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Chapter 10: Phase Transformations

ISSUES TO ADDRESS... Phase transformations take time to occur.


Fe

Fraction Transformed depends on time Avrami Eqn.


fraction transformed y = 1 ekt n time 1 y 0.5

Fraction of Transformation
Callister,

FCC

Eutectoid transformation (cementite)

Fe3C +

(Austenite)

Fig. 10.1 Fixed T t0.5 log (t)

(ferrite)

(BCC)

Transformation rate depends on T


activation energy r= 1 t
0.5

How does the rate of transformation depend on time and temperature? How can we slow down the transformation so that we can engineer nonequilibrium structures? Are the mechanical properties of nonequilibrium structures better?
Anderson 205- 10-1

= Ae

Q / RT

Ex: recrystallization of Cu y (%) 100 50 0 1 10 102 104 log (t) min

r often small: equil. not possible!

Callister, Fig. 10.2 Anderson 205- 10-2

Transformations & Undercooling


Eutectoid transf. (Fe-C System): Can make it occur at: 0.77wt%C
...727C (cool it slowly) ...below 727C (undercool it!) T(C)
1600 1400 1200

+ Fe3 C
6.7wt%C 0.022wt%C

Eutectoid Reaction Rate ~ T


Growth of pearlite from austenite:
Austenite () grain boundary cementite (Fe3C) ferrite () pearlite growth direction 0
650C

Diffusive flow of C needed

L L+Fe3C

ferrite

+L 1000 austenite Eutectoid: +Fe3C


800 600 400 0 (Fe)

r as T
Fe3C cementite reaction rate

100

Equil. cooling: Ttransf. = 727C

600C (T larger)

T +Fe3C Undercooling by T: Ttransf. < 727C


1 2 3 4

727C

50 0

675C (T smaller)

50

Co, wt% C

Anderson 205- 10-3

100 10 102 103 time (s)

Anderson 205- 10-4

r is a result of nucleation and growth of crystals


100 % Pearlite 50 Nucleation
regime Growth regime

Nucleation and Growth

Isothermal Transformation Diagrams


Fe-C system, Co = 0.77wt%C Transformation at T = 675C
100 50

Nucleation rate as T Growth rate as T log (time)

T=675C
102 104

t50

Examples:

time (s)

pearlite colony

T(C)

Austenite (stable) TE (727C) 700 Austenite isothermal transformation at 675C (unstable) Pearlite

600 500 400 1 10

T just below TE
Nucleation rate low Growth rate high

T moderately below TE
Nucleation rate med . Growth rate med.

T way below TE
Nucleation rate high Growth rate low
Anderson 205- 10-5

time 102 103 104 105

(s)

Anderson 205- 10-6

Example: Cooling History, Fe-C System


Eutectoid composition, Co = 0.77wt%C Begin at T > 727C Rapidly cool to 625C and hold isothermally T(C)
700 Pearlite 600 Austenite (stable)

Pearlite Morphology
Two cases:
Ttransf just below TE Ttransf well below TE - Larger T: diffusion is faster - Smaller T: diffusion is slower - Pearlite is coarser - Pearlite is finer

TE (727C)

Callister, Figs. 10.6(a,b)

500

10

102

103

104

105

time (s)

- Smaller T: colonies are larger

- Larger T: colonies are smaller


Anderson 205- 10-8

Anderson 205- 10-7

NonEquil. Transformation Products: Fe-C


Bainite:
- lathes (strips) with long particles/rods of Fe3C -diffusion controlled
800 Austenite (stable)

Spheroidite:

Other Products: Fe-C System

Fe3C (cementite)

(ferrite)

- crystals w/spherical Fe3C -diffusion dependent (ferrite) -heat bainite or pearlite for long times Fe3C -formation driven by (cementite) reducing interface area
800 Austenite (stable)

Callister, Fig. 10.10

T(C)
600

100% pearlite

TE

T(C) 5 m Bainite reaction rate:


600

pearlite/bainite boundary

TE
Spheroidite
100% spheroidite 100% spheroidite

100% bainite 400

200 10-1 10 103

Isothermal Transf. Diagram


(Modification 1)

60 m

400

rbainite = e

Q / R T
200 10-1 10 103

Isothermal Transf. Diagram


(Modification 2) (s)
Anderson 205- 10-10

105

time (s)
Anderson 205- 10-9

105 time

Other Products: Fe-C System


Martensite:
-(FCC) Martensite(BCT)
(involves single atom jumps) x x x x x

Cooling Examples: Fe-C System


Co = Ceutectoid Three histories...
Case I
800 Austenite (stable)

Rapid Hold Rapid Hold Rapid cool to: for: cool to: for: cool to: 350C 250C 650C 104s Troom 104s Troom 102s Troom 102s Troom 20s 400C 103s Troom

Fe atom sites x
800

potential C atom sites T(C) TE Martentite needles Austenite


600

Austenite (stable)

A A

T(C)
600

P S B 100%B
0% 50% 90%

P S

400

Isothermal Transf. Diagram (Modification 3)


M transformation... is rapid! 0% %transf. depends on T only 50%
90%

400

100%A
200 M + A M+A M+A 10 10-1

200

M+A M+A M+A 10 10-1 103

103

100% Bainite 105 time (s)


Anderson 205- 10-12

105

time (s)

Anderson 205- 10-11

Cooling Examples: Fe-C System


Co = Ceutectoid Three histories...
Case II
800 Austenite (stable)

Cooling Examples: Fe-C System


Co = Ceutectoid Three histories...
Case III T(C)
800 Austenite (stable)

Rapid Hold Rapid Hold Rapid cool to: for: cool to: for: cool to: 350C 250C 650C 104s Troom 104s Troom 102s Troom 102s Troom 20s 400C 103s Troom

Rapid Hold Rapid Hold Rapid cool to: for: cool to: for: cool to: 350C 250C 650C 104s Troom 104s Troom 102s Troom 102s Troom 20s 400C 103s Troom

T(C)
600

A A

P S B

100%A
600

A A

50%P, 50%A P S B 50%P, 50%B


0% 50% 90%

400

100%A
200 M + A M+A M+A 10 10-1
0% 50% 90%

50%P, 50%A
200 M + A M+A M+A 10 10-1 Anderson 205- 10-13

400

103

105

time (s)

103

105

time (s)
Anderson 205- 10-14

Mechanical Properties: Fe-C System


Effect of wt%C
Pearlite (med) ferrite (soft)
Co<0.77wt%C Hypoeutectoid Hyper

Mechanical Properties: Fe-C System


Fine vs coarse pearlite vs spheroidite
Hypo
320 fine pearlite

Pearlite (med) Cementite (hard)


Co>0.77wt%C Hypereutectoid Hypo Hyper
80

Hyper

90

Hypo

Hyper
spheroidite

TS(MPa) 1100 YS(MPa) 900 700

Hypo

%EL
100

240 160 80

hardness 50

coarse pearlite spheroidite

60

40

30

500 300 0 0.5

0 1 0

0.5

wt%C

0 0

coarse pearlite fine pearlite 0.5

wt%C

wt%C

0.5

wt%C

More wt%C: TS and YS , %EL


Anderson 205- 10-15

Hardness: fine > coarse > spheroidite %AR: fine < coarse < spheroidite
Anderson 205- 10-16

Mechanical Properties: Fe-C System


Fine Pearlite vs Martensite
Hypo
600 Callister, Fig. 10.22

Tempering Martensite...
reduces brittleness of martensite reduces internal stresses caused by quenching
TS(MPa) YS(MPa) 1800 1600 Callister, 1400 Fig. 10.24 1200 TS YS 60 %AR 50 %AR 40 30 Callister, Fig. 10.23

Hyper

martensite

400

200 0 0

fine pearlite
0.5

1000 800

wt%C

200

400

Tempering T (C)

600

hardness: fine pearlite << martensite


Anderson 205- 10-17

produces extremely small Fe3C particles surrounded by . decreases TS, YS but increases %AR
Anderson 205- 10-18

Summary: Processing Options


Austenite () slow cool Pearlite moderate cool Bainite rapid quench Martensite (BCT phase
diffusionless transformation)

( + Fe3C layers + a ( + Fe3C plates/needles) proeutectoid phase)

Martensite T Martensite bainite fine pearlite coarse pearlite spheroidite General Trends

reheat Tempered Martensite


( + very fine Fe3C particles)
Anderson 205- 10-19