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# FIR FILTER USING RECTANGULAR/BOXCAR WINDOW

AIM: To design an FIR filter using Rectangular window technique using MATLAB functions.

## THEORY: The rectangular window sequence is given by

In the design of FIR filters using any window technique, the order can be calculated using the formula given by

where p is the passband ripple, s is the stopband ripple, fp is the passband frequency, fs is the stopband frequency and Fs is the sampling frequency.

BOXCAR Boxcar window: BOXCAR still works but maybe removed in the future. Use RECTWIN instead.

## RECTWIN Rectangular window: W = RECTWIN(N) returns the N-point rectangular window.

FIR1 FIR filter design using the window method. B = FIR1(N,Wn) designs an N'th order lowpass FIR digital filter and returns the filter coefficients in length N+1 vector B. The cut-off frequency Wn must be between 0 < Wn < 1.0, with 1.0 corresponding to half the sample rate. The filter B is real and has linear phase. The normalized gain of the filter at Wn is -6 dB.

B = FIR1(N,Wn,'high') designs an N'th order highpass filter.You can also use B = FIR1(N,Wn,'low') to design a lowpass filter. If Wn is a two-element vector, Wn = [W1 W2], FIR1 returns an order N bandpass filter with passband W1 < W < W2. You can also specify B = FIR1(N,Wn,'bandpass'). If Wn = [W1 W2], B = FIR1(N,Wn,'stop') will design a bandstop filter.

CEIL Round towards plus infinity. CEIL(X) rounds the elements of X to the nearest integers towards infinity.

MATLAB CODE:

%program for the design of FIR Low pass filter using boxcar window method clc; clear all; close all; format long rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=boxcar(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y);%Window-based finite impulse response filter design [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256);%Frequency response of filter m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1),plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-BOXCAR WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS PHASE RESPONSE-BOXCAR WINDOW METHOD');

SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the sampling 2

## ripple.05 ripple.04 frequency1500 frequency2000 frequency9000

%program for the design of FIR High pass filter using boxcar window method clc; clear all; close all; format long rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=boxcar(n1); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR HIGH PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-BOXCAR WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR HIGH PASS PHASE RESPONSE-BOXCAR WINDOW METHOD');

SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the sampling

## FIR FILTER USING BLACKMAN WINDOW

AIM: To design an FIR filter using Blackman window technique using MATLAB functions.

## THEORY: The blackman window sequence is given by

In the design of FIR filters using any window technique, the order can be calculated using the formula given by

where p is the passband ripple, s is the stopband ripple, fp is the passband frequency, fs is the stopband frequency and Fs is the sampling frequency.

BLACKMAN Blackman window: BLACKMAN(N) returns the N-point symmetric Blackman window in a column vector. BLACKMAN(N,SFLAG) generates the N-point Blackman window using SFLAG window sampling. SFLAG may be either 'symmetric' or 'periodic'. By default, a symmetric window is returned.

FIR1 FIR filter design using the window method: B = FIR1(N,Wn) designs an N'th order lowpass FIR digital filter and returns the filter coefficients in length N+1 vector B. The cut-off frequency Wn must be between 0 < Wn < 1.0, with 1.0 corresponding to half the sample rate. The filter B is real and has linear phase. The normalized gain of the filter at Wn is -6 dB. B = FIR1(N,Wn,'high') designs an N'th order highpass filter.You can also use B = FIR1(N,Wn,'low') to design a lowpass filter. If Wn is a two-element vector, Wn = [W1 W2], FIR1 returns an order N bandpass filter with passband W1 < W < W2. You can also specify B = FIR1(N,Wn,'bandpass'). If Wn = [W1 W2], B = FIR1(N,Wn,'stop') will design a bandstop filter.

CEIL Round towards plus infinity: CEIL(X) rounds the elements of X to the nearest integers towards infinity. MATLAB CODE %program for the design of FIR Low pass using blackman window clc; clear all; close all; rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f;

n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=blackman(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-BLACKMAN WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS PHASE RESPONSE-BLACKMAN WINDOW METHOD');

SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the sampling

## ripple.03 ripple.01 frequency2000 frequency2500 frequency7000

%program for the design of FIR High pass filter using blackman window clc; clear all; close all; rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=blackman(n1); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR HIGH PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-BLACKMAN WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR HIGH PASS PHASE RESPONSE-BLACKMAN WINDOW METHOD');

SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the sampling

## FIR FILTER USING HAMMING WINDOW

AIM: To design an FIR filter using Hamming window technique using MATLAB functions.

## THEORY: The equation for Hamming window is given by

In the design of FIR filters using any window technique, the order can be calculated using the formula given by

where p is the passband ripple, s is the stopband ripple, fp is the passband frequency, fs is the stopband frequency and Fs is the sampling frequency.

HAMMING Hamming window: HAMMING(N) returns the N-point symmetric Hamming window in a column vector. HAMMING(N,SFLAG) generates the N-point Hamming window using SFLAG window sampling. SFLAG may be either 'symmetric' or 'periodic'. By default, a symmetric window is returned.

## FIR1 FIR filter design using the window method:

B = FIR1(N,Wn) designs an N'th order lowpass FIR digital filter and returns the filter coefficients in length N+1 vector B. The cut-off frequency Wn must be between 0 < Wn < 1.0, with 1.0 corresponding to half the sample rate. The filter B is real and has linear phase. The normalized gain of the filter at Wn is -6 dB. B = FIR1(N,Wn,'high') designs an N'th order highpass filter.You can also use B = FIR1(N,Wn,'low') to design a lowpass filter. If Wn is a two-element vector, Wn = [W1 W2], FIR1 returns an order N bandpass filter with passband W1 < W < W2. You can also specify B = FIR1(N,Wn,'bandpass'). If Wn = [W1 W2], B = FIR1(N,Wn,'stop') will design a bandstop filter.

CEIL Round towards plus infinity: CEIL(X) rounds the elements of X to the nearest integers towards infinity.

MATLAB CODE: %program for the design of FIR Low pass filter using Hamming window clc; clear all; close all; rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=hamming(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-HAMMING WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS PHASE RESPONSE-HAMMING WINDOW METHOD');

SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband ripple.02 Enter the stopband ripple.01 7

Enter the passband frequency1200 Enter the stopband frequency1700 Enter the sampling frequency9000
%program for the design of FIR High pass filter using Hamming window clc; clear all; close all; rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=hamming(n1); %HIGH PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR HIGH PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-HAMMING WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR HIGH PASS PHASE RESPONSE-HAMMING WINDOW METHOD');

SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the sampling

## FIR FILTER USING KAISER WINDOW

AIM: To design an FIR filter using Kaiser window technique using MATLAB functions.

## THEORY: The Kaiser window is given by

In the design of FIR filters using any window technique, the order can be calculated using the formula given by

where p is the passband ripple, s is the stopband ripple, fp is the passband frequency, fs is the stopband frequency and Fs is the sampling frequency.

KAISER Kaiser window: W = KAISER(N) returns an N-point Kaiser window in the column vector W. W = KAISER(N,BTA) returns the BETA-valued N-point Kaiser window. If omitted, BTA is set to 0.500.

FIR1 FIR filter design using the window method: B = FIR1(N,Wn) designs an N'th order lowpass FIR digital filter and returns the filter coefficients in length N+1 vector B. The cut-off frequency Wn must be between 0 < Wn < 1.0, with 1.0 corresponding to half the sample rate. The filter B is real and has linear phase. The normalized gain of the filter at Wn is -6 dB. B = FIR1(N,Wn,'high') designs an N'th order highpass filter.You can also use B = FIR1(N,Wn,'low') to design a lowpass filter. If Wn is a two-element vector, Wn = [W1 W2], FIR1 returns an order N bandpass filter with passband W1 < W < W2. You can also specify B = FIR1(N,Wn,'bandpass'). If Wn = [W1 W2], B = FIR1(N,Wn,'stop') will design a bandstop filter.

CEIL Round towards plus infinity: CEIL(X) rounds the elements of X to the nearest integers towards infinity. MATLAB CODE %program for the design of FIR Low pass filter using Kaiser window clc; clear all; close all; rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f;

n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=kaiser(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-KAISER WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR LOW PASS PHASE RESPONSE-KAISER WINDOW METHOD');

SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the sampling

## ripple.04 ripple.03 frequency1500 frequency2400 frequency8000

%program for the design of FIR High pass filter using Kaiser window clc; clear all; close all; rp=input('Enter the passband ripple'); rs=input('Enter the stopband ripple'); fp=input('Enter the passband frequency'); fs=input('Enter the stopband frequency'); f=input('Enter the sampling frequency'); wp=2*fp/f; ws=2*fs/f; num=-20*log10(sqrt(rp*rs))-13; dem=14.6*(fs-fp)/f; n=ceil(num/dem); n1=n+1; if(rem(n,2)~=0) n1=n; n=n-1; end y=kaiser(n1); %LOW PASS FILTER b=fir1(n,wp,'high',y); [h,o]=freqz(b,1,256); m=20*log10(abs(h)); an=angle(h); subplot(2,1,1); plot(o/pi,m); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); ylabel('Gain in dB--->'); title('FIR HIGH PASS MAGNITUDE RESPONSE-KAISER WINDOW METHOD'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(o/pi,an); ylabel('Phase in radians--->'); xlabel('Normalised frequency--->'); title('FIR HIGH PHASE RESPONSE-KAISER WINDOW METHOD');

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SAMPLE INPUTS: Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the passband Enter the stopband Enter the sampling

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