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PAREF SOUTHRIDGE SCHOOL AFTERNOON SCHOOL CHEMISTRY

Unit 1 Introduction to Chemistry Chemistry The study of matter its composition, structure, properties, transformation from one form to another and the energy that accompanies its transformation. Important Branches of Chemistry

CHEMISTRY

Analytical Chemistry

Inorganic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Physical Chemistry

Biochemistry

1. Analytical Chemistry Analytical chemistry is the study of the separation, identification, and quantification of the chemical components of natural and artificial materials. 2. Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. 3. Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is that branch of chemistry that deals with the structure, properties, and reactions of compounds that contain carbon. 4. Physical Chemistry Physical chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of physical laws and concepts. It applies the principles, practices and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics and dynamics. 5. Biochemistry Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter.

History of Chemistry Time Intervals

Specific Times 1700 BC

Events King Hammurabi

Black Magic Era Prehistoric Times Beginning of the Christian Era

430 BC

Democritus

300 BC

Aristotle

300 BC 300 AD

The Advent of the Alchemists

Alchemy Period Beginning of the Christian Era End of 17th Century

13th Century (1200's) 15th Century (1400's)

Failure of the Gold Business

1520

Elixir of Life

Description Known metals were recorded and listed in conjunction with heavenly bodies. Democritus proclaims the atom to be the simplest unit of matter. All matter was composed of atoms. Aristotle declares the existence of only four elements: fire, air, water and earth. All matter is made up of these four elements and matter had four properties: hot, cold, dry and wet. Influenced greatly by Aristotle's ideas, alchemists attempted to transmute cheap metals to gold. The substance used for this conversion was called the Philosopher's Stone. Although Pope John XXII issued an edict against gold-making, the gold business continued. Despite the alchemists' efforts, transmutation of cheap metals to gold never happened within this time period. Alchemists not only wanted to convert metals to gold, but they also wanted to

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End of 17th Century

Death of Alchemy

Traditional Chemistry End of 17th Century Mid 19th Century

1700's

Phlogiston Theory

find a chemical concoction that would enable people to live longer and cure all ailments. This elixir of life never happened either. The disproving of Aristotle's fourelements theory and the publishing of the book, The Skeptical Chemist (by Robert Boyle), combined to destroy this early form of chemistry. Scientists proposed an incorrect theory to explain why substances change form (undergo a chemical transformation) as they burn. Scientists proposed that combustible materials released an undetectable substance, phlogiston, when they burned. These scientists would say that wood (a combustible material) contains phlogiston; as wood burns, ashes form as the phlogiston turns out of the wood. In some substances, a product is produced. For example, calx of mercury plus phlogiston gives the product of mercury.

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1774-1794

Disproving of the Phlogiston Theory

1803

Dalton's Atomic Theory

When wood burns in a sealed container, it will not burn to completion if there is not enough air. Thus it was deduced that any given amount of common air (as it was called) could hold only so much phlogiston. Common air that could hold no more phlogiston was called "phlogisticated air. A French chemist named Antoine Lavosier made careful quantitative measurements to show that oxygen, a component of air, is required for combustion and combines with a substance as it burns. John Dalton publishes his Atomic Theory which states that all matter is composed of atoms, which are small and indivisible.

Modern Chemistry Mid 19th Century Present

The Cathode Ray Experiment (William Crookes) Discovery of X-Ray (Wilhelm Roentgen) Discovery of Electrons (JJ Thomson) Discovery of Radiation (Marie Curie) Discovery of Nucleus and Proton (Ernest Rutherford) Discovery of Neutrons (James Chadwick)

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Some Noted Chemists Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) Father of Modern Chemistry Discovered and coined the word oxygen (and its role in combustion) and hydrogen. Henry Cavendish discovered an inflammable air and renamed it hydrogen (greek for water-former) as if this was combined to oxygen this will form a dew that appeared to be water. Principle of Mass Conservation, that although matter may change in shape or form, its mass always remains the same. John Dalton (1766-1844) Development of Atoms Daltons Atomic Theory He postulated that elements are made up of small atoms, which can neither be created nor destroyed. In his theory, it was mentioned that atoms of an element are similar to each other, but they differ from those of other elements. Color Blindness Findings Daltonism

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907) Creator of the Original Periodic Table 68 elements were arranged in increasing order of the atomic weight and similar properties. At that time, he already knew about the existence of other elements that were yet to be discovered. Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) Father of Nuclear Physics Discovery of Half Life in radioactive substances (radioactivity). Planetary (Solar System) Model or Rutherford Atomic Model 1. An atom consists of a central nucleus. This nucleus is composed of positively charged protons, and electrically uncharged (neutral) neutrons. 2. Negatively charged electrons revolve round the nucleus in definite orbits. 3. The orbits themselves can be at any distance from the nucleus. 4. In any atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, and hence it is electrically neutral. He was the first chemist to try splitting of an atom and it's nucleus. Recipient of the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Marie Curie (1867-1934) Coined the term radioactivity Radioactivity - The spontaneous decay or disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus accompanied by the emission of radiation.

Lourdes Jansuy Cruz, PhD Researched the properties of toxins found in Conus marine snails, which were later used to assist in the study of the brain function neurotransmitters (Conus peptides) First Filipina to receive a LOral UNESCO Award for Women in the Life Sciences, 2010

Alfredo Santos Researched the isolation of the phaeantherine and other alkaloids from Philippine medicine plants

Julian Banzon Experimented with the production of ethyl esters fuels from sugarcane and coconut.

Concepts on Scientific Method Scientific Method a systematic approach to research 1. Observation. Observe and describe some phenomenon or group of phenomena. Gather pertinent data. Two Types of Data Qualitative Data. consisting of general observations and often descriptive. Quantitative Data, comprising numbers obtained by various measurements.

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2. Hypothesis. Formulation of a tentative description, called a hypothesis that is consistent with what you have observed. 3. Experiment. Further experiments are devised to test the validity of the hypothesis in as many ways as possible, and the process begins anew. 4. Analysis/Generalization. After a large amount of data has been collected, it is often desirable to summarize the information in a concise way, as a law.

A law is a concise verbal or mathematical statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions. Example: Law of Mass Conservation booger, even if you change its shape, it does not affect its mass.

Hypotheses that survive many experimental tests of their validity may evolve into theories. A theory is a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and/or those laws that are based on them. Systems and Units of Measurement The study of chemistry depends heavily on measurement. For instance, chemists use measurements to compare the properties of different substances and to assess changes resulting from an experiment. In 1960, the General Conference of Weights and Measures, the international authority on units, proposed a revised metric system called International System of Units (abbreviated SI, from French System International dUnites) and is used all over the world. Table 1.1 shows the seven SI base units. All other SI units of measurement can be derived from these base units. Table 1.1 Seven SI Base Units Base Quantity Length Mass Time Electrical Current Temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity Name of Unit meter kilogram second ampere Kelvin mole candela Symbol m Kg s A K mol cd

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In chemistry, frequent measurements that will be used are time, mass, volume, density and temperature.

Precision and Accuracy Accuracy means how close the measurements are to the true value. Example 1: Data True Value st 1 Trial: 0.980 g/mL 1.000 g/mL 2nd Trial: 1.020 g/mL 3rd Trial: 0.970 g/mL Ave: 0.990 g/mL The measurements in the example have a high accuracy. On the other hand, precision refers to how close the measurements in a series are to each other. Example 2: Data A Data B st 1 Trial: 49.05 cm 20.45 cm 2nd Trial: 49.01 cm 50.76 cm rd 3 Trial: 48.95 cm 60.95 cm You would notice that Data A are close to each other, meaning there is high precision. However, high precision does not necessarily mean high accuracy. In the example given, if the true value is 80.00 cm, then Data A measurements are with high precision but with poor accuracy. Data B shows low precision and poor accuracy. Exercise 3: The density of mercury is 13.35 g/cm3. Experimental results gave the following data: 10.45 g/cm3 16.56 g/cm3 15.75 g/cm3 12.35 g/cm3 Can the measurements be described as accurate? Precise? The average value is 13.78 g/cm3. The measurement is accurate but has low precison. Factor-Label / Dimensional Analysis Method Many problems in chemistry require a change of units. To make a conversion, a conversion factor having a numerator and denominator representing a relationship is obtained. The conversion factor is used to produce the desired cancellation of units. The following equation can help you in dimensional analysis. Needed unit (x) = Given unit x Conversion factor

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Examples: The length of a piece of wood is 13.25 cm. Express this in kilometers. Given: 13.25 cm Required: value in kilometers Solution: 1 m 1 km x = 13.25 cm 100 cm 1000 m = 13.25 km 105 x = 1.325 x 10-4 km How many cubic centimeters are there in 0.15 L? Given: 0.15L Required: value in cm3 (1cm3 = 1mL) Solution: x = 0.15 L = 150 cm3 Convert 1 g/mL to kg/L. Given: 1g/mL Required: kg/L Conversion Factor: 1kg = 1000g ; 1L = 1000mL Solution: First, convert grams to kilograms, then followed by milliliters to liters. x= 1g mL 1 kg L 1 kg 1000 g 1000 mL 1L 103 mL 1L 1 cm3 1 mL

A kilogram of atis costs P20.00. How many kilograms can you buy if you have P90.00? Given: P90.00 Required: kilograms atis Conversion Factor: P20.00 = 1kg Solution: x = P90.00 1 kg P20.00

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= 4.5 kg

A tablet contains 5mg of antibiotic. If the doctor orders 0.15g of antibiotic, how many tablets are needed? Given: 0.15g antibiotic Required: tablets Conversion Factor: 1g = 1000 mg; 1 tablet = 5mg antibiotic Solution: 1000 mg 1 tablet x = 0.15 g 1g 5 mg

= 30 tablets A can contains 250 mL of juice. How many liters of juice are there in one can? Given: 1 can Required: amount of juice in liters Conversion Factor: 1 can = 250 mL; 1 L = 1000 mL Solution: 1L x = 250 mL 1000 mL

= 0.250 L

A solid material has the density of 5g/mL. What is the volume in liters of 100 g of the material? Density is mass divided by the volume of the sample: D = m (g) V (mL)

Given: Required: Solution:

Density = 5g/mL Mass = 100 g volume

Derive first the formula for volume from the formula of density: D=m V=m V D page 10 of 14

Then get the volume in mL: V = 100 g 5 g/mL Then convert mL to L: 1L 1000 mL = 20 mL 1L 1000 mL

= 20 mL

= 0.02 L

Significant Figures Otherwise known as the significant digits, Significant Figures are very important in Chemistry. Significant Figures are the meaningful digits in a measured or calculated quantity and are critical when reporting scientific data because they give the reader an idea of how well one could actually measure and report the data. Rules in Significant Figures 1. All nonzero digits are significant. Thus, 845 cm has 3 significant figures; 1.234 kg has 4 significant figures. 2. Zeros between nonzero digits are significant. Thus, 606 m contains 3 significant figures; 40 501 kg has 5 significant figures. 3. Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant but are used to indicate the position of the decimal point. (PLACEHOLDER RULE) 0.08 L has 1 significant figure (8), 0.0000349 g has 3 significant figures (3,4,9). 4. If a number is greater than 1, then all the zeros written to the right of the decimal point count as significant figures. Thus, 2.0 mg has 2 significant figures (2,0), 40.062 mL has 5 significant figures (4,0,0,6,2) and 3.040 dm has 4 significant figures (3,0,4,0). If a number is less than 1, then only the zeros that are the end of the number and the zeros that are between non-zero digits are significant. Thus, 0.090 kg has 2 significant figures (9,0), 0.3005 has 4 significant figures (3,0,0,5). 5. In integer measurements, trailing zeros (zeros after the nonzero digit) are undefined. In decimal measurements, trailing zeros are significant. Thus, 2.0 kg has 2 significant figures (2,0) and 1300.05 ft has 6 significant figures.

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Scientific Notation Scientific Notation is a method of writing extremely small or large numbers. It is expressed in the form:

N x 10

where N is a number between 1 and 10 n, the exponent, is a positive or negative integer (whole number) Key Steps in Writing Scientific Notation: 1. First, move the decimal point to the right of the first number in the series, then count the number of places you had moved the decimal point. This number will be the exponent. Example: 568.782 = 5.68782 Decimal place moved to the left 2 times 2. If the movement was towards the LEFT, exponent is positive. If it is towards RIGHT, exponent is negative. Example: 5.68782 x 102 Other Examples: 0.00000772 74355.6 = 7.72 x 10-6 = 7.456 x 104

Key Points n = 0 is used for numbers that are not expressed in scientific notation. Example: 74.6 x 100 = 74.6 2571.92 x 100 = 2571.92 The usual practice is to omit the superscript when n = 1. Example: 74.6 when expressed in scientific notation: 7.46 x 10 not 7.46 x 101

Scientific Notation in Arithmetic Operations Addition and Subtraction When adding or subtracting, you must express the numbers as the same power of 10 (same exponent). This will often involve changing the decimal place of the coefficient. After proceed with adding or subtracting. page 12 of 14

Example:

(3.76 x 104)

(5.5 x 102)

Move the decimal to change 5.5 x 102 to 0.055 x 104 to have the same exponent (3.76 x 104) + (0.055 x 104) Add the coefficients and leave the base and exponent the same. 3.76 + 0.055 = 3.815 x 104 Follow the rules in rounding off/significant figures. Example: (4.8 x 105) (9.7 x 104) Move the decimal to change 9.7 x 104 to 0.97 x 105 to have the same exponent (4.8 x 105) (0.97 x 105) Subtract the coefficients and leave the base and exponent the same. 4.8 0.97 = 3.83 x 105 Follow the rules in rounding off/significant figures. Multiplication When you multiply numbers with scientific notation, multiply the coefficients together and add the exponents. The base will remain 10. Example: (2.33 x 10-6) x (8.19 x 103) (10-6 + 103)

Rewrite the problem as: (2.33 x 8.19) x

Multiply the coefficients and add the exponents 19.0827 x 10-3 Follow the rules in scientific notation/rounding off/significant figures. 1.91 x 10-2 Division When dividing with scientific notation, divide the coefficients and subtract the exponents. The base will remain 10. Example: (3.5 x 108) / (6.6 x 104) Rewrite the problem as: page 13 of 14

3.5 x 108 6.6 x 104 Divide the coefficients and subtract the exponents 0.530303 x 104 Follow the rules in scientific notation/rounding off/significant figures. 5.3 x 103

References Chang, Raymond. General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts. New York: McGraw-Hill International Edition, 2008. Mendoza, Estrella E., and Teresita F. Religioso. You and the Natural World Series: Chemistry. 2nd ed. N.p.: Phoenix-SIBS Publishing House, 2002. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/chemistry/chem-c2507/navbar/chemhist.html

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