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Chapter 12:

Metal Alloy Selection

Issues to address

Refinement from ore:

How is it done?

Fabrication:

How do we get the desired shape?

Terminology:

How are properties designated?

Material Selection:

Choose the right material for the right job!

Anderson 205- 12-1

Refining Steel from Iron Ore

Coke

Iron Ore Limestone BLAST FURNACE heat generation gas C+O 2 Æ CO 2 refractory vessel
Iron Ore
Limestone
BLAST FURNACE
heat generation
gas
C+O 2 Æ CO 2
refractory
vessel
layers of coke
and iron ore
reduction of iron ore to metal
CO 2 +CÆ 2CO
3CO+Fe 2 O 3 Æ 2Fe+3CO 2
purification
slag air
Molten iron
CaCO 3 Æ CaO+CO 2
CaO + SiO 2 +Al 2 O 3 Æ slag
Anderson 205- 12-2

Metal Fabrication Techniques

O 3 Æ slag Anderson 205- 12-2 Metal Fabrication Techniques CASTING Drawing ( rods, JOINING wire,
O 3 Æ slag Anderson 205- 12-2 Metal Fabrication Techniques CASTING Drawing ( rods, JOINING wire,
O 3 Æ slag Anderson 205- 12-2 Metal Fabrication Techniques CASTING Drawing ( rods, JOINING wire,
O 3 Æ slag Anderson 205- 12-2 Metal Fabrication Techniques CASTING Drawing ( rods, JOINING wire,

CASTING

Drawing (rods,

JOINING

wire, tubing) A o A d
wire, tubing)
A o
A d

(Demo)

FORMING

Forging (wrenches, crankshafts)

A o A d (Demo) FORMING Forging (wrenches, crankshafts) A o A d Rolling (sheet, I-beams,

A o

A d

Rolling (sheet,

I-beams, rails) A o A d
I-beams, rails)
A o
A d

Often done at elev. T

(sheet, I-beams, rails) A o A d Often done at elev. T Extrusion (rods, tubing) A

Extrusion (rods, tubing)

A o A d
A
o
A
d

Anderson 205- 12-3

T Extrusion (rods, tubing) A o A d Anderson 205- 12-3 Forming Temperature Hot working recrystallization

Forming Temperature

Hot working

recrystallization less energy to deform oxidation: poor finish lower strength

Cold working

work hardening more energy to deform good finish higher strength

Cold Worked Microstructures

• Forged

higher strength Cold Worked Microstructures • Forged • Swaged • Fracture resistant! Anderson 205- 12-4

• Swaged

• Fracture resistant!

Anderson 205- 12-4
Anderson 205- 12-4
Microstructures • Forged • Swaged • Fracture resistant! Anderson 205- 12-4 Directional Microstructure Anisotropic!

Directional Microstructure Anisotropic!

Metal Fabrication Techniques

Metal Fabrication Techniques C A S T I N G JOINING FORMING Sand Casting Sand Sand
Metal Fabrication Techniques C A S T I N G JOINING FORMING Sand Casting Sand Sand

CASTING

JOINING

FORMING

Sand Casting

Sand Sand molten metal
Sand
Sand
molten metal

large parts, e.g., auto engine blocks

Die Casting
Die Casting

high volume

low T alloys

Investment Casting plaster die

wax
wax
high volume low T alloys Investment Casting plaster die wax low volume, more complex shapes (jewelry,
high volume low T alloys Investment Casting plaster die wax low volume, more complex shapes (jewelry,

low volume, more complex shapes (jewelry, turbine blades)

Continuous Casting molten solidified simple slab shapes Anderson 205- 12-5
Continuous Casting
molten
solidified
simple slab shapes
Anderson 205- 12-5

Taxonomy of Metal Alloys

Metal Alloys

Ferrous Nonferrous Steels Steels Cast Irons Cast Irons Cu Al Mg Ti <1.4wt%C <1.4wt%C 3-4.5wt%C
Ferrous
Nonferrous
Steels
Steels
Cast Irons
Cast
Irons
Cu
Al
Mg
Ti
<1.4wt%C
<1.4wt%C
3-4.5wt%C
3-4.5wt%C
T(°C)
1600
d
L
1400
g+L
1200
L+Fe 3 C
g 1148°C
Eutectic:
austenite
1000
4.30
g+Fe 3 C
Fe 3 C
a
800 727°C
Eutectoid:
cementite
600
0.77 a +Fe 3 C
400 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
6.7
(Fe)
C o , wt% C

ferrite

microstructure:

ferrite, graphite

cementite

, wt% C ferrite microstructure: ferrite, graphite cementite Anderson 205- 12-7 Metal Fabrication Techniques FORMING

Anderson 205- 12-7

Metal Fabrication Techniques FORMING CASTING JOINING Powder Processing pressure Welding heat area contact
Metal Fabrication Techniques
FORMING
CASTING
JOINING
Powder Processing
pressure
Welding
heat
area
contact
densify
point contact
at low T
densification
by diffusion
at higher T
microstructure is
changed near the weld
Anderson 205- 12-6

Steels

 

Low

Alloy

 

High Alloy

 
 

low carbon

med carbon

   

high carbon

 
   

<0.25wt%C

0.25-0.6wt%C

0.6-1.4wt%C

 
                     

Name

plain

HSLA

 

plain

 

heat

 

plain

tool

     

austentitic

 

treatable

 

stainless

Additions none

   

Cr,V

 

Cr, Ni

   

Cr,

 

V,

 

Cr, Ni, Mo

Ni,

Mo

none

Mo

 

none

Mo,

W

Example 1010

 

4310

 

1040

4340

1095

 

4190

   

304

Hardenability 0

 

+

+

++

++

+++

   

0

TS

-

0

+

++

+

 

++

   

0

EL

+

+

0

-

 

-

 

--

   

++

Uses

auto

bridges

crank

pistons

wear

 

drills

   

high T

 

struc.

towers

shafts

gears

applic.

saws

applic.

sheet

press.

bolts

wear

dies

 

turbines

vessels

hammers applic.

furnaces

 

blades

   

V. corros.

 
  resistant

resistant

increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility

Anderson 205- 12-8

blades     V. corros.   resistant increasing strength, cost, decreasing ductility Anderson 205- 12-8

Cu Alloys

Al Alloys

Brass: Zn is subst. impurity (costume jewelry, coins, corrosion resistant) Bronze: Sn, Al, Si, Ni are subst. impurity (bushings, landing

gear)

Cu-Be:

precip. hardened

for strength

-lower r : 2.7g/cm 3 -Cu, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn additions -solid sol. or precip. strengthened (struct. aircraft parts and packaging)

• Mg Alloys

-very low r : 1.7g/cm 3 -ignites easily -aircraft, missles

NonFerrous Alloys
NonFerrous
Alloys

• Ti Alloys

-lower r : 4.5g/cm 3 vs 7.9 for steel -reactive at high T

-space applic.

• Noble metals

• Refractory metals

-high melting T -Nb, Mo, W, Ta

-Ag, Au, Pt -oxid./corr. resistant

Anderson 205- 12-9

Noble metals • Refractory metals -high melting T -Nb, Mo, W, Ta -Ag, Au, Pt -oxid./corr.