthesenses.

It is aware of the history of worship and is not afraid to draw on traditional worship practices to enhance
worship.Yetitalsoprizestechnologyandthewayitcanaugmentworshiptomakeitmoreexperiential.

Itiscreative,thewayworshipshouldbe.Theworshipleaders/designersputeffortintocreatingworshipthat
isfreshandexperiential.

It operates as a genuine community in worship. People are worshipping in relationship, not just standing
together.Thereisopportunitytoforgerelationshipinworshipandthroughworship.

ItallowsparticipantstoexperienceandworshipmanydifferentfacetsofourGod.Heismuchmorethana
wonderfulGodwhodiedforoursins. CONS:

Itlacksaliturgy.Asetform/orderofworshipprovidesadirectionforworship;somethingthatworshippers can rely on; something that worship leaders can follow; something that can be theologically critiqued and improved. The diversity and innovativeness of emerging worship is both its strength and weakness. Set liturgies are adopted in individual churches, but the contextual nature of the emerging church movement militatesagainstanycommonforms.Inmanyways,itseveryone(church)forthemselves. It asks too much of worship leaders. To create a new emerging service from scratch every week can be overwhelmingandisverydifficulttomaintain.Churchesthathavepursuedsomeformsofemergingworship haveoftenpulledbackbecauseofthetimeandresourcedemands.Itisverydifficulttomaintain. Itcanbepronetoconsumerism.Becauseitvaluesinnovation,experienceandpersonalexpressionsohighly, worshipperscaneasilybedrawnintoasearchforthemostcreativeservicesandthebestexperiences.Thisis especiallytrueiftheycometoemergingworshipwithacriticalattitudetowardsotherformsofworship.It canbecome apursuitofthebestworshipratherthanapursuit ofGod. Of course,thiscanbetrueof any formofworship. Itiseasiertopursuein smallercongregationsthaninlargerones.Itisprobablytruethatincontemporary worship, the larger churches have a distinct advantage. In particular, they have the resources to provide qualitymusic.Emergingworshipistheopposite.Itspersonal,intimateyetrelationalnaturemakesitmore easilyadaptabletosmallerworshipgroups.
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3. 21st Century Worship Forms


ThefinalcontextuallayerusedtodefineworshipsettingsisWorshipForms.Thethreeworshipforms, whicharenotalwaysmutuallyexclusive(i.e.youcanhaveathematicmodularhybridforexample),are usedtoordermodernChristianworship:Modular,ThematicandFlow(Robinson,2011).3 The modular4 worship form is defined as moving through distinct modules of worship with no one module regarded more highly than another, though the Eucharist (communion) is often seen as a climaticpoint(Robinson,2010,p.279).Theworshipstylesmostlikelytoemploythemodularformare LiturgicalandTraditional. Thematic is based on a central theme. For instance, if the theme is Gods Love, then all the service components(includingsongs,sermonandbiblereadings)willbegovernedbytheoverarchingthemeof Godslove.Oftentheclimaticpointofthisworship formisfoundinthesermon.TheThematicformis most often observed in Traditional, Blended and Emergingworshipsettings. Flow derives its name from the flowing nature of the service components. Typically found in the Contemporary and Blended worship settings, a service using the Flow form will often have two distinctpointsofclimax;oneduringasetofsongs (typicallyknownastheWorshipSet)andasecond during the sermon. It is important to note that these two points of climax can be independent occurrences; that is there neednt be a theme connectingthetwoclimaxevents. Becauseeachworshipformusesthesamebuilding blocks (music, sermon, Lords Supper etc.) it is important to recall Lieschs (1996) clarification which suggests that the three worship forms are not mutually exclusive; they can be blended (p. 72). The graphic (left) presents the correlation of worshipstylewithworshipform.

WorshipStyleandWorshipForm (Robinson,2011,p.206)

Briefly consider the main cultural influences on your churchs worship construct. Nominatethreemaininfluenceshighlightingthemannerinwhichtheyhaveshapedthe designofliturgy;andthennominatewhetherthesearepositiveornegativeeffects.

ThelabelsusedtodefinethethreeworshipformshavebeendevelopedfromBarryLieschs(1996)workinhistextTheNew Worship(seeLieschsThreeFormatsofWorship,p.2). 4 LieschlabelsthemodularformasLiturgical,butIhavechosentorenameitmodularsothatconfusionisavoidedwhen correlatingthefiveworshipstyleswiththethreeworshipforms. Page16 TodaysWorshipConstructs 2012DrDanielK.Robinson


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References
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