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NOTE MAKING

8 MARKS Attempting question on Note making and summary:

Note making is a useful skill which comes in handy not only in a ttempting questions but also in preparing you for life. Notes form an essentia l part of your academic life & help you in the following ways. Notes help you to remember the information you have gathered. Notes come in handy for making quick revision before exams Lengthy lessons can be condensed in to short relevant pieces by making n otes. Notes help in understanding the texts better How to make notes Step 1- The students are required to read the passage to get a gist of t he passage, to know what it is all about, or what the theme is. Step 2- The main idea or the central theme of the passage should be foun d out. Step 3- The important points related to the main theme are noted. Step 4- Add the sub-points which supplement the main points. There is no need to give examples. Step 5- Pay attention to the way you would like to present the notes, Th ere is a proper format for note making you have to follow it & make your notes i n the proper format. Step 6- Use abbreviations wherever necessary. Step 7- Use proper indentation to present the notes as shown here (use e ither or the two given below.) A 1) _____________________________________ [a] . [b] . [c] . 2) [a] . [b] . [c] . B 1) _____________________________________ 1.1 . 1.2 . 1.3 . 2) 2.1 . 2.2 . 2.3 . Note :The pointes are numbered in different ways, but numbering should be consistent. Complete sentences should not be written. Abbreviation and symbols used :(a) Abbreviation helps in writing the information briefly. The follo wing are some of the ways in which you can use abbreviations. 1) Capitalized initial information:E.g. U.N. for United Nation M.L.A. B.Sc M.P. U.S.A.

2)

Taking Sc. Pract Edu

the first two letters of the words :Science Practical Education

3)

4) 5)

Takings the first and the last two letters of the word:rdng Reading admn Administration pds Periods rg Regarding Symbol that are universally recognized:E.g : Therefore E.g : For example Arithmetic symbol-% percentage + ive positive < > greater than or less than

Summary writing:m a summary These notes should be linked with each other in a proper sequence to for

Use third person indirect speech and the past tense wherever possible. It should be short/brief and to the point. Write the summary with the he lp of the notes you have already made. Marking Notes Title Summary Scheme of Note making 04 [Marks] 01[Marks] 03[Marks]

Note:- If notes are not given, then no separate marks for summary will b e given. A2 Example:Read the following passage carefully:1 The work of the heart can never be interrupted The hearts job i s to keep oxygen rich blood flowing through the body. All the bodys cells need a constant supply of Oxygen, especially those in the brain. The brain cells like o nly four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and death comes to th en tire body. 2 The heart is a specialized muscle that serves as a pump. This pump is divided into four chambers connected by tiny doors called valves. The c hambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle. 3 At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers 2/5 oxygen by then is used up and it is on its way back to the lung to pick up a fresh supply and to give up the carbon dioxide it has accumulated. From the right atrium the blood flow through the tri cuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle c ontracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, whic h leads to the lungs in the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and pick s up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber the left atrium. When th is chamber is filled it forces the blood through the a valve to the left ventric le. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta and sent round t he body by way of arteries. 4 Heart disease can result from any damage to the heart muscle, the valves or the pacemaker. If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to p ump properly. If the valves are damaged blood cannot flow normally and easily fr om one chamber to another, and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions o

f the chambers will become un-coordinated. 5 Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the he art. In 1953 all this changed after twenty years of work, Dr. John Gibbon in the USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine bypassing the heart so that su rgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had began. 6 In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repa ir or replace a defective heart. Many parties have had plastic valves inserted i n their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made wit hout the heart lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart lu ng machine has certain limitations. It can be used only for a few hours at a tim e because its pumping gradually damages the bloods cells. Q On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings & Sub headings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever nece ssary (minimum 4). Use a format you consider suitable. Supply an appropriate tit le to it. Solution / Hints Title:- Heart Notes:i) Function of Heart a) Vital for living (i) never stop wrkg. b) Supplies oxygen rich blood to diff. Parts of the body. ii) Structure of the heart a) div. 4 chambers connected by valves b) Blood purified in the lungs. c) Arteries carry pure blood to diff. Part of the body. iii) Heart disease cause a) Weak muscles b) Defective valves c) Defective pace maker iv) History of open heart Surgery. a) 1953 Dr. Gibbon inv. Heart lung machine b) Blood could pass through the machine c) Enabled open heart surgery d) Limitation (i) can be used only for a few hrs. at a time. (ii damages flood cells. Abbreviation used Diff. Different inv. Invented div. Division chamb. Chambers hist. History hrs. Hours The heart is a vital organ of the body, which never stop worki ng. It supplies oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body. It is divided into f our chambers inter connected by valves. Blood is purified in the lungs and arter ies carry it to different parts of the body. Heart disease has various cause suc h as weak muscles defective valves or a defective pace maker. The era of open-he art surgery began in 1953 when Dr. Gibbon developed the heart lung machine. Repl acement of valves and other areas of a damaged heart is now possible. Passage II Read the following passage carefully. Summary:-

e) f)

The great wall of china is said to be the one structure built o n the earth by man on earth, which could be visible to observe on the moon. It c overs a distance of 1500 miles. From the Liaotung Peninsula Westward to the last fortress in Central Asia, it crosses the northern province of china. In the eastern section its height varies from 15 to 30 feet, a nd its width from about 25 feet at the bottom to 15 feet at the top, where there is a pathway wide enough for six horse men to ride side by side protected by par apets. When the wall was first built it had about 25000 towers each 40 feet squa re and 40 feet high projecting from it every few hundred yards, with holes from which the defenders could shoot at attackers. There were also many watch-towers on the enemy side, outside the wall on hilltops or passes. These and the towers of the wall were used for signalling with smoke or flags by day & with fire by n ight. The great Emperor Shih Huang Li joined these earlier frontier walls to form a great wall to act as boundary between China & the north and keep out the feared nomads of The Mangolian steppes. The wall was designed to streng then the nations defences. Later it became in Ming times, a substitute for a stro ng army and state. Construction was started in about 221 B.C. and the structure w as practically completed when Shih Huang Li died in 210 B.C. The man who did mos t in carrying out the emperors plans was general Meng Ledn who in 221 B.C. led a n expedition against the Tartars and drove them back from the Yellow River into the Steppes, and set his men to work on building the wall. They were later joine d by thousands of Convicts. Year in and year out in icy winds and snow storms in winter, and in dust stroms in summer, the work went on and so many men died. Th e wall therefore was sometimes called the Longest Cemetery in the world. The cor e of the wall is earth and stone, faced with bricks and set in a stone foundatio n. In hilly place the design was altered; two parallel ditches were dug out of t he rake, 25 feet apart and great blocks of stone were laid in the benches to a h eight of several feet. Along each said of these stones, baked bricks about 2 fee t long were laid at right angles to the face of the wall, joined together with a white mortal so hard that no nail could be driven in to it. Emperor Wu Ti (140-86 B.C.) resumed work on the wall and extend ed it to its greatest length The Emperors of the Ming Dynasty (A.D. 1386-1644) c arried out work on the wall repairing its whole length and establishing new wall west of the yellow river. The wing dynasty, which now exists dates from the Min g. But many of the foundation are nearly 2000 years old Hints:Title Notes :1. Description of the unique wall (a) huge wall (i) ----------on earth -------(b) covers------------(c) width 25 fit. ------------(d) 2500 towers -------------Reason for building (a) bldng.-----------(b) Mings terms-----------Stuct. of the wall (a) foundation in stone (b) core------------(c) hilly places China wall visible

2.

3.

(i) (ii) 4

Two parallel-------------Strengthened--------------

Hist. of construction & development of the wall. a) Began in ---------------------------b) Gen. Meng tien helped -------------------(i) used workers & convicts c) Emperor ----------------------d) Emperor of Meng ------------Abbreviation used/key to abbreviation: Struct. structure Dist. distance Ft. feet Wh. which

Notes :1) Abbreviations (at least 04) must be part of your notes. Other wi se 01 mark may be deducted. 2) Title must also be written in the beginning. It carries 01 marks The great wall of -------------------- miles .It had 25000 towards -------------------- stone faced -------------- The construction mpleted in 210 B.C. general --------------- workers xtended by emperor wuti & Ming dynasty Summary: from the moon , covers ----attackers. It is ----------------------------------- co & convicts --------------- e

Note :- Summary should be developed with the help of the notes . How to make notes Read the passage carefully. Heading What is the main idea of the passage? Frame a heading based on the central idea and write it in the middle of the page. Subheadings How has the main idea been presented and developed? Are there two or three subor dinate/associated ideas? You can frame subheadings based on these. Points Are there further details or points of the subtitles that you wish to keep in th ese notes? Indent, i.e., suitably space and number. All subheadings should be written at a uniform distance from the margin. Indenting All points should also maintain the same distance away from the margin. Note: Do not write full sentences. And use abbreviations wherever necessary. Rea d below for more help on abbreviations. Help with abbreviations 1. Use standard abbreviations and symbols as far as possible: a. Capitalized first letters of words e.g. U.P.,U.S.A.,U.K.,U.S.S.R.,etc. b. Common abbreviations Sc. (for science), Mr., Mrs., Dr., Govt., etc c. Common symbols e.g., : \, , +ve, -ve, (leading to), (rising), (falling), =, etc. d. Measurements and Figures e.g., : 100, 100, 100 kg, 1000 mm, 100ml, etc. 2. Making your own abbreviations: . Keep the main sounds of the word. For example, edn. (education), progm. (programme) a. Retain the suffix so that later when you are going over the notes you ma

y recall the full form of the word e.g., ednal (educational), progve (progressive). 3. Caution . Do not get over-enthusiastic about abbreviations. You should not abbrevi ate every word. One abbreviation in point is enough. a. As a general rule, the heading should not be abbreviated. You may use ab breviations in subheadings. Your notes should look like this Notice that indenting, i.e., shifting from the margin has been used to clearly i ndicate subheadings, points and sub points. Subheadings, though separated by poi nts occur below one another. Points and sub points too come below one another, s imilarly. Such use of indenting gives your notes a visual character. At a glance you can see the main idea and its aspects.