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6/18/2012 1 The New Seven Q.C.

Tools A Training Presentation on the N7 By Christopher Diaz What are theNew Seven Q.C. Tools .Affinity Diagrams .Relations Diagrams .Tree Diagrams .Matrix Diagrams .Arrow Diagrams .Process Decision Program Charts .Matrix Data Analysis History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools .Committee of J.U.S.E. -1972 .Aim was to develop more QC techniques with design approach .Work in conjunction with original Basic Seven Tools .New set of methods (N7) -1977 Slide 1 0f 2 History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools .Developed to organize verbal data diagrammatically. .Basic 7 tools effective for data analysis, process control, and quality improvement (numerical data) .Used together increases TQM effectiveness Slide 2 0f 2

What are theBasic Seven Q.C. Tools? .Flow Charts .Run Charts .Histograms .Pareto Diagrams .Cause and Effect Diagrams .Scatter Diagrams .Control Charts Relation Between New Seven Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven Tools FACTS Data Numerical DataVerbal Data Organize The Seven New Tools Information The Basic Seven Tools Generate Ideas Formulate plans Analytical approach Define problem after collecting numerical dataDefine problem before collecting numerical dataSource:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japa n, 3A Corporation, 1984)

6/18/20122 Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Enhanced Capabilities .Generate ideas .Improve planning .Eliminate errors and omissions .Explain problems intelligibly .Secure full cooperation .Persuade powerfully .Organize verbal data Slide 1 0f 4 Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Enhanced Keys to Organizational Reform .Clarify the desired situation .Prioritize tasks effectively .Proceed systematically .Anticipate future events .Change proactively .Get things right the first time .Assess situations from various angles Slide 2 0f 4 Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Five Objectives of Organizational Reform

which will establish a Culture that: .Gives importance to planning .Stresses the importance of the process .Prioritizes tasks .Encourages everyone to think systematically Slide 3 0f 4 .Identifies problems Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Unstructured Problem[must be put into solvable form] Problem is mappedProblem becomesobvious to allProblem is in solvable formSlide 4 0f 4The Seven New ToolsThoughts are easily organized Things go well People understand problem Cooperation is obtainedCountermeasuresare on targetProblem becomesobvious to allNub of problem is identified Problem can be clearly articulated Plans are easily laid Nothing is omitted Source:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984) New Seven Q.C. ToolsAffinity Diagrams For Pinpointing the Problem in a Chaotic Situation and Generating Solution Strategies .Gathers large amounts of intertwined verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues) .Organizes the data into groups based on natural relationship .Makes it feasible for further analysis and to find a solution to the problem.

Slide 1 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsAffinity Diagrams Advantages of Affinity Diagrams .Facilitates breakthrough thinking and stimulate fresh ideas .Permits the problem to be pinned down accurately .Ensures everyone clearly recognizes the problem .Incorporates opinions of entire group Slide 2 0f 7

6/18/20123 New Seven Q.C. ToolsAffinity Diagrams Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.) .Fosters team spirit .Raises everyone s level of awareness .Spurs to the group into action Slide 3 0f 7 Topic Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data CardData Card Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card Data CardAffinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data CardAffinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data CardData Card New Seven Q.C. ToolsAffinity Diagrams Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach Slide 4 0f 7 .Select a topic .Collect verbal data by brainstorming .Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly .Write each item on separate data card

.Spread out all cards on table New Seven Q.C. ToolsAffinity Diagrams Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7 .Move data cards into groups of similar themes (natural affinity for each other) .Combine statements on data cards to new Affinity statement .Make new card with Affinity statement .Continue to combine until less than 5 groups New Seven Q.C. ToolsAffinity Diagrams Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7 .Lay the groups outs, keeping the affinity clusters together Next, complete the diagram New Seven Q.C. ToolsAffinity Diagrams Completing an Affinity Diagram Slide 7 0f 7Topic Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data CardData CardAffinity StatementData CardData Card Data Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data Card

Data Card Data Card Affinity StatementData CardData Card Data Card Data Card Data CardData CardSource:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japan, 3A C orporation, 1984) New Seven Q.C. ToolsRelations Diagrams For Finding Solutions Strategies by Clarifying Relationships with Complex Interrelated Causes .Resolves tangled issues by unraveling the logical connection .Allows for Multi-directional thinking rather than linear .Also known as Interrelationship diagrams Slide 1 0f 7

6/18/2012 4 New Seven Q.C. ToolsRelations Diagrams Advantages of Relations Diagrams .Useful at planning stage for obtaining perspective on overall situation .Facilitates consensus among team .Assists to develop and change people s thinking .Enables priorities to be identified accurately Slide 2 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsRelations Diagrams Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.) .Makes the problem recognizable by clarifying the relationships among causes Slide 3 0f 7Why doesn tX happen? Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Tertiary Cause SecondaryCause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause TertiaryCause4th levelCause Tertiary Cause Tertiary Cause 4th levelCause5th levelCause6th levelCauseTertiaryCause

Secondary Cause New Seven Q.C. ToolsRelations Diagrams Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach Slide 4 0f 7 .Express the problem in form of isn t something happening? Why

.Each member lists 5 causes affecting problem .Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly .Write each item on a card New Seven Q.C. ToolsRelations Diagrams Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7 .Move cards into similar groups .Asking why, explore the cause-effect relationships, and divide the cards into primary, secondary and tertiary causes .Connect all cards by these relationships .Further discuss until all possible causes have been identified New Seven Q.C. ToolsRelations Diagrams Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7 .Connect all related groups

Next, complete the diagram .Review whole diagram looking for relationships among causes New Seven Q.C. ToolsRelations Diagrams Completing a Relations Diagram Slide 7 0f 7 Why doesn t X happen? Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary CausePrimary CauseTertiaryCauseSecondaryCause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause Secondary Cause TertiaryCause 4th level Cause TertiaryCause Tertiary Cause 4th level Cause 5th levelCause 6th level Cause Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause

Source:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

6/18/20125 New Seven Q.C. ToolsTree Diagrams For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategies for Attaining an Objective .Develops a succession of strategies for achieving objectives .Reveals methods to achieve the results. .Also known as Systematic diagrams or Dendrograms Slide 1 0f 5 New Seven Q.C. ToolsTree Diagrams Advantages of Tree Diagrams .Systematic and logical approach is less likely that items are omitted .Facilitates agreement among team .Are extremely convincing with strategies Slide 2 0f 5 To Accomplish Primary means Constraints Secondary means Secondary means 3rd means3rd means3rd means 3rd means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means .Discuss means of achieving objective (primary means, first level strategy) New Seven Q.C. ToolsTree Diagrams

Constructing a Tree Diagram Group Method Approach Slide 3 0f 5 .Write Relations Diagram topic (Objective card) .Identify constraints on how objective can be achieved .Take each primary mean, write objective for achieving it (secondary means) New Seven Q.C. ToolsTree Diagrams Constructing an Tree Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.) Slide 4 0f 5 .Continue to expand to the fourth level .Review each system of means in both directions (from objective to means and means to objective) .Add more cards if needed .Connect all levels Next, complete the diagram New Seven Q.C. ToolsTree Diagrams Completing a Tree Diagram Slide 5 0f 5 To Accomplish 3rd means 3rd meansPrimary means3rd means 3rd means Constraints

Primary means Secondary meansSecondary meansSecondary meansSecondary means 3rd means 3rd means 3rd means 3rd means 4th means 4th means 4th means4th means4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means 4th means4th means4th means4th means Source:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984) New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Diagrams For Clarifying Problems by Multidimensionally .Consists of a two-dimensional array to determine location and nature of problem .Discovers key ideas by relationships represented by the cells in matrix. Slide 1 0f 7 Thinking

6/18/2012 6 New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Diagrams Advantages of Matrix Diagrams .Enable data on ideas based on extensive experience .Clarifies relationships among different elements .Makes overall structure of problem immediately obvious .Combined from two to four types of diagrams, location of problem is clearer. Slide 2 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Diagrams Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.) .5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, Xshaped, and C-shaped Slide 3 0f 7 OO =1O =4PrincipalO =2OX =5OSubsidiary =3X =6EfficacyPracticabilityRankSite QC circleSection/ Plant QC circle supporterSection/ Plant ManagerLeaderMember4th level means from Tree diagram OO1O4th level means from Tree diagram OO1OHold 4 times/month4th level means from Tree diagram O3OAt every meeting4th level means from Tree diagram O2O4th level means from Tree diagram OX5OAt least 3 times/year/person4th level means from Tree diagram OO1OO4th level means from Tree diagram 4OEvaluationResponsibilitiesRemarks New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Diagrams Constructing a Matrix Diagram Slide 4 0f 7 .Write final-level means from Tree diagram forming vertical axis .Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy, practicability, and rank)on horizontal axis. .Write names along horizontal axis

.Examine final-level means to identify whom will implement them New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Diagrams Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7 .Label group of columns as Responsibilities

.Label right-hand end of horizontal axis as Remarks .Examine each cell and insert the appropriate symbol: Efficacy: O=good, .=satisfactory, X=none Practicability: O=good,.=satisfactory, X=none New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Diagrams Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7 .Fill out remarks column and record meanings of symbol Next, complete the diagram .Examine cells under ResponsibilityColumns, insert double-circle for Principaland single-circle for Subsidiary .Determine score for each combination of symbols, record in rank column New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Diagrams Completing a Matrix Diagram Slide 7 0f 7 OO =1O =4PrincipalO =2OX =5OSubsidiary =3X =6EfficacyPracticabilityRankSite QC circleSection/ Plant QC circle supporterSection/ Plant ManagerLeaderMember4th level means from Tree diagram OO1O4th level means from Tree diagram OO1OHold 4 times/month4th level means

from Tree diagram O3OAt every meeting4th level means from Tree diagram O2O4th level means from Tree diagram OX5OAt least 3 times/year/person4th level means from Tree diagram OO1OO4th level means from Tree diagram 4O4th level means from Tree diagram O2O4th level means from Tree diagram OO1O4th level means from Tree diagram OO1OEvaluationResponsibilitiesRemarks Source:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

6/18/2012 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsArrow Diagrams For Working Out Optimal Schedules and Controlling Them Effectively .Shows relationships among tasks needed to implement a plan .Network technique using nodes for events and arrows for activities .Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM(Critical Path Method) Slide 1 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsArrow Diagrams Advantages of Arrow Diagrams .Allows overall task to viewed and potential snags to be identified before work starts .Leads to discovery of possible improvements .Makes it easy to monitor progress of work .Deals promptly with changes to plan .Improves communication among team Slide 2 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsArrow Diagrams Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.) .Promotes understanding and agreement among group Slide 3 0f 7 Strategy 1 Constraints Activity 2 4 35 9

6 8 7 10 13 12 11 New Seven Q.C. ToolsArrow Diagrams Constructing an Arrow Diagram Slide 4 0f 7 .From strategies on Tree diagram, select one (Objective of Arrow Diagram) .Identify constraints to Objective .Write all essential activities on separate cards .List all activities necessary to achieving Objective New Seven Q.C. ToolsArrow Diagrams Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7 .Organize cards in sequential order of activities .Remove any duplicate activities .Review order of activities, find sequence with greatest amount of activities .Arrange parallel activities New Seven Q.C. ToolsArrow Diagrams Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7

.Record names and other necessary information Next, complete the diagram .Examine path, number nodes in sequence from left to right

6/18/20128 New Seven Q.C. ToolsArrow Diagrams Completing an Arrow Diagram Slide 7 0f 7 Strategy 1ConstraintsActivity2 4 3 5 9 6 871013 12 11 Source:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984) New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program Charts For Producing the Desired Result from Many Possible Outcomes .Used to plan various contingencies .Used for getting activities back on track .Steers events in required direction if unanticipated problems occur .Finds feasible counter measures to overcome problems Slide 1 0f 7 Advantages of Process Decisions Program Charts (PDPC s) .Facilitates forecasting .Uses past to anticipate contingencies .Enables problems to pinpointed .Illustrates how events will be directed to successful conclusion .Enables those involved to understand decision-makers intentions Slide 2 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program Charts

Advantages of PDPC s (cont.) .Fosters cooperation and communication in group .Easily modified and easily understood Slide 3 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program Charts Start GOAL YES YES NO NO NONO NO YES NO NO Constructing a PDPC Slide 4 0f 7 .Select a highly effective, but difficult strategy from the Tree diagram .Decide on a goal (most desirable outcome) .Identify constraints of objective .Identify existing situation (Starting point) New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program Charts .List activities to reach goal and potential problems with each activity Constructing an PDPC (cont.) Slide 5 0f 7 .Review list. Add extra activities or

problems not thought of previously .Prepare contingency plan for each step and review what action is needed if step is not achieved .Examine carefully to check for inconsistencies and all important factors are included New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program Charts

6/18/2012 9 Constructing an PDPC (cont.) Slide 6 0f 7 Next, complete the diagram .Examine to make sure all contingency plans are adequate New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program Charts Completing a PDPC Slide 7 0f 7 New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions Program Charts Start GOAL YESYESNONO NO NO NO YES NO NO Source:Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools(Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984) New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Data Analysis Principal Component Analysis .Technique quantifies and arranges data presented in Matrix .Based solely on numerical data .Finds indicators that differentiate and attempt to clarify large amount of information Slide 1 0f 6 New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Data Analysis Advantages of Principal Component Analysis

.Can be used in various fields (market surveys, new product planning, process analysis) .Can be when used when Matrix diagram does not give sufficient information .Useful as Prioritization Grid Slide 2 0f 6 New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Data Analysis Constructing a Prioritization Grid Source:Foster, S., Managing Quality(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) Slide 3 0f 6 .Determine your goal, your alternatives, and criteria for decision .Place selection in order of importance .Sum individual ratings to establish overall ranking (Divide by number of options for average ranking) .Apply percentage weight to each option (all weights should add up to 1) New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Data Analysis Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.) Slide 4 0f 6 .Rank order each option with respect to criterion (Average the rankings and apply a completed ranking) .Multiply weight by associated rank in Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst) .Result is Importance Score .Add up Importance Scoresfor each option

6/18/201210 New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Data Analysis Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.) Slide 5 0f 6 See completed the diagram .Rank order the alternatives according to importance Completing a Prioritization Grid Slide 6 0f 6 New Seven Q.C. ToolsMatrix Data Analysis Source:Foster, S., Managing Quality(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) CostReliabilityOptionsDesign A.30.2033.90.603.21 (tie) Design B.40.10411.6.103.02Design C.25.2524.5012.53 Design D .10.2013.10.603.21 (tie) 1.05.75.26.1924Importance Sum ScoreOption Ranking(least important) StrengthImportance scoreRankPercentage weightPercentage weightRankImportance sco rePercentage weightRankImportance scorePercentage weightRankImportance scoreSum of weightsAverage weightCriterion RankingCustomer Acceptance(most important) .4041.6.303.90.251.250.33.901.252.40.25.75.101.10.20.95.243Criteria.40431.6.311 ReviewNew Seven Q.C. Tools .Affinity Diagrams .Relations Diagrams .Tree Diagrams .Matrix Diagrams .Arrow Diagrams .Process Decision Program Charts .Matrix Data Analysis Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C. Tools Mental Attitudes

-Keen awareness to the actual problem -Eagerness to solve problem -Be highly motivated for the challenge Slide 1 0f 5 Four Specific Keys .Understand the problem .Select the right tool for the job .Obtain appropriate verbal data .Interpret analytical results

Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 2 0f 5 .Understand the problem Stage 1-problem is unclear and not obvious what exact issue should be addressed Stage 2-problem is obvious, but causes unknown explore causes and single out valid ones Stage 3-problem and causes are known required action is unknown strategies and plan must be developed 4 Specific Keys Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 3 0f 5 .Selecting Right tool for the Job Stage 1-Collect verbal information on events (Affinity Diagram) Stage 2-Choose tool to identify causes (Relations Diagram / Matrix Diagram) Stage 3-List strategies and activities (Tree Diagram / Relations Diagram)

Plan actual activities (Arrow Diagram / PDPC Chart) 4 Specific Keys (cont.)

6/18/201211 Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 4 0f 5 .Obtaining appropriate verbal data Three types of verbal data: -Facts; factual observations expressed in words -Opinions; factual information colored by opinion -Ideas; New concepts created by analyzing facts .Group Discussions: -Ensures common understanding -All data should be without bias or distortion -Data should fit objective of the analysis 4 Specific Keys (cont.) Keys to Successfully Using the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 5 0f 5 .Interpreting Analytical Results Information must be obtained for accomplishing objectives from: -Completed diagrams; or -Process of completing diagrams Analyze actual information obtained: -Prepare summarized report with findings, conclusions, and processes used -Check if necessary data has been obtained, if not -Discover the cause and take appropriate action 4 Specific Keys (cont.) Practical Application ofNew Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 1 0f 5 Complete the following Relations Diagram

-Review notes for clarity -Get in groups of 4-5 per table (work as a team!) -Topic - Using the New Seven QC Tools skillfully - Cause cards -will be provided (not categorized) -Arrange cards to complete diagram (some hints have been provided) Example; Relations Diagram Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools Practical Application ofNew Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 2 0f 5 Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools Use N7 Skillfully Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Source:Foster, S., Managing Quality(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) Practical Application ofNew Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 3 0f 5 Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools Cause Statements(hints are in yellow) AInterpret data clearlyNUnderstand seriousness of problemBSelect appropriate too lOThink flexibly from various standpointsCThink systematicallyPObtain appropriat e verbal dataDGive opinionsQExpose core of problemEKnow what the problem is RCom municate wellFExtract necessary informationSAccurately understand real problemGC ollect reliable verbal dataTHave excellent intuitionHThink multidimensionallyUSe e to heart of problemIObtain factsVSelect appropriate type of verbal dataJInterp ret analytical resultsWThink in terms of word-based diagramKGenerate ideasXExpre ss genuine thoughtsLKnow that distorted data is uselessYHear and respect other's opinionsMGrasp overall picturedZGenerate highly accurate verbal data Practical Application ofNew Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 4 0f 5

Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools Use N7 Skillfully Primary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause B T R Y F I L Source:Foster, S., Managing Quality(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

6/18/2012 12 Practical Application ofNew Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 5 0f 5 Solution for Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools Use N7 Skillfully E W J P B T H R C Z Y O A M F S U N V K D I Q L X

G Source:Foster, S., Managing Quality(Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001) Summary New Seven Q.C. Tools 1-Provide Training in Thinking 2-Raise People s Problem Solving Confidence 3-Increase People s Ability to Predict Future Events Benefits of New Seven Q.C. Tools 1-Express verbal data diagrammatically 2-Make information visible 3-Organize information intelligibly 4-Clarify overall picture and fine details 5-Get more people involved Roles of New Seven Q.C. Tools Bibliography Foster, Thomas. Managing Quality. An Integrative Approach. Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall, 2001. Nayatani, Yoshingobu, Eiga, Toru, Futami, Ryoji, Miyagawa, Hiroyuki, and Loftus, John. The Seven New QC Tools: Practical Applications for Managers.Tokyo : 3A Corporation, 1994. TQM: The 9 TQM Tools. Internet http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm.