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Cloud computing shares characteristics with: Autonomic computing Computer systems capable of self-management.

t.[5] Clientserver model Clientserver computing refers broadly to any distributed appli ation that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service request ers (clients).[6] Grid computing "A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby a 'super a nd virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled comp uters acting in concert to perform very large tasks." Mainframe computer Powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for cri tical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, police and secret intelligence services, enterprise resourc e planning, and financial transaction processing.[7] Utility computing The "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity."[8][9] Peer-to-peer Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resour ces (in contrast to the traditional clientserver model). [edit] Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of t hose resources in their own control, as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example) Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructur e resources. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables m achines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facil itates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typical ly use REST-based APIs. Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expen diture is converted to operational expenditure.[10] This is purported to lower b arriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and d oes not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing task s. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).[11] Device and location independence[12] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mo bile phone). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.[11] Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and ut ilization be increased. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical se rver to another. Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of user s thus allowing for: o Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.) o Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possib le load-levels) o Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 1020% utilised.[13] Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well-d esigned cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.[ 14] Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources o n a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to eng ineer for peak loads.[15][16] Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are c onstructed using web services as the system interface.[11] Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain se

nsitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels.[17] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cann ot afford.[18] However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when dat a is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-ten ant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access t o security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Private cloud installation s are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructu re and avoid losing control of information security. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer and can be accessed from different place s. [edit] History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud draw ing used in the past to represent the telephone network,[19] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying i nfrastructure it represents.[20] The ubiquitous availability of high capacity networks, low cost computers and st orage devices as well as the widespread adoption of virtualisation, service-orie nted architecture, autonomic, and utility computing have led to a tremendous gro wth in cloud computing[21] [22][23] Details are abstracted from end-users, who n o longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastruct ure "in the cloud" that supports them. The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McC arthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility." Al most all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, p rovided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to th e electricity industry and the use of public, private, government, and community forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosc h's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powere d by about 15 large data centers.[24] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications compan ies, who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuit s, began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balance utilisatio n as they saw fit, they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth mor e effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the respon sibility of the user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.[25] After the dot-com bubble, Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud c omputing by modernising their data centers, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time, just to leave roo m for occasional spikes. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted i n significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving "two-p izza teams" could add new features faster and more easily, Amazon initiated a ne w product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers, a nd launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006.[13][2 6] In early 2008, Eucalyptus became the first open-source, AWS API-compatible platf orm for deploying private clouds. In early 2008, OpenNebula, enhanced in the RES ERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds.[27] In the same year, efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures, in the fr amework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project, resulting to a real-tim e cloud environment.[28] By mid-2008, Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud compu ting "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT

services and those who sell them"[29] and observed that "[o]rganisations are sw itching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing ... will result in dram atic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other are as."[30] [edit] Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers, it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers. [edit] Client See also: Category:Cloud clients Users access cloud computing using networked client devices, such as desktop com puters, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Some of these devices - cloud clients - rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to b e essentially useless without it. Examples are thin clients and the browser-base d Chromebook. Many cloud applications do not require specific software on the cl ient and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud application. With AJAX and HTML5 these Web user interfaces can achieve a similar or even better lo ok and feel as native applications. Some cloud applications, however, support sp ecific client software dedicated to these applications (e.g., virtual desktop cl ients and most email clients). Some legacy applications (line of business applic ations that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology. [edit] Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the applic ation on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. A cloud application is software provided as a service. It consists of the follow ing: a package of interrelated tasks, the definition of these tasks, and the con figuration files, which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. Clo ud tasks provide compute, storage, communication and management capabilities. Ta sks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines, and are accessible through app lication programmable interfaces (API). Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand. Cloud applica tions have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage, and tenancy metrics.[31] What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elastici ty. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. This can be achieve d by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet the chang ing work demand. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud applicatio n are determined at run-time. There is no need to stop the running application o r redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file.[32] SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. A cloud application is a service. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. However, SOA applica tions are not necessary cloud applications. A cloud application is a SOA applica tion that runs under a specific environment, which is the cloud computing enviro nment (platform). This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability, r apid provisioning, ease of access, and flexible prices. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management, cloud architecture address es many technical details that are environment specific, which makes it more a t echnical model.[31] [edit] Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms Cloud platform services, also known as platform as a service (PaaS), deliver a c omputing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infr astructure and sustaining cloud applications.[33] It facilitates deployment of a pplications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlyin g hardware and software layers.[34][35] Cloud computing is becoming a major chan

ge in the computing industry, and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. Platforms let developers write certain applica tions that can run in the cloud, or even use services provided by the cloud. The re are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform, or Cloud 9. Regardless of the nomenclature, they all have great potent ial in developing, and when development teams create applications for the cloud, each must build its own cloud platform. [edit] Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS ), deliver computer infrastructure typically a platform virtualization environme nt as a service, along with raw (block) storage and networking. Rather than purc hasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients instea d buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill su ch services on a utility computing basis; the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.[36] [edit] Server The Layers contain both hardware and software, these are the layers on the serve r. products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, i ncluding multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined of ferings.[37][38][39][40] [edit] Deployment models Cloud computing types [edit] Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model, in which a se rvice provider makes resources, such as applications and storage, available to t he general public over the Internet. Public cloud services may be free or offere d on a pay-per-usage model.[11] [edit] Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a speci fic community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), w hether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externall y. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a pr ivate cloud), so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized.[1] [edit] Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or publ ic) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems th at are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another.[1] [edit] Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, wheth er managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.[1 ] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manag e them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management,[41] essentially " [lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing conce pt".[42][43] [edit] Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture,[44] the systems architecture of the software systems involve d in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud componen ts communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messa ging queue. Elastic provision implies intelligence in the use of tight or loose coupling as applied to mechanisms such as these and others.

[edit] The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[45] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[46][47] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.[48][49][50 ] [edit] Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computi ng. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisat ion, standardisation, and governance in conceiving, developing, operating and ma intaining cloud computing systems. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems, software, web, performance, i nformation, security, platform, risk, and quality engineering. [edit] Issues [edit] Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control, thus, can monitor at wi ll, lawfully or unlawfully, the communication and data stored between the user a nd the host company. Instances such as the secret NSA program, working with AT&T , and Verizon, which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citiz ens, causes uncertainty among privacy advocates, and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity.[51] While there have b een efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the legal environment, pr oviders such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customer s to select "availability zones."[52] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns bec ause the service provider at any point in time, may access the data that is on t he cloud. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info .[53] [edit] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA, HIPAA, and SOX i n the United States, the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS, users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment mode s that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. This is h ow Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[54][55] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI com pliance.[56] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification, but this has been criti cised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely.[57] Providers typically make this information available on request, under non-disclo sure agreement.[58][59] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/ EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data.[60] [edit] Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global comp uting, certain legal issues arise; everything from trademark infringement, secur ity concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. [edit] Open source See also: Category:Free software for cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implem entations, one prominent example being the Hadoop framework.[61] In November 200 7, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License, a ve rsion of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.[62] [edit] Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[63]) but also unique to their implementation and thu s not interoperable. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a numb er of open standards under development, with a view to delivering interoperabili

ty and portability.[64] [edit] Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity, concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. The eff ectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsi dered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely f rom those of traditional architectures.[65] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that ma y be delaying its adoption.[66] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing a re due in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the e xternal management of security-based services. It is the very nature of cloud co mputing-based services, private or public, that promote external management of p rovided services. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service provi ders to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services .[67] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access, data seg regation, privacy, bug exploitation, recovery, accountability, malicious insider s, management console security, account control, and multi-tenancy issues. Solut ions to various cloud security issues vary, from cryptography, particularly publ ic key infrastructure (PKI), to use of multiple cloud providers, standardisation of APIs, and improving virtual machine support and legal support.[65][68][69] [edit] Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing", the re is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption.[70] Siting t he servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available, t he environmental effects will be more moderate. (The same holds true for "tradit ional" data centers.) Thus countries with favorable conditions, such as Finland, [71] Sweden and Switzerland,[72] are trying to attract cloud computing data cent ers. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energy-aware schedulin g and server consolidation.[73] However, in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of ene rgies, a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high c arbon footprint reduction.[74] [edit] Abuse As with privately purchased hardware, crackers posing as legitimate customers ca n purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services.[75] In 20 09, a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs t hat were infected by the malware.[76] [edit] Research Many universities, vendors and government organisations are investing in researc h around the topic of cloud computing:[77][78] In October 2007 the Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI) was announced as a multi-university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing.[79] In April 2009 the St Andrews Cloud Computing Co-laboratory was launched <http://>, focusing on research in the important new area o f cloud computing. Unique in the UK, StACC aims to become an international centr e of excellence for research and teaching in cloud computing and will provide ad vice and information to businesses interested in using cloud-based services In October 2010, the TClouds (Trustworthy Clouds) project was started, funded by the European Commision's 7th Framework Programme. The project's goal is to rese arch and inspect the legal foundation and architectural design to build a resili ent and trustworthy cloud-of-cloud infrastructure on top of that. The project al so develops a prototype to demonstrate its results. In December 2010, the TrustCloud research project [80][81] was started by HP Lab s Singapore to address transparency and accountability of cloud computing via de tective, data-centric approaches[82] encapsulated in a five-layer TrustCloud Fra

mework. The team identified the need for monitoring data life cycles and transfe rs in the cloud,[80] leading to the tackling of key cloud computing security iss ues such as cloud data leakages, cloud accountability and cross-national data tr ansfers in transnational clouds. In July 2011 the High Performance Computing Cloud (HPCCLoud) project was kickedoff aiming at finding out the possibilities of enhancing performance on cloud en vironments while running the scientific applications - development of HPCCLoud P erformance Analysis Toolkit which was funded by CIM-Returning Experts Programme - under the coordination of Prof. Dr. Shajulin Benedict. In June 2011 the Telecommunications Industry Association developed a Cloud Compu ting White Paper, to analyze the integration challenges and opportunities betwee n cloud services and traditional U.S. telecommunications standards.[83] [edit] See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cloud computing Cloud computing comparison Cloud database Cloud storage Mobile Cloud Computing Web operating system Cloud collaboration [edit] References 1. ^ a b c d "The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing". National Institute o f Science and Technology. 00-145.pdf. Retrieved 24 July 2011. 2. ^ "Kerravala, Zeus, Yankee Group, "Migrating to the cloud is dependent o n a converged infrastructure," Tech Target". http:/ / Retrieved 2011-12-02. 3. ^ "Baburajan, Rajani, "The Rising Cloud Storage Market Opportunity Stren gthens Vendors," infoTECH, August 24, 2011". 2011-08-24. http://i Retrieved 2011-12-02. 4. ^ "Oestreich, Ken, "Converged Infrastructure," CTO Forum, November 15, 2 010". 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 5. ^ "What's In A Name? Utility vs. Cloud vs Grid". . y_vs_cloud_vs_grid.html. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 6. ^ "Distributed Application Architecture". Sun Microsystem. http://java.s Retrieved 2009-06-16. 7. ^ "Sun CTO: Cloud computing is like the mainframe". Itknowledgeexchange. 2009-03-11. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 8. ^ "It's probable that you've misunderstood 'Cloud Computing' until now". TechPluto. FID=21518680&CFTOKEN=18800807. Retrieved 2010-09-14. 9. ^ Danielson, Krissi (2008-03-26). "Distinguishing Cloud Computing from U tility Computing". guishing_cloud_computing/. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 10. ^ "Recession Is Good For Cloud Computing Microsoft Agrees". CloudAve. ht tp:// s. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 11. ^ a b c d "Defining "Cloud Services" and "Cloud Computing"". IDC. 2008-0 9-23. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 12. ^ Farber, Dan (2008-06-25). "The new geek chic: Data centers". CNET News . Retrieved 2010-08-22. 13. ^ a b Jeff Bezos' Risky Bet. 14. ^ King, Rachael (2008-08-04). "Cloud Computing: Small Companies Take Fli ght". Businessweek. 8083_619516.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22.

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