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Developing a model for computing the building adaptation potential index for public housing in Singapore (2010): HDB

B consumes 1/3 of total end-use electricity consumption (Yaacob 2007) because 1/3 of hdb flats (293,333) were built <1980s n regarded as low energy efficient bldgs (HDB 2007a; Fang and Priyadarsini 2008) & have long operational periods due to 99-yr leases (Yu 2004) > 120million sqm ~ 60% of ageing bldg stock have unsatisfactory sust. performance (BCA, 2005) ...huge financial Analysis of building environment assessment frameworks and their implications for sustainability indicators (2011): abstract: discussion of BENEFITS, LIMITATIONS & FUTURE of assessment FRAMEWORK (of green bldgs n housing) 4 characteristics of bldg env assessment: comprehensiveness(=promoting integration of diverse knowledge), design guideline(=better design and action), signaling(=env. friendly design & action) and comm. tools. LIMITATIONS!: use of mix of quantitative and qualitative measures ambiguity of weighing lack of financial evaluation lack of involvement of diverse disciplines & stakeholders EFFECTIVE ASSSMNT FW must consider 3 factors: (1)knowledge, (2)power, (3)implementation Propose that KNOWLEGDE INNOVATION, CREDIBLE APPROACH for SALIENT SOLUTION & COLLECTIVE ACTION = future challenges of assssmt fw COMPENDIUM OF SUST DEVELOPMENT INDICATOR INITIATIVES has 894 entries (IISD 2010) ambiguity of terms, increasing concern, plurality of purpose, characterizing and measuring sustainable devpt, confusion of data & methods of measurement (Parris & Kates 2003) "Studies on indicators... have the potential to integrate knowledge existing in diverse disciplines and among various stakeholders." *Building Environmental Assessent" BEA "Buildings are responsible for more than 40%ofenergyuseinOECDcountriesand,ataglobal level,theyaccountforabout30%ofgreenhousegas (GHG)emissions(UNEPSBPI2009)." "Numerous attempts have been made to reduce the environmental impact of construction..." "transition for sustainability is needed that requires wholesale change, both top-down and bottom-up(Glassetal.2008)." OVERVIEW OF BEA TOOLS: Energy crisis of 1970s was a turning point for focus on energy conservation measures (ang policies) concerning thermal insulation and airtightness in developed countries around the world -> caused new prob of room air pollution :. BEA multi-objective - improve env. performance of bldgs by focusing on energy consumption, heat insulation, air quality, light, noise, land use, material consumption, water efficiency etc (Burnett 2007)

Early 1990s comprehensive environmental assessments ^ stakes by heightening soc. interest in env. issues => comprhnsv assmnt systems for bldg env req. in context of sustainable index in order to devp global std of assessment & awareness of cert sys & tools to assess portfolio val. of bldg (Ding 2008) comprehensive assessment of the environmental characteristics of a building (Cole1999) using a common and verifiable set of criteria and targets for building owners and designers to achieve higher environmental standards.The BEA provides a way of structuring environmental information, an objective assessment of building performance, and a way to measure progress towards sustainability(Ding 2008). broadly scored index classified into 6-15 areas ~ rsrc consumptn(nrg,water, materials), env loading, indoor comfort, longevity. +++Social & cultral aspects are also included, nrg & rsrcs main issue (crawley & aho 1999) indexes differ btwn BEA, some have 30 indexes others > 100 some tools structures ard desigh strat, others ard env loadings/impacts each index is evaluated based on each BEA tool - simple ones used for preassessment are open to public w simplified checklist ~ CLIENTS ARE INVOLVED IN PRE-ASSESSMENT -also facilitates design process use => such tools r useful in clarifying obj of bldg owners at early design stage and in setting desired ratings 4 major BEAs: BREEAM (bldg research est env assessment method), UK LEED (leadership in nrg & env design), USA GB Tool, Canada CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment Sys for Bldg Env Efficiency), Japan The stated objectives of BREEAM are as follows (HolmesandHudson2000): 1.todistinguishbuildingsofreducedenvironmental impactinthemarketplace, 2.toencouragebestenvironmentalpracticesinbuilding design,operation,managementandmaintenance, 3.tosetcriteriaandstandardsgoingbeyondthose requiredbylawandregulations,and 4.toraisetheawarenessofowners,occupiers,designers andoperatorsofthebenefitsofbuildingswitha reducedenvironmentalimpac 6 main cat of LEED green bldg cert-sust sites, water efficiency, nrg & atmosphere, materials n rsrcs, indoor env quality, innovation in design ~ sliver gold plat around 2000 have LEED rating, > 17K projects registered by 2009 "LEED is a self0assessing, voluntary, consensus-based, market-driven bldg rating system (USGBC 2002)" as of august 2009 international projects comprised 27% of all square footage registered for LEED qual. (# of proj outside US from 8 (vs 340 w/in US) in 2004 to 1,120 in 2008 "...h/w the coexistence of systems in the same market is influecned by other systems (Cole 2006)" recent intro of Green Building Initiative's Green Globes rating system to US market in 2004 market in North America is changing on average LEED 18-39% < nrg / floor area than conventional counterparts H/w, 28-35% of LEED bldgs used > nrg than conventional counterparts (Newsham et al, 2009) small bldgs consist of 60% of total # of bldgs consume only 10% of nrg big bldgs acct for 10% of all bldgs consume half the energy (Scofield 2009)

large bldgs dominate nrg consumption of a set of commercial bldgs :. good perf of smaller LEED bldgs inconsequential GBTool x Green Bldg Challenge (GBC) 1995, international institute for sust. built env (iiSBE) - tool used to compare green bldgs in diff countries w/ common index -> BEQUEST, CRISP, PRESCO etc CASBEE is new, breaks away from simple addition of pts to include performance issues n structured features tt diff. them from earlier methods (Cole 2005) comprises variety of asssessment tools applicable in accordance w/ stages of a devpt in pre-design, new construction, existing bldgs & renovation others : CEPAS (HK 2001) Design Quality Indicator (used thsoughouut dev process from inception thru design construction & in-use phases in accord w opinions n wishes of all stakeholders - UK consturction industry council's ~ (Gann et al 2003)) SBAT (South Africa ( Gibberd 2001)), SPeAR (Arup, Cole 2005) PROB W COMPRE... mixture of quantitative and qualitative measures and weighting schema of those measures -> no consensus-based approach nor satisfactory method to GUIDE assignment of weightings even (Ding 2008) PROB W DESIGN GUIDELINES - financial considerations neglectev even at acad rsrch stage (Issa et al. 2010, Kneifel 2010) Signaling Althoughtheideathatahighassessmentscorecanpsychologicallyencourageenviron mentallyfriendlydesignand actionshasbeenemphasizedintheliterature,theirutilityto theownerisnotclear.Evenwhentheresultofassessmentis ratedashigh,theeffectisusuallylimitedtothescopeofselfsatisfaction.Theimpactofsign alingitselfisweak,and institutionsthatbenefittheirstakeholdersseemtoneedto encourageenvironmentallyfriendlydesignandactions. Incentivesreflectingratingssuchaslowertaxation, favorable banking products, advantageous interestrates for lending purposes, and favorable insurance products;advantageous insurance rates are necessary for sustainable buildings and construction works(Lutzkendorf and Lorenz 2005).

*not static =/= embodied energy, should treat organically ~> green walls etc *good litmus test is to score traditional vernacular architecture !!!!!!!CONT' READING *rmbr to quote trop. sust art. in mendeley The human dimensions of participatory design ~> Design Through Dialogue...(2010): intro>in dialogue>relating>talking>exploring>transforming co-desogn, collaborative design, participatory approaches redef of trad designsm bldg TYPES nature of design decision making Form Follows Function: Bridging Neuroscience and Architecture (2012): "primum non nocere", hippocrates, do no harm, ~ env. & human health + res. "These human monitoring techniques joined with advanced auditory and visual virtual reality (VR) environments can provide a means to test designs and to acquire objective evidence for evaluating a priori and a posteriori the influecne of architecture in human terms" "without need to.. bias the subject"

esp pertinent to ageing pop, including disabled/handicapped, diff demographics 3 elems of physical env: sound, location, light, w/in scope of architects & have measurable impact on both human outcomes & sustinable objectives "Neuroscientific data offers the means to advance and validate novel additional guidelines, which now can be continually updated based upon measurable evidence... "...critical that best practices and protocols based upon incomplete data inform, rather than prescribe, design rules, and allow architecture to respond as new medical and neuroscientific data are revealed. In this context, objective measurement of the neural, psychological, and cognitive impact of the built environment becomes feasible and is indeed necessary." must take into acct ppl who use bldg when incorp criteria for phys performance & sustainability of the facility and local environmental conditions developmental process of brain follows dictum "form follows function" modifies its own perception and function in response to architecttural settings and environmental exposures Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE), StarCAVE CAVCAD => dynamically altering VR environment while subjectr are in it (ref4) ... eliminating traditional step of 3d model at com ---- allowing MUCH SHORTER TURNAROUND TIMES {~> rapid prototyping?} can be projected into diff global locations simultaneously EEG, EOG, ECG, EMG - broad-band data recorded -> real-time "bio-cursor" ...future rsrch tt uses wireless, sensor-based technologies in actual built settings sound ~ environmental stressor neural substrates of wayfinding (test effectiveness of visual and auditory cues in forming a memory of space and place"") ~> "place cells" hxagonal network of grid cells-entorhinal cortex/hippocampus, TLdisorders=/=landmarks~directional info :. need maps/egocentric vs allocentric traditional view, now more complex event-related spectral perturbations brainwaves from independent component analysis(CA) ~> diff when lost os not / theta sync alpha desync in high cue place -> navgtn & vis orientation cortical structures like parietal cortex(visuospatial info from 1st pov) + parietal & occipitotemporal involved in processing heading changes n planning paths !DISORIENT ~ ^ DESYNC ALPHA WAVES (^attentional demands) McCarthy 2004 (ref21), a 4,500h hospital ~ $220,000 lost giving directions to patients Light on health n function -> supra-chiasmatic nucleus assoc. pineal endocrine systems reveal multiple oscillatory systems {could link melatonin + light + breast cancer study etc} **special photoreceptive ganglion cells (ref23, 24) regulates complex sys of neural hormone responses to sync. psycho-physio responses with time of day (melatonin in diurnal n nocturnal, ^cortisol in morning) traditional blue + melatonin red bright light (<15m) & dark conditions -> (ref 26 27 28) HRV, cardiac resp, memory task green light - stim circ. responses under certain conditions (ref30) "full spectrum" electrical lighting yet to be est. (ref 31) :. dynamic manip of light n dark may ^ mental & phys health risk (cancer rate in night shift worker ^) *** LEED and other ratings sys encousage access to daylight in regularly occ. areas w/ 90 % inpatient staff & public areas ...(ref 36)

Design recomendations: solar orientation of buildings, control of light pollution, and innovative electrical lighting (ref37) * "However, an approach that gives credit to the proportion of space with daylight, rather than crediting adjustable lighting systems that provide for individual needs, is unlikely to address the range of human conditions..." (ref38) SoniCAVE, acoustic profile, 3D VR sound-scenes ~> acoustical design elements on speech perception and cognitive error CONCLUSION: "Architects and their clients are increasingly asking for rigorous and trustworthy data to support their design decisions. We suggest that the application of new approaches created at the interface between neuroscience and architecture will be the best source for the evidence in evidence-based design. Such evidence, from multidisciplinary studies of human development, neurology, physiology, and psychology that assess the impact of the environment on human health and wellbeing, should complement parallel studies of the reverse influence, that of humans on their environments. Ultimately, our goal must be to implement guidelines for sustaining and enhancing human health that serve the range of human needs from birth to death, and for the most fragile as well as the most gifted."

*gamification? *beware of ecology, systems theory, cybernetics *neuromorphic engineering/computing Reinterpreting Sustainable Architecture: The Place of Technology (2001): Susan Maxman - sust arch = approach/attitude :. should just be architecture Cook & Golton - "green" designation= super broad, contestable etc "technocist supremacy" ignores 'essenially social questions impicated in the practice of sust arch (footnote ref)' claims if achieve sust bldgs archi should be more "objective" - "until a consensus is attained, the ability of the architectural community to adopt a coherent environmental strategy, across all bldg types and styles of development, will remain elusive" (footnote ref) ~> arg for rational sci challenge "process of standardization" which means that "particular loci conditions" and competing "forms of local knowledge" tend to be ignored" (footnote ref) ** should use as step into arg for personalization "...abandoning the search for a true or incontestable definition of sustainable buildings, and instead treating the concept in a 'relative rather than an absolute sense'..."(footnote ref ) John Hannigan suggests society's willingness to recognize and solve env. problems depends > on way claims are preneted by limited # of ppl than severity of thrats posed (ref) ~> green bldg = SOCIAL CONSTRUCT "interpretive framework" COMPETING LOGICS OF SUST. ARCH->eco-: technic centric aesthetic cultural medical social

>>>lots of egs of each - make a table?!

Teo, Evelyn Ai-Lin (12/2010). "Framework for Evaluating Co2 Emissions of Buildings within Singapore's Building Sector: A Review Article". International journal of sustainable building technology and urban development (2093-761X), 1 (2), p. 128. DOI: 10.5390/SUSB.2010.1.2.128 DEVELOPMENT OF RATING SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN MALAYSIA. Several Building Assessment methods are currently in use around the world, but the evidence in the context of Malaysian specific assessment system has not yet existed. Meanwhile, neighbouring country Singapore has developed their green building tool called Green Mark Building Scheme. Launched in Jan 2005, the Green Mark for Building Scheme is Building Construction Authoritys (BCA) main initiative to promote environmental sustainability in buildings. This is an integral part of BCAs effort to shape a safe, high quality and people friendly built environment. Modelled after similar schemes adopted in countries such as USA and Australia, the scheme is used as the yardstick to rate the environmental sustainability of a building. Building environmental systems must reflect national, regional, and local differences if they are to be accepted and used (Todd and Geissler 1999; Joel Ann Todd 2002). Hence, Singapore is the neighbouring country that successfully implemented the Green Mark Assessment Method. Due to similarity in the weather condition, social and cultural value, this assessment method looks applicable to Malaysian building for assessment but several adjustments has to be made to suit local conditions. SBTool was selected as comparison to Green Mark as this tool could be set to suit the local condition. The benchmark and parameter of every issue in the tool could be adjusted to assessors satisfactory level depending on local requirements. This research will determine how friendly the tool evaluates sustainability for Malaysian building. This research intended to support the ongoing market transformation towards high performance buildings. In this context, its focus is on existing buildings, which is office building, and on tools that permit the rating of these buildings. The key objective of this research is to identify the communication of rating tool that could contribute individually to the collective effort to support the ongoing transformation of the building industry in Malaysia. For this reason, this research examines and communicates the characteristics and capabilities of the Green Mark and SBTool rating systems in order to permit different target audiences to assess their respective suitability to any given application. The Building Construction Authority (BCA) Green Mark Scheme was launched in January 2005 as an initiative to move Singapore's construction industry towards more environment-friendly buildings. It is intended to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise environmental awareness among developers, designers and builders when they start project conceptualisation and design, as well as during construction. 5 criteria: nrg efficiency water efficiency site/project devpt & mgmt (new bldg) / bldg mgmt & operation (existing bldgs) good indoor environmental quality & environmental protection innovation

The assessment process consists of an initial assessment leading to the award of the Green Mark. Subsequently, buildings are required to have triennial assessment. This is to ensure that the Green Mark building continues to be well-maintained. Buildings are awarded Platinum, GoldPLUS, Gold or Certified rating depending on the points scored. Apart from achieving the minimum points in each rating scale, the project has to meet all prerequisite requirements, and score a minimum of 50% of the points in each category, except the Innovation category. TWO MAIN CAT -> new bldgs & existing bldgs SBTool: 145 criteria to half dozen sys allows 3rd parties to est. parameter weights tt reflect varying imptc of regional issues est relevant benchmarks by occupancy types sys permits assessments carried out at 4 distinct stages of the life-cycle & provides default benchmarks suited to each phase local orgs can select up to 3 bldg types out of 18 & apply separately or in a mixed-use project can provide appoximations of annualized embodied energy for structural & bldg env components Sustainable Architecture and the Pluralist Imagination:

ALT : personalized/individualized not universalized. diff climate zones etc etc. BIOMIMESIS essay? how come not also adopting bio processes like crowd srcing, genetic machine learning algorithms etc

what we seem to be doin to move forward is imitating nature shouldnt have to sac anything is way forward to adoption and also self org. efficient must acknowledge we all have different tolerances for sustainable arch. to work, drop the arch, embrace concept of homeostasis / at ctr of perceptions = our brains -----> common denominator universal is inhumane and inefficient, individualized req courage/creativity emph on responsive/org, letting system/users build the env for u => build infrastructures not structures.

1-Defining "Sustainability" --link=BEHAVIOR SD = pattern of econ growth wrt rsrc use & env for future ELF -- "Environmentt, Local people, Future" "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." [Brundtland Commission] 1987 - UN - Brundtland Report concept of "needs", in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given concept of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs Michael Thomas Needham's definition Constituents: environmental ~ economic ~ sociopolitical ~ //Total Defence?!

2-Developer as Human, Guidelines as Environment --link=CONTEXT 3-Imitation versus Innovation --link=COMMUNICATION 4-Engagement with public - as stakeholders/consultants/builders --link=INTERCONNECTEDNESS 5-Augmented reality / embedding tech. --link=CHANGE(catalyzed by tech advances) 6-Material science/advances in fabrication tech