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- Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch
- The Law of Intuition: Lesson 8 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The Right Stuff
- The Dream Daughter: A Novel
- Ball Lightning
- The Happiness Project, Tenth Anniversary Edition: Or, Why I Spent a Year Trying to Sing in the Morning, Clean My Closets, Fight Right, Read Aristotle, and Generally Have More Fun
- I Contain Multitudes: The Microbes Within Us and a Grander View of Life
- Sex at Dawn: How We Mate, Why We Stray, and What It Means for Modern Relationships
- Anathem
- Why Buddhism is True: The Science and Philosophy of Meditation and Enlightenment
- Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions
- Michael Vey 2: Rise of the Elgen
- The Comet Seekers: A Novel
- The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind: Creating Currents of Electricity and Hope
- The Source: The Secrets of the Universe, the Science of the Brain
- Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths Go to Work
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- O Estudante Eficiente: Métodos para Aumentar a Concentração e Manter a Persistência no Estudo por um Longo Período de Tempo

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Pre-AP Physics – Homework – 1

Name

Per

Loyalty to petrified opinion never yet broke a chain or freed a human soul. -- Mark Twain

1. How many centimeters are there in 2.35 m?

2. How many significant figures does each of the following measurements contain?

12.5 m |
105 cm |

100.00 s |
2.5 x 10 |

3. The floor on a room measures 2.3 m x 6 m. What is the area of the floor?

4. What is the area of a circle that has a diameter of 25 in? What is its circumference?

5. Convert 12.5 km/h to m/s.

6. The ark measured 300.0 cubits long by 30.0 cubits high by 50.0 cubits wide. A cubit is around 18 inches in length. How many cubic feet did the ark contain?

7. The volume of a sphere is 4/3 r ^{3} . A sphere that has a radius of 5.00 m could contain how many spheres that have a diameter of 5.00 cm?

8. You walk north for 2.5 miles. Then you walk east a distance of 3.0 miles. How many miles from the starting point are you?

9. A compartment measures 12 feet by 15 feet. How many tiles would it take to cover the deck if the square tiles measure 8.0 inches to the side?

pg. 1

Pre-AP Physics – One Dimensional Motion – 1

Who you are

Per

This 'telephone' has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us." -- Western Union internal memo.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Give an example of two cars that have the same speed but different velocities.

You are driving down the road at a constant velocity. What are 3 ways you could safely change your velocity?

You nose out another runner to win the 100.000 m dash. If your total time for the race was 11.800 s and you aced out the other runner by 0.001 s, by how many meters did you win?

The speed of sound is 344 m/s. You see a flash of lightning and then hear the thunder 1.5 seconds later. How far away from the lightning strike are you?

A train travels from Denver to Bougainvillea in 5 hours and 37 minutes. If the average speed for the train was 76.5 km/h, how much distance did it cover?

You travel down the highway, starting from rest. You travel for 2.0 h at a speed of 105 km/h. Then you stop and eat your lunch for 30.0 min. Then you travel for 1.5 h at 75 km h. Make a distance vs time graph of this motion.

A car travels along a straight section of road. A distance vs time graph illustrating its motion is graphed to the right.

Indicate every time t for which the cart is at rest.

Indicate every time interval for which the speed of the cart is increasing.

What is the velocity from: a – b, b – c. c - d, d – e, and e – f?

x

5

b

c

f

a

5

10

15

5

d

e

t

Position Time Graph

pg. 2

Pre-AP Physics – One Dimensional Motion – 2

How your are known

Per

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. – Max Planck

1. A racecar accelerates from rest to a speed of 287 km/h in 6.8 seconds. What is its average acceleration?

2. The space shuttle undergoes an acceleration of 53.9 m/s ^{2} . How fast is it traveling at the end of 55.2 s?

3. Can an object under constant acceleration come to rest and stay at rest? Explain your answer.

4. You are in an elevator that is accelerating you upward at 4.55 m/s ^{2} . How much time does it take you to reach a speed of 11.0 m/s?

5. Two cars travel in the same direction along a straight highway, one at a constant speed of 55 mi/h and the other at 70.0 mi/h. (a) Assuming that they start at the same point, how much sooner does the faster car arrive at a destination 10.0 miles away? (b) How far must the faster car travel before it has a 15 minute lead on the slower car?

6. A car traveling in a straight line has a velocity of + 5.0 m/s at some instant. After 4.0 s, its velocity is + 8.0 m/s. What is its average acceleration during this time interval?

7. A car is traveling at 108 km/h, stuck behind a slower car. Finally the road is clear and the car pulls over to make a pass. The driver stomps on the gas pedal and accelerates up to a speed of 135 km/h. If it took 3.5 s to reach this speed, what is the average acceleration of the car?

pg. 3

8. A position vs time graph is shown to the right. Please analyze the graph and determine the following. (a) The speed of the object from b

from d

the object is zero, and (e) the points where the direction of the object had to change (if any).

c, (b) the speed from c

d, (c) the speed

e, (d) the times t when the speed of

x

5

b

c

e

a

5

10

15

5

d

t

Position Time Graph

9. You walk down the sidewalk to the east for 8.0 min at a speed of 1.2 m/s. You reach a busy street and have to stop. You remain at rest for 2 minutes. The traffic dies down, so you run across the street at constant speed. The street is 12 m wide and it takes you 1.5 s to cross it. You immediately slow down to your regular 1.2 m/s walk speed and proceed for 2 min. You suddenly discover that your plush ducky fell off your backpack. You immediately turn around and run back to the intersection you just crossed. You run at a constant speed of 6.5 m/s. Make a distance vs time graph for your motion.

pg. 4

Pre-AP Physics – One Dimensional Motion – 3

What you are called

Per

Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons. -- Popular Mechanics, 1949

1. A race car accelerates at a rate of 15.6 m/s ^{2} . If it starts from rest, how much time till it is traveling at 325 km/h?

2. A truck falls off a cliff. If the cliff is 33.5 m high, how much time for the truck to reach the bottom?

3. You toss a ball straight up in the air, it goes up, comes down, and you catch it. If it took 5.6 s from when you threw it to when you caught it, how high did it go?

4. The speed of sound is 344 m/s. You have built a really fantastic car that can really go fast. If

the car can accelerate at 22.4 m/s, how much time till you reach the speed of sound? many kilometers will you travel before you reach that speed?

How

5. In 1947 Bob Feller, a pitcher for the Cleveland Indians, threw a baseball across the plate at 98.6 mph or 44.1 m/s. For many years this was the fastest pitch ever measured. If Bob had thrown the pitch straight up, how high would it have gone?

6. You are on top of a building that is 75.0 m tall. You toss a ball straight up with an initial velocity of 33.8 m/s. How high does the ball travel? It goes up and then falls down to the ground below. How much time is it in the air?

pg. 5

Pre-AP Physics – One Dimensional Motion – 4

emaN

Per

So many centuries after the Creation, it is unlikely that anyone could find hitherto unknown lands of any value. -- Spanish Royal Commission, rejecting Christopher Columbus' exploration proposal

1. |
A can of tuna is dropped from a building. If the can takes 3.2 seconds to strike the ground, what distance did it fall? |

2. |
An engine falls off of a 737 from a height of 2500 m. Ignoring wind resistance, how fast is the thing traveling when it smacks into the turf? |

3. |
A ball is thrown straight down from a bridge with an initial velocity of 18.5 m/s. If it travels for 2.3 sec, how high is the bridge? |

4. |
A ball, initially at rest, rolls down a ramp. It experiences an acceleration of 1.2 m/s |

5. |
A ball rolls down a ramp with very little friction. Which of the following is not true? |

(A) |
The ball covers a greater distance with each time increment. |

(B) |
The ball’s acceleration increases with each time increment. |

(C) |
The ball’s velocity increases with each time increment. |

(D) |
The ball cover’s an equal distance in an equal amount of time. |

(E) |
The distance that the ball covers in one second depends on the time and the ball’s initial velocity. |

6. |
A ball is thrown straight up, it rises 12.5 m before it falls back down. (a) What was its initial speed? (b) how much time is it in the air? |

7. |
A ball is thrown straight down from a bridge with an initial velocity of 18.5 m/s. The bridge is 22.0 m above the river. How much time to hit the water? |

pg. 6

Pre-AP Physics – One Dimensional Motion - 5

Human nomenclature

Per

These several facts prove nothing, for one cannot deduce a principle from so few examples, but they do at least indicate that the ability to learn to spell correctly is a gift; that it is born in a person, and that it is a sign of intellectual inferiority. By parity of reasoning, its absence is a sign of great mental power. -- Mark Twain,

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

An athlete covers a distance of 1250.0 m in 5 min and 35.2 sec. What was the athlete's average velocity?

Your odometer reads 23 552.6 mi when you begin a trip at 0817.0 hours. If your average speed is 58.4 mi/hour and you travel until 1522.8 hours, what does the odometer now read?

It takes you 12.2 seconds to accelerate from rest to a speed of 125 km/h. (a) What distance do you travel in this time? (b) What is your average speed for this time interval?

You walk east for 12 km and then travel south for 15 km. What is your final displacement?

You travel down the highway, starting from rest. You travel for 2.0 h at a speed of 70 mi/h. Then you stop and eat your lunch for 45.0 min. Then you travel for 30 min at 70 mi/h. Then you discover that your meeting is an hour earlier than you thought, so you speed up to 85 miles an hour and travel for 1.0 hour. Make a distance vs time graph of this motion.

A cart travels along a straight section of road. A velocity vs time graph illustrating its motion is graphed to the right.

v (m/s)

Indicate every time t for which the cart is at rest.

Indicate every time interval for which the speed (magnitude of velocity) of the cart is increasing.

What is the acceleration from a – b?

What is the acceleration from b – c?

What is the acceleration from d – e?

What is the acceleration from e – g?

b

5

g

c

a

f

5

10

15

5

d

e

velocity time graph

t (s)

pg. 7

7.

You are on top of a building that is 55.0 m tall. You toss a ball straight up. It travels 35.0 m up before it stops and begins to fall back down. (a) What was the ball’s initial velocity? It goes up and then falls down to the ground below. (b) How much time is it in the air?

8. A ball rolls down a ramp and travels a distance of 3.00 m in 2.05 seconds. Find (a) what is the ball’s acceleration? (b) what is the ball’s final speed at the bottom of the ramp? And (c) what is the ball’s average speed going down the ramp?

pg. 8

Pre-AP Physics – Vectors – 2

Blame

Per

I don't want to get to the end of my life and find that I lived just the length of it. I want to have lived the width of it as well. -- Diane Ackerman

1. A ball is thrown with an angle of 12.0 ∞to the horizon with a speed of 15.0 m/s. What are its horizontal and vertical components?

2. A frog falls from its rainforrest tree. If we ignore wind resistance, (a) how much time does it take the frog to fall a distance of 12.0 m? (b) how fast is the frog falling at this point?

3. A cannon shoots a large cannonball. The cannonball has a speed of 125 m/s when it leaves the barrel. If the elevation angle was 32.0∞, what is the horizontal distance that the cannonball travels?

4. A ball is thrown at some angle. The ball is in the air for 4.50 seconds before it hits. If it travels 45.0 meters before it hits the ground, what was the initial velocity of the ball (magnitude and direction please)?

5. A crow flies aloft carrying a shiny rock in its beak. The crow reaches an altitude of 65.0 m

and is flying at 34.5 km/h.

the ground below, (b) the horizontal distance the rock will travel before it hits, and (c) the speed of the rock when it hits the ground.

It releases the rock. Find: (a) the time it will take the rock to hit

6. A ball rolls across a table at constant velocity. The ball is traveling at speed v. The table is a distance h above the deck below. How far from the edge of the table does the ball travel before it hits the deck?

pg. 9

Pre-AP Physics – More Blamed Projo Moto – 3

Game

Per

Wisdom is not a product of schooling but of the lifelong attempt to acquire it. --Albert Einstein

1. A ball is thrown straight up with a speed of 12.5 m/s. (a) How high does it go and (b) how much time does it take to get there?

2. A Volkswagen runs straight off a cliff. The Volkswagen is traveling at a speed of 34.5 m/s when if leaves the road. If the cliff is 12.5 m high, how far horizontally does the car travel before it smashes into the ground below?

3. A stealth bomber on a training mission drops one of its bombs from a height of 3 500 m during level flight. The bomb travels a horizontal distance of 1.25 km. What was the plane’s horizontal speed?

4. An arrow is launched with a velocity of 88.7 m/s at an angle of 33.0∞to the horizontal. How far does the arrow travel?

5. A brick is thrown upward from the top of a building at an angle of 25∞to the horizontal and with an initial speed of 15 m/s. It strikes the ground below. If the brick is in flight for 3.0 s, how tall is the building?

6. A ball is thrown at an angle of 43∞to the horizontal. It travels a distance of 75 m in 2.3 s. (a) What was its original velocity? (b) How high did it go?

7. Observe the distance Vs time graph for the motion of a toy car. From the graph, determine the following: (a) the speed at time t = 2.5 s. (b) The speed at time t = 17 s. (c) parts of the curve when the speed is increasing in magnitude. (d) What will be total displacement at t = 14 s.

v (m/s)

c

5

b

e

d

f

a

t (s)

20

5

10

15

g

5

pg. 10

8.

A truck is out on the highway cruising along. It goes by a marker that says “125 km”. 12 minutes later it travels past a marker that says “ 88 km”. What is the average speed of the truck?

9. The USS Theodore Cleaver fires a projectile at an angle of 25.0 ∞. The time of flight for the projectile is 48.4 s. What was the horizontal distance of the shot?

pg. 11

Pre-AP Physics – Vectors– 4

Flamingo

Per

Vital papers will demonstrate their vitality by spontaneously moving from where you left them to where you can't find them. -- Anonomous

1. A ball is at rest on a ramp as shown. If the ramp makes an angle of 11.0∞to the horizontal, what is the acceleration component down the ramp? If the ball rolls down the ramp a distance of 1.2 m, how much time did it take? As you can see, g is the resultant of the acceleration down the ramp and normal to the ramp.

11.0

11.0

9.80 m/s 2

2. A kid runs straight off a diving board. The diving board is 3.0 m above the water. If the kid travels 2.5 m horizontally from the edge of the board when he hits the water, what was his horizontal speed?

3. The nose wheel falls off of a 767 when it is flying at an altitude of 12 500 m. Okay, (a) how much time for it to hit the ground? (b) If the plane has an air speed of 885 km/h, what is the horizontal distance that the wheel travels before it hits the ground.

4. A 5 inch projectile is fired with a velocity of 288.7 m/s at an angle of 18.0∞to the horizontal. How far does the projectile travel?

5. An aircraft launches a bomb. The plane is flying upward at an angle of 55∞to the horizon. When the bomb is launched, de plane has a speed of 745 km/h. At the time of launch, the bomb is 8 750 m above the ground. So (a) how high does the bomb go from where it was

launched?

(b) How far horizontally does it travel? (c) How much time till it hits?

pg. 12

Pre-AP Physics – Vectors– 5

G’g’name

Per

We choose our joys and sorrows long before we experience them. -- Khalil Gibran

1. Draw the velocity vectors onto the balls below:

2. A projectile is launched with an initial speed of 60.0 m/s and an angle of 30.0∞above the horizontal. The projectile lands on a hillside 4.00 s later. Neglect air friction. (a) What is the projectile’s velocity at the highest point of its trajectory? (b) What is the straight-line distance from where the projectile was launched to where it hits?

3. A gigantic roc (the mythical bird that gave Sinbad a real bad time) picks up a boat and flies off with it. The bird releases the boat. The boat travels 235 m in the horizontal direction before it hits the water. The bird was flying at a speed of 23.5 m/s. So how high was the bird flying when it dropped the boat?

4. A speedy destroyer’s 5 inch gun fires a projectile at some angle to the horizontal. If the thing travels a distance of 23 500 m in 135 s, what was the projectile’s initial velocity?

5. A car is parked on a cliff overlooking the ocean on an incline that makes an angle of 24.0∞ below the horizontal. The negligent driver leaves the car in neutral, and the emergency brakes are defective. The car rolls from rest down the incline with a constant acceleration of 4.00 m/s ^{2} for a distance of 50.0 m to the edge of the cliff. The cliff is 30.0 m above the ocean. Find (a) the car’s position relative to the cliff when the car lands in the ocean, and (b) the length of time the car is in the air.

pg. 13

6. An overpaid (really overpaid) baseball player hits a homerun. The ball is caught by one of the few baseball fans left under the age of 50 in the stands in the cheap seats. It is caught 7.50 m above the point from which it was hit. At the moment it was caught (or an instant before if you prefer) it had a velocity of 36.0 m/s at an angle of 28.0∞below the horizontal. Ignoring air resistance, find the initial velocity of the ball when it was hit.

7. A basketball hoop is 3.05 m above the playing surface. A basket is made. The ball reached a maximum height that was 2.00 m above the height of the basket hoop. The basketball was launched from a height of 1.95 m. If the ball traveled a horizontal distance of 5.20 m in 2.00 seconds, what was the initial velocity of the basketball?

pg. 14

Pre-AP Physics – Newton’s Laws – 1

Nmea

Per

The society which scorns excellence in plumbing because plumbing is a humble activity, and tolerates shoddiness in philosophy because it is an exalted activity, will have neither good plumbing nor good philosophy. Neither its pipes nor its theories will hold water. -- John W. Gardner

1. A rock is thrown at an angle of 35.0∞to the horizontal with a speed of 11.5 m/s. How far does it travel?

2. A 450 kg mass is accelerated at 2.5 m/s ^{2} . (a) What is the force causing this acceleration? (b) If the mass of the car is doubled, what happens to the acceleration?

3. How much does a 34.5 kg gymnast weigh?

4. A 2500 kg car experiences a net 250 N force, (a) what is the acceleration acting on the car?

(b) What is the car’s speed at the end of 35 seconds?

5. An artillery shell has a mass of 75 kg. The projectile is fired from the weapon and has a velocity of 670 m/s when it leaves the barrel. The gun barrel is 2.7 m long. (a) Assuming the force and therefore the acceleration is constant while the projectile is in the barrel, what is the force that acted on the projectile? (b) If the elevation angle is 52∞, what is the horizontal range of the projectile?

6. A ball is attached to a string and hangs from the ceiling. Draw a FBD of the system. Label the vectors.

7. The space shuttle has a mass of 2.0 x 10 ^{6} kg. At lift off the engines generate an upward thrust of 1.3 x 10 ^{8} N.

(a) |
Draw a FBD of the space shuttle system. |

(b) |
What is the weight of the space shuttle? |

(c) |
What is the acceleration of the shuttle when it is launched? |

(d) |
The average acceleration of the shuttle during its 7.5 minute run is 18 m/s |

pg. 15

8. A 3.45 g hockey puck rests on a flat, smooth table. A horizontal net force of 85.0 N acts on it for 1.10 seconds. The puck slides across the table at the end of that time and then falls off the table. The table’s top surface is 85.0 cm above the deck. Find (a) the acceleration of the puck, (b) the speed of the puck after the 1.10 s, (c) the horizontal distance from the table edge to where the puck impacts the deck.

pg. 16

Pre-AP Physics – Newton’s Laws – 2

Who you are Accept that some days you're the pigeon, and some days you're the statue.

Per

1. A frog jumps at an angle of 42.5∞to the horizontal with a speed of 13.5 m/s. How far does it travel?

2. A 450 kg mass is accelerated at 2.5 m/s ^{2} . (a) What is the net force causing this acceleration? (b) much distance will have been covered after 3.5 s

3. A book sits on a table. The book has a mass of 1.25 kg. Draw a free body diagram of the thing.

4. A boy pushes a lawnmower. The handle of the lawn mower makes an angle of 22∞with the horizontal. If the boy pushes with a force of 135 N, what are the horizontal and vertical components of the force?

5. A 46.5 kg traffic light hangs from two cables which are at the angles shown. Calculate the tensions in the two cables.

52

52

6. A 50.5 kg traffic light hangs from two cables which are at the angles shown. Calculate the tensions in the two cables.

78

33

pg. 17

Pre-AP Physics – Newton’s Laws – 3

Who you be

Per

I long to accomplish a great and noble task, but it is my chief duty to accomplish small tasks as if they were great and noble. -- Helen Keller

1. A crow flying horizontally at a speed of 14.0 m/s drops a

walnut. The walnut falls to the ground in 3.50 s.

How high was the crow flying? (b) how far horizontally does the walnut travel before it hits the deck?

(a)

2. When you walk along the sidewalk, you push the earth and the earth pushes you. How come no one notices that you pushed the earth?

3. How does a rocket work in space if there is no air to push against?

4. A crate rests on very low friction wheels. The crate and the wheels and stuff have a weight of 865 N. You pull on the rope with a force of 145 N. What is the acceleration of the system? How far will it move in 2.00 s?

5. A 34.5 kg block rests on the ramp as shown in the drawing. What is the tension in the line that is connected to the top of ramp?

35

6. A 7.00 kg ball rolls down a 17.5∞ramp.

(a) What is the acceleration of the ball? (Ignore

friction) (b) If the ramp is 2.00 m long, how much time to reach the bottom?

7. A barge is towed by two mules as shown in the drawing. (a) What is the net force acting on the barge when the tow begins if the frictional force that must be overcome is 1 250 N? (b) Later the barge is moving at 2.5 km/h, what is the net force acting on it?

2250

N

35.0

35.0

2250 N

pg. 18

8.

A 4.50 kg block rests on a smooth ramp as shown. It is attached to a 4.20 kg block by a very low mass string that is run over a low friction pulley. (a) In what direction will the blocks travel? And (b) What will be the acceleration of the blocks when the system is released?

4.20 kg

35.0

4.50 kg

9. Two masses are connected by a light string that runs over a frictionless pulley as shown. What is the acceleration of the system when the masses are released and allowed to move?

2.25 kg

m 1

m 2

2.10 kg

pg. 19

Pre-AP Physics – Newton’s Laws – 4

Is you who

Per

I am a marvelous housekeeper. Every time I leave a man I keep his house. -- Zsa Zsa Gabor

1. Okay, a small insect smashes into the windshield of your car while you are zooming down the interstate. (a) Which exerts the larger force; the bug on the car or the car on the bug? how come? (b) Which experiences a larger acceleration; the bug or the car? How come?

So

2. A ultra low friction pulley deal is as shown. The two weights experience an acceleration of 0.450 m/s ^{2} . Find the mass of the second weight.

a

1.08 kg

3. A big dump truck is at rest on a section of road that is at an angle of 5.00∞to the horizontal. The truck’s mass is 15 500 kg. What force must the brakes exert to keep the truck from rolling down the sloped road?

4. Three masses are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley as shown. (a) What is the acceleration of the system? (b) What are the tensions in the string?

4.05 kg

2.40 kg

6.50 kg

pg. 20

5.

A soccer ball is kicked at an angle of 32.5∞with a velocity of 21.5 m/s. (a) draw a FBD of the thing. Good, now find: (b) the time of flight for the soccer ball, (c) the distance the ball travels, and (d) the height of the soccer ball after 1.50 s.

6. Find the tension in each cable supporting the 600.0 N cat burglar.

37.0

pg. 21

Pre-AP Physics – Newton’s Laws – 5

Who you is

Per

In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the

silence of our friends. -- Martin Luther King, Jr.

1. Blocks 1 and 2 of masses m _{1} and m _{2} , respectively, are connected by a light string, as shown above. These blocks are further connected to a block of mass M by another light string that passes over a pulley of negligible mass and friction. Blocks 1 and 2 move with a constant velocity v down the inclined plane, which makes an angle _{e} with the horizontal. The kinetic frictional force on block 1 is f and that on block 2 is 2f. (year 2000 AP Exam Quest)

(a) On the figure below, draw and label all the forces on block m _{1} .

Express your answers to each of the following in terms of m _{1} , m _{2} , g, _{}_{}_{}_{} , and f

(b) |
Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction between the inclined plane and block 1. |

(c) |
Determine the value of the suspended mass M that allows blocks 1 and 2 to move with constant velocity down the plane. |

(d) |
The string between blocks 1 and 2 is now cut. Determine the acceleration of block 1 while it is on the inclined plane. |

pg. 22

2. Two 10.0 kg masses are hanging from the ceiling of an elevator that is accelerating upward at

2.00 m/s ^{2} . What is the tension in each rope?

3. A 250.0 kg crate is being pulled across the floor with a rope that makes an angle of 22.0∞to the horizontal. If the force applied is equal to 875 N, what is the coefficient of kinetic friction?

875 N

22.0

250.0 kg

4. In the ramp system shown, a 7.00 kg mass is attached to a 6.50 kg mass by a light string that is threaded through a low friction pulley. The 7.00 kg mass accelerates up the ramp when the

6.50 kg mass is released. (a) Draw a FBD for each object and (b) find the acceleration of the

system if the coefficient of kinetic friction between the 7.00 kg mass and the plane is 0.280.

7.00 kg

35.0

6.50 kg

pg. 23

Pre-AP Physics – Newton’s Laws – 6

You is Who

Per

A baby is God's opinion that life should go on. -- Carl Sandburg

1. A small weather rocket weighs 15.7 N. (a) What is the rocket’s mass? (b) The rocket fires its engine when it is dropped from a balloon at high altitude. If the rocket has a thrust of 109.2 N, what is the acceleration on the rocket?

2. A boy pulls a 47.5 kg crate with a rope. The rope makes an angle of 28.0∞to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction for the crate and the deck is 0.300. The boy exerts a force of 185 N. What is the acceleration of the crate?

3. Two of these here masses are connected by a very light weight string that passes over your basic very low friction pulley. The mass on the left is 3.25 kg. The 3.25 kg mass accelerates upward at 0.345 m/s ^{2} . What is the mass on the other side of the pulley?

a

3.25 kg

4. A disturbing weight hangs suspended as shown in the drawing. Find the tensions in the two strings.

20.3

79.0

119 kg

pg. 24

5.

An inclined plane has an 8.00 kg mass resting on it. The plane makes an angle of 28.0∞to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.342. A low-mass string is attached to the weight and runs over one of them really good low friction pulley deals where it is attached to a 6.50 kg mass.

(a) |
What is the tension in the string? |

(b) |
What is the acceleration of the system? |

(c) |
Does the 8.00 kg mass go down the ramp or up the ramp? |

8.00 kg

28.0

6.50 kg

6. A 2.25 kg ball experiences a net force of 965 N up a ramp as shown. Once the ball reaches the top of the ramp, the force no longer acts. The force acts over a distance of 1.50 m on the ramp. Find the horizontal distance x that the ball travels before it hits

the deck. The top of the ramp is 4.50 meters above the deck below.

28.0 0

x

7. Two small blocks, each of mass m, are connected by a string of constant length 4 h and negligible mass. Block A is placed on a

3 h

smooth tabletop as shown and block B hangs over the edge of the table. The tabletop is a distance 2 h above the floor. Block B is then released from rest at a distance h above the floor at time t = 0.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

A

m

B

m

h

2 h

Determine the acceleration of block B as it descends.

Block B strikes the floor and does not bounce. Determine the time t _{1} at which block B strikes the floor.

Describe the motion of block A from time t = 0 to the time when block B strikes the floor.

Describe the motion of block A from the time block B strikes the floor to the time block A leaves the table.

Determine the distance between the landing points of the two blocks.

pg. 25

Pre-AP Physics – Newton’s Laws– 7

Who is it?

Per

Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter. --Martin Luther King, Jr.

1. A ball is kicked at an angle of 38.0∞to the horizontal with a speed of 15.8 m/s. How far does it travel?

2. What is the mass of a 235 N acrobat?

3. A 25.6 kg rocket accelerates upward at 105 m/s ^{2} . What is the thrust pushing it up?

4. When you jump into the air, you push the earth away from you and the earth pushes you away from it. How come no one notices that you pushed the earth?

5. A 12 250 kg boulder hangs from two cables which are at the angles shown. Calculate the

tensions in the two cables.

23.8

81.8

6. Two masses are connected by a light string which passes over a frictionless pulley as shown. (a) What is the acceleration of the system? (b) What are the tensions in the string?

5.25 kg

5.00 kg

pg. 26

7.

You pull on a 98.0 kg bag of wild bird seed and drag it across the deck. If the coefficient of kinetic friction for the bag on the deck is 0.445, what force must you apply to move the thing at a constant speed?

8. A Find the acceleration of the system shown in the drawing if the coefficient of kinetic friction between the 7.00 kg mass and the plane is 0.280.

8.60 kg

43.0

11.0 kg

9. A retired policewoman pushes on a 77.2 kg crate with a pole. The pole makes an angle of 32.0∞to the horizontal. The coefficient of kinetic friction for the crate and the deck is 0.350. The policewoman exerts a force of 535 N. What is the acceleration of the crate?

10. Why do all objects fall at the same speed (ignoring air resistance)?

11. The first law says that no force is required to maintain motion. Fine, then how come you have to keep pedaling your bicycle to keep it moving?

12. What is the difference between mass and weight?

13. Explain, in terms of Newton's laws, the magician's trick of pulling a tablecloth out from under a bunch of dishes and cups and stuff without disturbing them.

14. What net force is required to accelerate a 135,000 kg aircraft from rest to a speed of 35.0 m/s in 11.0 s?

15. A wise guy you know poses this problem to you, "A horse pulls on a cart, exerting a force on it. The cart exerts an equal and opposite force on the horse. So if the forces are equal, then the net force is zero and the horse cannot pull the cart." What is wrong about this set of particulars? [I.e., why can the horse pull the cart?]

pg. 27

Pre-AP Physics – Work and Energy – 1

Identify yourself in this space

Per

Courage is doing what you're afraid to do. There can be no courage unless you are scared. --Eddie Rickenbacker

1. How much work is done on a 55 N package you carry horizontally for a distance of 12 m?

2. How much work is done on a 625 N rock that you lift 0.85 m?

3. You apply a 225 N force to a heavy crate with a rope that makes a 27.0∞angle with the horizontal, if you pull the crate a distance of 3.50 m, how much work was done?

4. You pull a 55.5 kg wooden box with a rope that makes a 28.0∞angle with the horizontal at a constant speed. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the deck is 0.330. You pull the crate a distance of 2.25 m. How much work was done?

5. A bear with a mass of 218 kg runs up a hill. At the top of the hill, she has gained 23.5 kJ of potential energy. How high was the hill?

6. A 1.25 kg rock is thrown with a velocity of 12.5 m/s at an angle of 43.0∞to the horizontal. (a) How much kinetic energy does it have when it is initially released? (b) What is its kinetic energy at the highest point in its trajectory? (c) How far does it travel in the horizontal direction?

7. A 15.0 kg bullet leaves the barrel of a gun at a speed of 240.0 m/s. (a) Find the bullet’s kinetic energy, (b) find the average force exerted on the bullet by the expanding gases as the bullet moves through the length of the 50.0 cm barrel.

pg. 28

8.

Three blocks of masses 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kilograms are connected by massless strings, one of which passes over a frictionless pulley of negligible mass, as shown below. Calculate each of the following.

a. The acceleration of the 4.0 kilogram block.

b. The tension in the string supporting the 4.0 kilogram block.

c. The tension in the string connected to the 1.0 kilogram block.

pg. 29

Pre-AP Physics – Work/Energy - 2

You, Identify, Now!

Per

He that would make his own liberty secure must guard even his enemy from oppression; for if he violates this duty he establishes a precedent that will reach to himself. --Thomas Paine

1. A 2.45 kg rock is dropped from the top of a 15.5 m vertical cliff. (a) What is the potential energy of the rock relative to the base of the cliff before it is dropped? (b) What is the kinetic energy of the rock just before it hits the ground below? (c) What is the velocity of the rock at

a point 5.00 m above the base of the cliff? (d) How much total energy does the rock have half way down?

2. A roller coaster is at the top of a 75.0 m hill. It rolls down the hill on very low friction wheels and climbs up to the top of a 45.0 m hill. Find (a) the speed of the thing at the bottom of the first hill and (b) its speed at the top of the second hill.

3. You push a 45.0 kg wooden crate up a ramp that makes an angle of 22.0∞to the horizontal at

a constant speed. The coefficient of kinetic friction for the crate and ramp is 0.385 (a) How much work have you done if you push it a distance of 10.5 m up the ramp? (b) What is the change in potential energy for the crate relative to the base of the ramp?

4. A 2.5 kg ball hangs from the overhead by a string that is 75 cm long. The height of the room is 3.0 m. What is the potential energy of the ball (a) relative to the deck? (b) Relative to the top of an 88 cm tall tabletop? (c) Relative to the overhead?

pg. 30

5. A block A of mass m _{1} rests on a very smooth table and is attached to block B of mass m _{2} that hangs over the table as shown. Block A is distance 3 d from the end of the table. Block B is distance 2d from the deck and distance d from the tabletop. (a) What is the potential energy of block B relative to the deck? (b) What is the acceleration of the system when block A is released? (c) What is the kinetic energy of block B just before it hits the deck? (d) What is the kinetic energy of block A at the moment it reaches the edge of the table (e) What is the potential energy of block A at the same point? (d) What is the kinetic energy of block A just before it hits the deck?

3 d

A

m

1

B

m 2

2d

3 d

pg. 31

Pre-AP Physics – Work and Energy - 3

Identifier

Per

You can tell whether a man is clever by his answers. You can tell whether a man is wise by his questions. -- Mahfouz Naguib

1. A spring has a spring constant of k = 55.0 N/m. The spring is compressed a distance of 3.50

cm. What is the potential energy stored in the spring?

2. An 85 g wooden block is set up against a spring. The block rests on a smooth surface. The block is pushed into the spring, compressing it a distance of 2.0 cm and then released. The spring constant is k = 78 N/m. What is the speed of the block when it reaches its initial position (where the spring was not compressed)?

3. A roller coaster starts at some height that you do not know. It goes down this hill and then goes up a second hill that is 28.5 m above the first drop at a speed of 22.5 m/s. So how high was the initial hill?

4. A 5.0 kg crate slides down a smooth ramp that is elevated at an angle of 38∞. The length of the ramp is 2.0 m. What will be the speed of the crate at the bottom of the ramp?

5. A fireman runs up a 7.5 m ladder. The fireman has a mass of 52 kg and is carrying 15 kg of firefightin’ gear. If the fireman developed 685 watts, how much time did it take to reach the top of the ladder?

6. A 3.00 kg mass, m _{1}_{,} slides up a ramp. The angle for the ramp is 28.0∞. The 3.00 kg mass is connected to a second mass, m _{2} , of 3.25 kg as shown by a light string with a frictionless pulley, &c. Coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.285. Find (a) the acceleration of m _{1} , (b) the kinetic energy of m _{1} after it has traveled 25.0 cm up the ramp, and (c) the work done on m _{1} to move it the 25.0 cm.

m 1

^{m} 2

pg. 32

7. A 3.12 kg iron ball is suspended from the ceiling of a room by two cords as shown in the drawing. The ceiling is 2.20 m above the deck. The angle

is 61.0∞. The other cord is perfectly horizontal. Find (a) The tension in

_{}_{}_{}_{}

both strings. (b) The potential energy of the ball relative to the deck.

if the horizontal spring were to break, what would be the velocity of the ball when the other cord is vertical?

(c)

75.0 cm

2.20 m

8. A 47.0 kg projectile is launched with an initial speed of 72.0 m/s and an angle of 39.8∞above the horizontal. The projectile lands on a hillside 7.15 s later. Neglect air friction. (a) What is the projectile’s kinetic energy at the highest point of its trajectory? (b) What is the height of the impact point? (c) What is its total energy just before it hits the hillside?

pg. 33

Pre-AP Physics – Work and Energy – 4

Be You Somebody?

Per

We sleep safely in our beds because rough men stand ready in the night to do violence to those who would do us harm. -- George Orwell

1.

2.

A 0.44 kg ball is thrown straight down from a bridge with an initial velocity of 12.5 m/s. It travels for 1.5 seconds. Find: (a) The height of the bridge, (b) the potential energy of the ball before it is thrown, and (c) the total energy of the ball 2.50 m above the water below.

You travel down the highway, starting from rest. You travel for 0.30 hours at a speed of 70 mi/h. Then you stop and eat your lunch for 30.0 min. Then you travel for 0.25 hours at 70 mi/h. Then you are forced to wait for 15 minutes for roadwork. Then you travel for 15 minutes at only 35 mi/h. Make a velocity vs time graph of this motion.

3.

4.

5.

A 2.5 kg box slides across the flat surface of a table. The coefficient of kinetic friction for the table/box is 0.295. The box is attached to a light string that passes over a low friction pulley and is connected to a 3.0 kg mass that is hanging vertically. (a) find the acceleration of the system (b) find the velocity of the 2.5 kg box after it has been dragged 0.25 m if its initial velocity was 0.25 m/s, and (c) find the kinetic energy of the box at this point.

Find the two angles if the system is at rest.

5.00 kg

5.00 kg

pg. 34

8.00 kg

6. Okay, here’s a wonderful Tarzan swing problem. Tarzan is above the floor of the jungle on a limb. He swings out on a vine and lets go of the thing when he is at the lowest point of the swing. At this point, he is 9.0 m above the ground. How far horizontally did he travel from when he first started his swing?

15 m

32 o

9.0 m

7. A sled coasts down a hill as shown. The angle the slope makes with the horizontal is 41∞. The distance s is 35

m. Find the speed of the sled at the bottom of the hill.

d

s

8. A ski jumper sails down a slope as shown. Find the vertical distance that the skier travels from the edge of the bottom of the ski jump.

33 m

y

37 ^{o}

pg. 35

9.

You pull a box across the floor with a force of 425 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction is

0.305. The mass of the crate is 125 kg. Angle = 35.0∞. Find:

(a) the acceleration of the box and (b) the amount of work done in moving the crate a distance of 3.50 m.

pg. 36

Pre-AP Physics – Work/Energy – 5

Who you think you are

Per

The difference between stupidity and ignorance is that ignorance is curable. – Robert Heinlein

1. A spring with a spring constant value of 125 N/m is compressed 12.2 cm by pushing on it with a 215 g block. When the block is released, what velocity will the block have when it leaves the spring (we’re ignoring friction here)?

2. A woman lifts a 12.5 kg bucket up a well. She does 5.50 kJ of work. How deep is the well?

3. A 48.0 kg telephone repairperson climbs up one of them power pole deals. She is carrying 7.85 kg of tools and things. If she generates 0.765 hp, how much time does it take her to climb the 3.20 m tall pole?

4. A 25.0 kg block slides down a ramp that is elevated at 36.0∞a distance of 5.00 m. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.220. (a) What is the potential energy of the block before it begins to slide? (b) What is the work done by friction as the block slides down the ramp (said energy being converted into heat)? (c) What is the speed of the block when it reaches

the bottom?

25.0 kg

36.0

5.00 m

5. A 12.6 kg monkey sitting on a branch grabs a 25.0 m long vine and swings outward. Initially the vine made an angle of 28.0∞to the vertical. How fast will the monkey be traveling when she reaches the bottom of her swing?

6. A dart gun consists of a spring (k = 367 N/m) and a 25.0 g dart. When the dart is loaded into the gun, the spring is compressed 7.0 cm. The gun is aimed straight up and fired. How high does the dart go, ignoring air resistance of course?

pg. 37

7. One end of a spring is attached to a solid wall while the other end just reaches to the edge of a horizontal, frictionless tabletop, which is a distance h = 0.89 m above the floor. A 3.5 kg block is placed against the end of the spring and pushed toward the wall until the spring has been compressed a distance of 18 cm, as shown below. The block is released, follows the trajectory shown, and strikes the floor a horizontal distance of 1.2 m from the edge of the table. Air resistance is negligible.

Determine the following :

d. The time elapsed from the instant the block leaves the table to the instant it strikes the floor.

e. The horizontal component of the velocity of the block just before it hits the floor.

f. The work done on the block by the spring.

g. The spring constant.

pg. 38

Pre-AP Physics – Work/Energy – 6

Who you may be

Per

I think, therefore I am. -- Rene Descartes

I think, therefore I thtay away from water becauth I can’t thwim

-- Babette Bingo

1. A 0.50 kg cart moves on a straight horizontal track. The graph of velocity V _{x} versus time t for the cart is given below.

(g) |
Indicate every time t for which the cart is at rest. |

(b) |
Indicate every time interval for which the speed (magnitude of velocity) of the cart is increasing. |

(c) |
Determine the horizontal position x of the cart at t = 9.0 s if the cart is located at x = 2.0 m at t = 0. |

pg. 39

(d)

On the axes below, sketch the acceleration a versus time t graph for the motion of the cart from t = 0 to t = 25 s

(e) From t = 25 s until the cart reaches the end of the track, the cart continues with constant horizontal velocity. The cart leaves the end of the track and hits the floor, which is 0.40 m below the track. Neglecting air resistance, determine each of the following.

i. The time from when the cart leaves the track until it first hits the floor

ii. The horizontal distance from the end of the track to the point at which the cart first hits the floor

iii. The kinetic energy of the cart immediately before it hits the floor

2. A spring that can be assumed to be ideal hangs from a stand, as shown.

a.

You wish to determine experimentally the spring constant k of the spring.

i. What additional, commonly available equipment would you need?

ii. What measurements would you make?

iii. How would k be determined from these measurements?

3.

A 154 kg bear runs up a hill that has a slope of 15.0∞to the horizontal. The critter travels 1200 m in 125 seconds. (a) How much work did the bear do on itself? (b) How much power did the bear develop?

4.

A spring is compressed 3.25 cm by a 105 N force. (a) What is the spring constant? (b) How much potential energy is stored in the spring?

pg. 40

5.

One end of a spring is attached to a solid wall while the other end just reaches to the edge of a horizontal, frictionless tabletop, which is a distance h above the floor. A block of mass M is placed against the end of the spring and pushed toward the wall until the spring has been compressed a distance X, as shown. The block is released, follows the trajectory shown, and

strikes the floor a horizontal distance D from the edge of the table. negligible.

Air resistance is

Determine expressions for the following quantities in terms of M, X, D, h, and g. Note that these symbols do not include the spring constant.

a. The time elapsed from the instant the block leaves the table to the instant it strikes the floor.

b. The horizontal component of the velocity of the block just before it hits the floor

c. The work done on the block by the spring

d. The spring constant

pg. 41

Pre-AP Physics – Momentum – 1

Dozer

Per

Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog it is too dark to read. --

Groucho

1. When you catch a baseball, it can hurt. It hurts less if one ‘goes with the ball’. This is because:

(a) |
This makes the KE less |

(b) |
This makes the momentum change less |

(c) |
This makes the time interval for stopping greater |

(d) |
This makes the impulse less |

2. If two objects have an inelastic collision and one is initially at rest, is it possible for both of them to be at rest after the smash up? Is it possible for only one of them to be at rest? How come?

3. In a bizarre carnival activity you are required to catch a tennis ball. This you easily do. Next, a solid metal (iron) ball of the same diameter is to be thrown to you. You are given the following choices: same kinetic energy, same velocity, or same momentum. Which of them would be the best choice to give you the easiest catch? How come?

4. Okay, what is the magnitude of the momentum of a proton that is traveling at 2.35 x 10 ^{5} m/s?

5. It takes you all of 0.018 s to initially touch and then catch a 0.600 kg football travelling at

16.0 m/s.

(c) What is the force that must be exerted to stop the ball?

(a) What is the change in momentum for the football? (b) What is the impulse?

6. You throw a 0.345 kg ball straight up with an initial velocity of 13.5 m/s. (a) What is the momentum of the ball at the highest point of its path? (b) What is its momentum halfway up? (c) What is its kinetic energy halfway up?

pg. 42

7. A 6.50 kg block slides down a ramp that is elevated at 42.0∞a distance of 1.50 m. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.235. (a) What is the potential energy of the block before it begins to slide? (b) What is the work done by friction as the block slides down the ramp (said energy being converted into heat)? (c) What is the speed of the block when it reaches the bottom? (d) What is the average acceleration of the block down the ramp? (e) What is the momentum of the block at the bottom of the ramp?

6.50 kg

1.50 m

42.0 O

8. A 750.0 g ball is thrown. It travels a distance of 58.0 m and is in the air for a total time of 1.65 s. Ignoring wind resistance and assuming that it is caught at the same height it was thrown from, find: (a) the horizontal velocity of the ball, (b) the initial vertical velocity of the ball, (c) the maximum height the ball reaches, (d) the launch angle of the ball, and (e) the kinetic energy of the ball when it is first thrown.

9. A low friction pulley, light string deal with two masses is set up as shown. If the acceleration of the system is 0.225 m/s ^{2} , what is the mass of the other weight?

a

35.0 g

10. A heavy crate rests on the deck. The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.225. A rigid rod is attached to the crate and is used to push it. If a force of 235 N is applied to the rod, what is the acceleration of the box?

37.5 o

57.0 kg

pg. 43

Pre-AP Physics – Momentum – 2

Repunzle

Per

Life is what happens when you're busy making plans

-John Lennon

1. A 15 000 kg railroad car traveling at 2.45 m/s couples with a 12 500 kg car which is at rest. What is the final velocity of the two cars?

2. You find yourself stranded out on this impossibly slick ice deal. There is so little friction that you can’t walk at all. No worries, you’ve got this lovely 2.5 kg physics book. You throw it away from yourself giving it a speed of 8.4 m/s. How much time does it take for you to reach the other side of the ice which is like 15.5 m away? Figure your mass at 42.0 kg.

3. A 0.20 kg object moves along a straight line. The net force acting on the object varies with the object's displacement as shown in the graph below. The object starts from rest at displacement x = 0 and time t = 0 and is displaced a distance of 20.0 m. Determine each of the following.

(a) |
The acceleration of the particle when its displacement x is 6.00 m |

(b) |
The time taken for the object to be displaced the first 12.0 m |

(c) |
The amount of work done by the net force in displacing the object the first 12 m |

(d) |
The speed of the object at displacement x = 12.0 m |

(e) |
The final speed of the object at displacement x = 20.0 m |

(f) |
The change in the momentum of the object as it is displaced from x = 12.0 m to x = 20.0 m |

pg. 44

4. The front of 1400 kg car is designed to absorb the shock of a collision by having a “crumple zone” in which the front 1.20 m of the car collapses in absorbing the shock of the collision. If a car traveling 25.0 m/s stops uniformly in 1.20 m, (a) what is the acceleration of the car in g’s? (b) how long does the collision last, (c) What is the magnitude of the average force on the car?

5. A 5.00 kg object, object A, moving at 5.50 m/s to the right collides head on with a 3.50 kg object, object B, that is a rest. The 5.00 kg object ends up with a speed of 1.50 m/s in the opposite direction. (a) What is the velocity of the two objects after the collision? (b) How much kinetic energy is transferred to object B during the collision?

pg. 45

Pre-AP Physics – Momentum - 3

Placebo

Per

If at first you don't succeed, try, try, again. -- Thomas H. Palmer

1. A 1.15 kg block is pressed into a spring, compressing it by 15.0 cm.

The spring constant is

455 N/m. The entire deal rests on a flat, low friction table that is 75.0 cm above the deck. The block is released. It crashes head-on into a 0.750 kg block that is at rest. The first block

ends up with a velocity of 0.585 m/s in the same direction after the collision. (a) What is the PE in the spring before the block is released? (b) What is the momentum of the block just before it hits the second block? (c) What is the final velocity of the second block? (d) The second block reaches the end of the table, what is its KE? (e) The block falls off the table. How far from the edge of the table does it land? (f) What is its KE just before it hits?

2. A boy on roller blades throws a jug of water away from himself, giving it a speed of 14 m/s. The boy's mass is 38 kg and the mass of the jug and water is 7.9 kg. What is the velocity gained by the lad?

3. A 350 g hockey puck moving at 62 m/s is captured by the stationary goalie. Now this goalie has a mass of like 74 kg, so at what speed does the goalie go sliding down the ice?

4. A 725.0 g emu egg moving at 8.75 m/s thrown by an obnoxious juvenile is caught by an alert lady. (a) If the time of the interaction is 0.197 sec, what is the average force on the egg? (b) If the maximum force the egg can withstand is 650.0 N, what minimum time is required to keep the egg intact?

5. A 4.2 kg ball traveling to the left collides with a 5.7 kg ball traveling to the right at 3.1 m/s as shown below:

Before:

After:

v _{1} =

Find the velocity of the first ball after the collision.

5.5 m/s

v _{2} = -3.1 m/s

v _{2} ’ = 2.2 m/s

pg. 46

6.

An 80.0 kg astronaut in space throws a 10.0 kg oxygen tank away from himself with a speed of 4.30 m/s. With what velocity does the astronaut start to move through space?

7. A 135 kg bomb lying in a field suddenly explodes into 3 pieces having respective masses of 20.0, 47.0 and 68.0 kg. The 20.0 kg piece is thrown horizontally North with an initial speed of 25.0 m/s; the 47.0 kg piece is thrown horizontally East with an initial speed of 40.0 m/s. Find (a) What is the net momentum of the bomb before the explosion? (b) How much is the net momentum of the 3 pieces after the explosion? (c) If the third piece flies off horizontally to the Southwest, what is its speed?

8. A steel ball bearing is dropped from the roof of a building (the initial velocity of the ball is zero). An observer standing in front of a 120 cm tall window notes that the ball takes 0.125 s to fall from the top to the bottom of the window. The ball bearing continues to fall, makes a completely elastic collision with a horizontal sidewalk, and reappears at the bottom of the window 2.0 s after it went by the bottom of the window. How tall is the building?'

pg. 47

Pre-AP Physics – Momentum - 4

Gasp

Per

If at first you don't succeed, don't tell anybody you tried. -- Walt Harper

1. One of those Civil War cannons is fired. The cannon has a mass of 875 kg. It fires a 35.0 kg

cannon ball at a velocity of 145 m/s at an elevation angle of 35.0∞. The length of the barrel is

2.10 m. (a) What is the recoil velocity of the cannon? (b) What is the KE of the cannon ball

as it leaves the cannon? (c) How far does the cannon ball travel in the horizontal direction?

(d) What is the KE of the cannon ball at the top of its trajectory? (e) What is its momentum at this point? (f) What is the force exerted on the cannonball?

2. A 0.15 kg ball is thrown with a speed of 20.0 m/s. It is hit straight back at the pitcher with a final speed of 22.0 m/s. (a) What is the impulse delivered by the bat to the ball? (b) Find the average force exerted by the bat on the ball if the two are in contact for 2.0 x 10 ^{-}^{3} s

3. A railroad car of mass 2.00 x 10 ^{4} kg moving at 3.00 m/s collides and couples with two coupled railroad cars, each of the same mass as the single car and moving in the same direction at 1.20 m/s. (a) What is the speed of the three coupled cars after the collision? (b) How much kinetic energy is lost in the collision?

4. A 2.35 kg ball moving at 4.20 m/s to the right hits a 3.45 kg ball head-on that is traveling at

3.50 m/s to the left. The second ball ends up going to the left with a velocity of 2.50 m/s.

What is the velocity of the first ball after the collision?

5. A 10.5 g bullet is fired into a 8.50 kg wooden block that is hanging straight down, suspended by a 1.50 m length of light line. The bullet stays in the block. The block swings outward, so that the line it hangs from makes an angle of 7.00∞to the vertical. (a) What is the velocity of the bullet before it strikes the block? (b) What is the loss of energy in the collision?

7.00

1.50 m

pg. 48

Pre-AP Physics – Gravity – 1

ID Please

Per

People like you and I, though mortal of course like everyone else, do not grow old no matter how

long we live

which we were born. -- Albert Einstein

[We]

never cease to stand like curious children before the great Mystery into

1. A space rock has a mass of 2.50 kg. It is 1 250 m from an asteroid. If the force of gravity is 0.225 N between them, what is the mass of the asteroid?

2. You weigh 458 N on earth, but you are on Mars. Here’s some data on Mars: radius = 3.38 x

10 ^{6} m

mass = 6.42 x 10 ^{2}^{3} kg.

(a) How much do you weigh on Mars? (b) What is the

acceleration of gravity on Mars? (c) If you drop a 3.50 kg rock from the surface of Mars and it falls a distance of 1.20 m, how fast will it be going just before it hits the surface? (d) What is its potential energy before you release it?

3. A 48.0 kg projectile is fired by the USS Herpes at an angle of 46.0∞with a speed of 345 m/s.

(a) What is the range of the projectile (ignoring wind resistance)? (b) What is the kinetic

energy and potential energy when the projectile is at the highest point of its path? (c) What is

the kinetic energy and potential energy just before it splashes?

4. A 65 700 kg celestial body experiences a 0.115 N force of attraction between it and a 75,500 kg space rock. How far apart are they?

5. A 4.50 kg ball traveling east at 10.5 m/s smacks into a 3.45 kg ball.

The first ball ends up

going north at a speed of 3.50 m/s. For the second ball, what is the (a) horizontal velocity,

(b) vertical velocity, and (c) kinetic energy after the collision?

6. What is the force of gravity between earth and the moon? The earth’s mass is 5.98 x 10 ^{2}^{4} kg, the distance from the earth to the moon is 3.90 x 10 ^{8} m. The mass of the moon is 7.30 x 10 ^{2}^{2} kg.

pg. 49

Pre-AP Physics – Gravity – 2

Identity of Student

Per

Life is no brief candle to me. It is a sort of splendid torch which I have got a hold of for the moment, and I want to make it burn as brightly as possible before handing it onto future generations. -- George Bernard Shaw

1. A 15 500 kg railroad car traveling at 3.85 m/s overtakes and couples with a 12 850 kg car traveling at 1.75 m/s. (a) What is the new velocity of the two cars after they join up? (b) What is the change in kinetic energy?

2. A space hamster has a mass of 0.250 kg. It is 255 m from a 6 550 kg asteroid. What is the force of gravity acting between them?

3. A 5.50 kg ball traveling east at 3.50 m/s smacks head on into a 3.45 kg ball that is at rest.

If

the velocity of the first ball after the collision is – 2.15 m/s, what is the velocity of the second ball after the collision?

4. A 1.5 kg rock is whirled around in a flat circle at the end of an 85 cm string. It has a linear speed of 1.80 m/s. (a) Draw a FBD for the thing. (b) What is the centripetal acceleration and (c) the centripetal force acting on the rock?

5. You toss a ball straight up in the air, it goes up, comes down, and you catch it. If it took 3.6 s from when you threw it to when you caught it, how high did it go?

6. The speed of sound is 345 m/s. You have built a really fantastic car that can really go fast. If

the car can accelerate at 22.4 m/s ^{2} , (a) how much time till you reach the speed of sound? How many kilometers will you travel before you reach that speed? The mass of the car is 1250 kg; (c) What is the kinetic energy of the car when it reaches its final speed?

(b)

m 2

m 1

7. Three blocks are connected by light strings as shown. The angle for

the ramp is 48.0∞. The masses are as follows: m _{1} is 1.15 kg, m _{2} is 1.35 kg, and m _{3} is 2.50 kg. The coefficient of kinetic friction is

0.230. Find: (a) the acceleration of the system and (b) the

tension in the string.

m 3

pg. 50

Pre-AP Physics – Gravity – 3

Who you?

Per

Far away there in the sunshine are my highest aspirations. I may not reach them, but I can look up and see their

beauty, believe in them, and try to follow where they lead. --

Louisa May Alcott

1. A girl on a skate board throws a bag of sand away from herself, giving it a speed of 12.0 m/s. The girl/skateboard's mass is 37.2 kg and the mass of the sand is 22.9 kg. What is the final velocity gained by the lass?

2. A 5.25 kg ball travelling at 4.25m/s collides head on with a 2.00 kg ball traveling in the opposite direction at 3.55 m/s. If the final velocity of the second ball is 5.15 m/s in the opposite direction, (a) what is the final velocity of the first ball? (b) What is the change in kinetic energy?

3. A 65.0 kg astronaut at rest in space catches a 23.0 kg oxygen tank travelling at a speed of 6.25 m/s. With what velocity does the astronaut start to move through space?

4. You playfully toss a 1725 g tomato at your sibling. The tomato, traveling at 25.0 m/s, smashes into the young juvenile. (a) If the time of the interaction is 0.350 sec, what is the average force on the child? (b) What is the impulse? (c) If the tomato bounced off with no loss in kinetic energy (and the sibling remained motionless) what would be the force on the child?

5. Jupiter has a mass about 300 times bigger than the earth’s mass. So you should weigh 300 times more on Jupiter, right? Wrong. You would actually only weigh about three times as much on Jupiter as you do on earth. How come?

6. The following are true/false questions.

a. There is no gravity in outer space - like on board the space shuttle.

b. Newton discovered gravity.

c. The earth’s gravity does not extend out to the outer planets, and certainly not to the next nearest star.

d. The force of the earth/s gravity on objects in orbit is near zero.

e. The crescent shape of the moon is caused by the earth’s shadow.

pg. 51

f. The pull of the moon’s gravity causes the tides. The pull of the sun does not cause any significant tides. Therefore the moon exerts a larger force on the earth than does the sun.

7. What is the force pulling you towards the center of the earth if you are on its surface and weigh 500 N?

8. What happens to the force of gravity between two masses if you halve the distance between them? Why?

9. An asteroid revolves around the sun at a distance of 5.35 x 10 ^{1}^{1} m. The Sun's mass is 1.99 x

10 ^{3}^{0} kg

(a) What is its orbital velocity? (b) What is the period of its orbit (in years)?

10. The mass of Pluto was totally unknown until the fairly recent discovery of a moon orbiting the planet. How come it took so long to figure out Pluto’s mass?

11. A satellite is in orbit - like 595 km above the earth's surface. (a) What is its orbital velocity? Earth's radius is 6.37 x 10 ^{6} m, earth's mass is 5.98 x 10 ^{2}^{4} kg. (b) What is the centripetal acceleration acting on the satellite?

12. A 2.35 kg ball is traveling at 5.30 m/s to the north. It glances off of a 2.75 kg ball that is at rest. The first ball ends up traveling to the west at 3.16 m/s. What is the final speed of the

2.75 kg ball?

13. A 1.50 kg block is pushed into a spring (k = 345 N/m) a distance of 25.0 cm. When the block is released it slides along a smooth surface and then up a ramp (elevation angle is 32.0∞). (a) What is the velocity of the block when it is released from the spring? If the length of the ramp is 1.20 m, (b) does the block slide off the end of the ramp? If it does not, how far up the ramp does it go?

m

14. A 2.50 kg stone ball hangs from two pieces of line as shown. The long line has a length of

76.0 cm. Find: (a) the tension in each of the cords. The short string breaks and the rock

swings to the right. (b) find the speed of the ball at the lowest point in its travel.

78.0

40.0

76.0 cm

pg. 52

Pre-AP Physics – Gravity – 4

Bist du?

Per

What I see in Nature is a grand design that we can understand only imperfectly, one with which a responsible person must look at with humility. This is a genuine religious feeling and has nothing to do with mysticism. -- Albert Einstein

1. What is the momentum of a 540g raven traveling at 23.5 m/s?

2. An 85.0 kg astronaut in space throws a 12.0 kg oxygen tank away from himself. If the recoil speed of the astronaut is 1.82 m/s, what was the velocity given to the oxygen tank?

3. A 0.250 kg baseball traveling at 50.0 m/s is caught in a fielder’s mitt. If the ball takes 0.0498 seconds to come to a stop in the mitt, what average force was exerted on the ball?

4. A 4.0 kg ball traveling to the right at 7.2 m/s collides with a 6.6 kg ball traveling in the opposite direction at 5.0 m/s. What is the velocity of the second ball (the 6.6 kg one) after the collision if the first ball ends up travelling at – 8.9 m/s?

5. A planet is attracted to the sun with a certain force. If the distance from the sun to the planet is reduced by one half, what would happen to the force?

6. Astronauts in the space shuttle in orbit experience weightlessness. is no gravity in space? Explain what is going on.

Does this mean that there

7. You weigh 625 N on earth. What would you weigh on Venus? Venus' mass is 4.88 x 10 ^{2}^{4} kg and it has a radius of 6.07 x 10 ^{6} m.

8. Neptune is 4.50 x 10 ^{1}^{2} m from the sun. The sun's mass is 1.99 x 10 ^{3}^{0} kg. Neptune’s mass is 1.03 x 10 ^{2}^{6} kg. (a) What is the orbital velocity of this distant planet? (b) What is its period in units of years?

pg. 53

9.

A 126 g ball rests on the edge of a table as shown in the drawing. A second ball of the same mass attached to a piece of string swings into the first ball and collides with it head on. The second ball ends up at rest after the collision. Find: (a) the speed of the swinging ball just

before it collides with the resting ball, (b) the kinetic energy of the swinging ball just before it strikes the at rest ball, (c) the time it will take the second

ball to fall to the deck, (d) the distance x the second ball travels before it hits, and (e) the kinetic energy of the ball just before it hits the deck.

12.0

0.750 m

0.950 m

x

10. 1.2 kg stone is attached to a 1.1 m line and swung in a circle. If it has a linear speed of 13 m/s, what is the centripetal force?

11. A space station is designed to simulate gravity by spinning at a constant angular velocity. The plan is for the thing to simulate half of the earth’s gravitational force by spinning at 5.0 rpm. What radius does the station need to have?

12. A 1 250 kg car is traveling at a constant speed and makes a turn with a radius of 350.0 m. Its speed is 45.0 m/s. Find the minimum coefficient of friction needed to keep the car traveling along the path.

pg. 54

Pre-AP Physics – Torque – 1

Name

Per

When it comes time to die, be not like those whose hearts are filled with the fear of death, so when their time comes they weep and pray for a little more time to live their lives over again in a different way. Sing your death song, and die like a hero going home. -- Chief Aupumut, Mohican leader

1. A 3.45 kg ball moving to the right at 2.50 m/s smacks head on into a 4.00 kg ball that is at rest. If the first ball ends up moving with a speed of 1.20 m/s to the left. What is the velocity of the 4.00 kg ball after the collision?

2. Pluto (the planet, not the Disney cartoon character – who the Physics Kahuna never thought was funny) has a mass of 1.20 x 10 ^{2}^{2} kg. The mean distance between it and the sun is 5.90 x 10 ^{1}^{2} . The mass of the sun, Sol, is like 1.99 x 10 ^{3}^{0} kg. How long in Earth years is a Pluto year?

3. A force of 235 N applied to a lid on a jar generates a torque of 155 Nm, what is the lever arm (i.e., the radius of the lid)?

4. A 1200 kg car is moving on a flat circular track that has a radius of 0.50 km. The car is traveling at 88 km/h. (a) What is the centripetal force? (b) What is the coefficient of kinetic friction for the tires and the road surface?

5. A uniform beam of weight 254 N sticks out from a vertical wall. A lightweight cable connects the end of the beam to the wall, making an angle of 65.0∞between the beam and the cable. (a) What is the tension in the cable? (b) What is the force exerted on the beam by the wall?

6. A pair of adult nitwits sit balanced on a teeter totter type device. One of them, who’s mass is 45.2 kg, is 1.30 m from the point of balance. The other chowder-head is 2.15 m from the point of balance. What is the mass of the second person?

7. A uniform 225 N ladder leans against a smooth vertical wall. The ladder is 9.00 m in length. It makes an angle of 78.0∞with the deck. A 65.0 kg Bengal tiger rests on one of the rungs 3.00 m from the top end of the ladder. (a) Find the force of friction exerted by the deck on the bottom of the ladder. (b) What is the upward force exerted by the ladder?

pg. 55

8.

A bird flying over your head drops a walnut that it was carrying in its beak. If the bird is flying horizontally at an altitude of 23.5 m, and the walnut travels a horizontal distance of 12.5 m, how fast was the bird flying?

9. One end of a spring is attached to a solid wall while the other end just reaches to the edge of

a horizontal, frictionless tabletop, which is 88.5 cm above the deck. A 2.00 kg block is

placed against the end of the spring and pushed toward the wall until the spring has been

compressed a distance of 15.0 cm. The block is released, slides across the table, and strikes

the floor a horizontal distance of 1.20 m from the edge of the table.

negligible. Find (a) the time elapsed from the instant the block leaves the table to the instant

it strikes the floor, (b) The horizontal component of the velocity of the block just before it

hits the floor, (c) The work done on the block by the spring, and (d) The spring constant.

Air resistance is

pg. 56

Pre-AP Physics – Torque – 2

ID

Per

I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work.-- Thomas Edison

1. A uniform 12.0 m long ladder weighing 125 N rests against a smooth vertical wall. The bottom of the ladder makes an angle of 67.0∞with the deck. A bucket of paint with a mass of 14.0 kg rests on a rung, 7.00 m from the bottom end of the ladder. What is the frictional force exerted on the bottom of the ladder?

2. A 158 kg monster runs up a hill that has a slope of 18.0∞to the horizontal. The loathsome beast travels 1 550 m in 105 seconds. (a) How much work did the creature do on itself? (b) How much power did it develop?

3. A drum of chemical waste has a lid with a radius of 35.0 cm. To open the thing, a torque of 367 Nm is required. With what force must you work on the thing?

4. A uniform 325 N beam that is 3.35 m in length sticks out from a vertical wall. A lightweight cable connects the end of the beam to the wall, making an angle of 60.0∞between the beam and the cable. A 625 N worker stands on the beam a distance of 1.10 m from the wall. (a) What is the tension in the cable? (b) What is the force exerted on the beam by the wall?

5. Two little kiddies sit on a teeter totter. One kid has a mass of 15.2 kg and is 1.10 m from the point of balance. The other tot has a mass of 17.1 kg. How far away from the pivot is the second child?

6. You have traveled to the Sturgis IV stystem in your starship to check out their annual motor

cycle festival.

mass of the star is 2.25 x 10 ^{3}^{0} kg. If the planet takes 395 days to go around the star one time, (a) what is the orbital velocity of the planet and (b) what is the distance from it to the star?

Harley, the fourth planet from the star, has a mass of 5.55 x 10 ^{2}^{5} m kg. The

7. What is the acceleration of gravity on Venus? Venus has a mass of 4.88 x 10 ^{2}^{4} kg and a radius of 6.07 x 10 ^{6} m.

pg. 57

8. A ball of mass M is attached to a string of length R and negligible mass. The ball moves clockwise in a vertical circle, as shown. When the ball is at point P, the string is horizontal. Point Q is at the bottom of the circle and point Z is at the top of the circle. Air resistance is negligible. Express all algebraic answers in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants.

(a) On the figures below, draw and label all the forces exerted on the ball when it is at points P and Q, respectively.

P

Q

P

Z

M

Q

Side View

(b) Derive an expression for v _{m}_{i}_{n} , the minimum speed the ball can have at point Z without leaving the circular path. (c) The maximum tension the string can have without breaking is T _{m}_{a}_{x} . Derive an expression for v _{m}_{a}_{x} , the maximum speed the ball can have at point Q without breaking the string. (d) Suppose that the string breaks at the instant the ball is at point P. Describe the motion of the ball immediately after the string breaks.

pg. 58

Pre-AP Physics – Torque – 3

Vant

Per

Many a man thinks he is buying pleasure, when he is really selling himself to it. -- Ben Franklin

1. What would happen to the acceleration of gravity, good old g, if the earth suddenly shrunk to half its current radius?

2. Calculate the mean distance from the earth to the sun.

3. You weigh 625 N on earth. What would you weigh on Ganymede, a moon of Jupiter? Its mass is 1.5 x 10 ^{2}^{3} kg and it has a radius of 2.6 x 10 ^{6} m.

4. A 5.10 kg kitty cat is hanging by a rope suspended from a 2.35 kg uniform pipe that is 3.05 m in length. One end of the pipe is attached to a wall, the other end has a cord that supports the outer end of the thing as shown. The angle the cord makes with

(b) What is

the pipe is 43.0∞. (a) What is the weight of the cat? the tension in the cable?

43.0 o

2.15 m

3.05 m

5. An asteroid is in a circular orbit around the sun. Its speed is found to be 3.25 x 10 ^{4} m/s. The mass of the sun is 1.99 x 10 ^{3}^{0} kg. What is the distance from it to the sun?

pg. 59

6. A mouse is sitting on a record player. The mouse is 8.0 cm from the center of the record. Suddenly the record player begins to play at 45 rpm (revolution per minute). The mouse begins to run in place. (a) How fast must it run? The mouse sits down and, amazingly, is able to sit on the record without slipping off. If the mouse is just on the verge of sliding, (b) what is the coefficient of static friction between it and the record?

7. What is the linear speed of the tip of the hour hand of a regular clock it the hand is 7.5 cm in length?

8. You want to build a pendulum clock that will have a period of 1.50 seconds. How long should the pendulum be?

pg. 60

Pre-AP Physics – Harmonium Stuff - 1

Identiphication

Per

The universe is not hostile, nor yet is it friendly. It is simply indifferent. -- John Hughes Holmes

1. Cindy Lou has run up a staircase very quickly indeed. Cindy's mass is 35.2 kg. It took her 6.75 s to get to the top. If she developed 0.875 hp on the vertical trip, how high was the staircase?

2. A 255 g mass is hooked up to a spring (k = 175 N/m) and moves back and forth on your basic

frictionless surface.

on the mass, (b) the max acceleration, (c) it’s acceleration at x = 0 m, (d) its energy, and (e)

its period.

If the mass is released from rest at x = 0.200 m, (a) find the force acting

3. The drawing shows the harmonic motion of a mass on a spring at the extremes of its motion. The middle drawing shows the midpoint of travel. Indicate on the drawing (a) the points of greatest and least velocity, (b) the points of greatest and least acceleration, (c) the points of greatest and least potential E and kinetic E.

4. Using this graph of position vs time for the simple harmonic motion of a weight on a string, find (a) the amplitude of the motion, (b) the period of the motion, (c) the frequency of the

motion (d) place on the graph where the velocity is zero, (e) places on the graph where the acceleration is max and min, (f) places on the graph where the kinetic energy is max, (g) places on the graph where the potential energy is max.

X (m)

.15

O

.10

.30

.50

.70

t (s)

5. A 355 g mass is attached to a spring (k = 435 N/m). If the system is allowed to oscillate on a frictionless surface, what is the period and frequency of the motion?

pg. 61

6.

You are designing a pendulum clock escapement. You have determined that the pendulum must have a period of 0.500 s. What should be the length of the thing?

7. A 45.0 kg projectile is fired from a gun. The elevation angle of the gun is 30.0∞. The projectile is in the air for 48.0 s before it hits the deck at the same height as it was fired. Ignoring friction find: (a) the projectile’s initial velocity, (b) the horizontal distance the projectile traveled, (c) the potential energy of the projectile at it highest point in its trajectory.

8. A 545 g block is pushed into a spring (k = 485 N/m) a distance of 18.0 cm. (a) When the ball is released, what is its velocity? The block slides across a smooth surface once it leaves the spring and then up a ramp. It travels up the ramp a distance of 35.0 cm. (b) What is the elevation angle of the ramp?

m

85.0 cm

9. A 345 g ball is placed on a ramp as shown in the drawing. The ball rolls downward a

distance of 50.0 cm and then goes into a vertical loop deal (like on a rolly coaster) and then

ends up at the bottom going from point C to point D.

speed of the ball at the bottom of the ramp, point C. (b) the speed of the ball at point A. (c)

Draw a FBD for the ball at point A. (d) The speed of the ball at point B. (e) Draw a FBD for the ball at point B. (f) The speed of the ball at point D. (g) Draw a FBD for the ball at point D.

Determine the following: (a) the

50.0 cm

A

42.0 o

C

12.0 cm

B

D

pg. 62

Pre-AP Physics – Waves is Wavy - 2

Huh?

Per

Fokkers to the left and Fokkers to the right. But I believe those Fokkers are Messerschmidts. -- Gerald Zani

1. A 165 g plastic block is set up against a spring. The block rests on a smooth horizontal surface. The block is pushed into the spring, compressing it a distance of 15.0 cm and then released. The spring constant is k = 677 N/m. (a) What is the speed of the block when it leaves the spring? (b) If the table is 0.875 m in height, what horizontal distance does the block travel after it leaves the table edge?

2. What is the wavelength for an FM radio signal that has a frequency of 107.8 MHz? (speed of light, c, is 3.00 x 10 ^{8} m/s)

3. The drawing shows a transverse wave’s displacement vs distance graph. The wave is travelling at a speed of 2.50 m/s. Determine:

(a) the wavelength, (b) the frequency of the wave, (c) the amplitude of the wave.

Y

75.0 cm

15.0 cm

X

4. A wave has a frequency of 262 Hz. What is the time interval between successive wave crests?

5. A splendid light wave has a wavelength of 580 nm. What is the frequency of the wave?

6. A long spring runs across the floor. A pulse is sent along the spring. After a few seconds, an inverted pulse returns. Is the spring attached to the wall or lying loose on the floor? Why?

7. Draw a picture of two waves that display destructive interference.

pg. 63

8.

Create a depiction of a standing wave. Point out the nodes and antinodes.

9. A spring has a constant of 625 N/m. A 275.0 g block is attached to it and is free to slide horizontally on a smooth surface. You give the block an initial displacement of 8.50 cm. What is (a) the maximum force (b) the maximum acceleration acting on the block, (c) the period of the system, and (d) the frequency of the system?

10. A pendulum has a period of 0.56 s. What is the length of the pendulum?

11. Here you are on Mercury. (a) What would be your weight on Mercury?

Figure that your

mass - spacesuit on, oxygen tank, bag for Mercury rocks, &tc. is 95 kg. Mercury has a radius

of 2.43 x 10 ^{6} m and a mass of 3.20 x 10 ^{2}^{3} kg. (b) What would be the acceleration of Mercury’s gravity?

pg. 64

Pre-AP Physics – Wavin’ Them Waves - 3

Duh?

Per

Yesterday is a dream, tomorrow but a vision. But today well lived makes every yesterday a dream of happiness, and every tomorrow a vision of hope. Look well, therefore to this day. -- Sanskrit Proverb

1. A lass on a skate board throws a 5.6 kg medicine ball away from herself, giving it a speed of 15.0 m/s. The girl/skateboard's mass is 36 kg. What is the final velocity gained by the young woman?

2. A 1250 kg car has 3 passengers with a combined mass of 135 kg. The car has four identical springs that have a spring constant of 18 500 N/m. (a) Find the frequency of vibration for the car when it goes over the old speed bump. (b) How much time does it take for the car to go through 2 oscillations?

3. Sketch a series of standing waves on a string between two solid points. Show the first three harmonics.

4. You are at a stop light in your car, stuck behind a red light. Just before the light is supposed to change, a fire engine comes zooming up towards you traveling at a horrendous 85.0 km/h. If the siren has a rated frequency 665 Hz, (a) what frequency do you hear? (b) What is the wavelength of the sound you hear?

5. A pipe is 155 cm long and open on one of its ends. (a) What are the frequencies of the first three harmonics that resonate in the pipe? (b) What is the wavelength of the first harmonic?

6. You spot a large pendulum that is swinging through a small arc. If the length of the pendulum is 5.5 m, what is the period of the thing?

7. You are on a train traveling at 105 km/h. You approach a stationary 455 Hz siren. What is frequency you hear?

8. You throw a 675 g ball straight up. If the ball takes 4.2 seconds to go up and down (where you like catch it at the same height) and if we ignore wind resistance, then fine: (a) How high the ball goes, (b) the ball’s initial velocity, (c) the ball’s kinetic energy at the top of the flight, and (d) the kinetic energy just before you catch it.

pg. 65

9.

A beam sticks out from a wall as shown. The mass of the uniform beam is 12.6 kg, the mass of the penguin is 1.25 kg. The angle of the cable is 65.0∞. (a) Find the tension and (b) find the force exerted by the wall on the beam.

1.35 m

1.80 m

pg. 66

Pre-AP Physics – Waves Ain’t Gone, Alas - 4

Thee Hee?

Per

School days, I believe, are the unhappiest in the whole span of human existence. They are full of dull, unintelligible tasks, new and unpleasant ordinances, brutal violations of common sense and common decency. -- H.L. Mencken

1. A 7.50 kg ball is thrown. It has an initial velocity of 8.468 m/s. It travels a horizontal distance of 7.3 m in 1.25 s. Find: (a) The weight of the ball. (b) The initial kinetic energy of the ball. (c) The angle of the ball’s initial velocity with the horizontal.

2. You are on a train traveling at 55.0 km/h. You approach a bell. The actual frequency of the bell is 725 Hz. What frequency do you hear?

3. Draw a picture of a pendulum showing its swing. Label the following points:

(a) point of maximum velocity, (b) point of minimum velocity, (c) point where the potential energy is greatest, (d) point where kinetic energy is greatest, (e) if the period of the pendulum is 0.750 seconds, what is its length? (f) What is the speed of the pendulum at the bottom of its swing if the angle that the thing makes at its maximum displacement is 11.0∞?

4. A pipe is 18.5 cm long and open on one of its ends. (a) What are the frequencies of the first three harmonics that resonate in the pipe? (b) What is the wavelength of the third harmonic?

5. An FM radio station’s basic frequency has a wavelength of 2.67 m. What is its frequency?

6. You have this really hot new car. It has one of the most outstanding sound systems available. Anyway it can like go faster than sound! So. When you are tooling down the test strip at Mach 2 (twice the speed of sound), could you hear the stereo? Explain the reasoning for your answer, whatever it is.

7. A frictionless pulley has a light string over the thing attached to two masses as shown. The first mass, m _{1} , is 5.34 g and the second mass, m _{2} , is 5.39 g. Find (a) the acceleration of the system and (b) the tension in the string.

^{m} 1

^{m} 2

pg. 67

8.

A 52.5 kg crate rests on a surface and has a coefficient of kinetic friction of 0.285. A rope is attached to it. You pull it sideways exerting a force of 145 N. (a) If the rope makes an angle of 25.0∞with the horizontal, what is the acceleration of the crate? (b) How much time to drag it 2.50 m?

pg. 68

Pre-AP Physics – Electric Fields – 1

Handle

Per

Truth does not change according to our ability to stomach it. -- Flannery O'Connor

_{1}_{.} A 455 g block is positioned as shown on a smooth ramp. A 655 g block rests on a smooth table top.

The 455 g block is released, slides down the ramp and undergoes an inelastic collision with the other

block.

a horizontal distance x from the edge of the table. Okay, find the following things: (a) the potential energy of the 455 g block before it is released, (b) the speed of the 455 g block at the bottom of the ramp, (c) the speed of the two blocks after the collision, (d) the distance x the two blocks travel before they hit the deck, and (e) the kinetic energy of the two blocks just before they hit the deck.

The two blocks slide off the table and fall to the deck, striking it

455 g

75.0

cm

655 g

44.0

98.0 cm

x

2. What is the fundamental rule in static electricity?

3. One vigorously rubs a balloon with a bit of fur or cloth. After this has been done, the balloon can then be "hung" on the wall or on a person's clothing. What happened to make all this occur?

4. There are materials that allow electricity to flow through them and materials that resist the

flow of electricity? they do?

(a) What type of materials act in these ways? (b) Why do they act as

5. How does one go about charging an object by conduction?

6. How could one go about charging an object by induction?

7. Where on an object does the charge reside?

8. Explain how an twin leaf electroscope works.

9. The electrophorus was looked upon as a magical device - it seemed to be an endless source of charge. How does it do it?

10. A uniform 4.00 m long rod weighs 235 N. One end of it is attached to a wall and a cable supports the other end. The cable makes an angle of 41.0∞with the rod. Find the tension in the cable and the components of the force exerted by the wall on the rod.

pg. 69

11. What is the wavelength in nanometers of an electromagnetic wave that has a frequency of 2.35 x 10 ^{1}^{6} Hz?

pg. 70

Pre-AP Physics – Electric Fields – 2

Who be U

Per

Anybody can become angry - that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, and for the right purpose, and in the right way; that is not within everybody's power and is not easy. – Aristotle

1. What is the charge on an object that has 1.25 x 10 ^{1}^{7} e ^{-} (electrons) in excess on its surface?

2. What is the magnitude of the force between a charge of 2.35 C and another with a charge of

1.25 x 10 ^{-}^{4} C separated by 25.0 cm?

3. Two masses are strung over a low friction pulley with very lightweight string. (a) What is the acceleration acting on the system? (b) What is the tension in the strings?

5.35 kg

4.20 kg

4. Two 25.0 g spheres are hanging from lightweight strings that are each 35.0 cm in length.

Each has the same charge. They repel each other and make an angle of 5.00∞

to the vertical. What is the magnitude of the charge on each sphere?

5. Three charges are arranged as shown. Figure 90∞angles.

What is the magnitude and direction of the force acting on the

2.25

C

2.25 C charge by the other two charges?

5.30 cm

2.05 C

-1.85 C

pg. 71

3.80 cm

6. A 1.00 kg ball rolls 1.50 m down a ramp that is at an angle of 33.0∞to the horizontal into a spring that has a spring constant of 125 N/m it compresses the spring, and then goes into a harmonic motion deal. The spring rests on a smooth surface. Find (a) the speed of the ball at the bottom of the ramp, (b) the distance the spring is compressed, (c) the potential energy stored in the spring, (d) the maximum acceleration acting on the ball by the spring, (e) the period of the harmonic motion, and (f) the frequency of the harmonic motion.

1.00 kg

33.0

1.50 m

pg. 72

Pre-AP Physics – Electric Fields – 3

Thee is’t?

Per

Tell a man there are 300 billions stars in the universe and he'll believe you. Tell him a bench has wet paint on it,

and he'll have to touch to be sure.

-- From Lockheed-Martin’s Retirees Newsletter

1. If a pair of charges were moved twice as close together, how much larger would the force of attraction be between them?

2. A rubber rod is vigorously rubbed with a piece of fur so that it gains a charge. What happens to give it this charge?

3. What is probably the most significant difference between the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force?

4. A 93.0 g wooden block is set up against a spring. The block rests on a smooth horizontal surface. The block is pushed into the spring, compressing it a distance of 12.0 cm and then released. The spring constant is k = 278 N/m. What is the speed of the block when it leaves the spring?

5. Find the force between charges of +100.0 C and -75.0 C. They are 13.5 cm apart.

6. Draw in the lines of force between the two identical charges as shown below.

+

+

7. Why are metals good conductors of electricity?

8. A charge of 15.5 C is placed 12.8 cm from a second charge. If the force between the charges is 22.5 N, what is the magnitude of the second charge?

9. An electric field has a value of 7.50 x 10 ^{5} N/C. A positive test charge of 1.85 x 10 ^{-}^{5} C is placed in the field. What force does the charge experience?

pg. 73

10. Three charges are arranged as shown. What is the magnitude and direction of the force acting on the 7.20 C charge by the other two charges?

q

1

2.25 C

35.0

q

3

5.00 cm

7.20 C

1.80 cm

50.0

1.98 C

^{q} 2

pg. 74

Pre-AP Physics – Electric Fields – 4

Can it be thee?

Per

Wisdom is not a product of schooling but of the lifelong attempt to acquire it. -- Albert Einstein

1. A uniform 10.0 m long ladder weighing 135 N rests against a smooth vertical wall. The bottom of the ladder makes an angle of 65.0∞with the deck. A 56.6 kg humanoid stands on a rung, 3.00 m from the bottom end of the ladder. What is the frictional force exerted on the bottom of the ladder?

2. A proton is placed in an electric field of 2.50 x 10 ^{4} N/C directed along the y axis. Find the force acting on the proton.

3. A charge of 15.5 C is placed 4.85 cm from a second charge. If the force between the charges is 32.8 N, what is the magnitude of the second charge?

4. Three charges are arranged as shown. What is the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q _{2} , the –2.95 C charge, by the other two charges?

2.00 cm

q

1

q

2

3.05 C

-2.95 C

6.00 cm

q

3

6.25 C

5. The potential difference between two points is 12.0 V. What amount of work is needed to move a 2.00 C charge within the field?

6. Two charged plates are 3.00 cm apart. The electric field between them is 565 N/C. (a) What is potential difference between plates and (b) what work is done moving an electron from one plate to another?

7. An electron is released from rest in a uniform electric field, E = 7.30 x 10 ^{4} V/m. It is directed along the y axis. It’s displacement is 0.350 m in the direction of the field. (a) What is the change in electrical potential? (b) What is the change in electrical potential energy? (c) What is its velocity after it traveled the 0.350 m?

pg. 75

Pre-AP Physics – Electric Fields – 5

Who be thee?

Per

If we discovered that we had only five minutes left to say all that we wanted to say, every telephone booth would be occupied by people calling other people to stammer that they loved them. -- Christopher Morley

1. If a metal sphere is given a positive charge, does its mass change? What would happen? Why?

2. A balloon is vigorously rubbed with a piece of fur so that it gains a charge. You place it against the wall and it sticks. Does the wall therefore have a positive charge? Explain your answer.

3. A 125 kg 4.00 m plank sticks out from the wall. A cable is hooked to the end of it and ties into the wall above. It makes a 62.0∞angle with the plank. A barrel of nails with a total weight of 545 N sits on the plank, 1.10 m from the outside end. Find the tension in the cable and the components of the force exerted by the wall on the plank.

4. Find the force between charges of +100.0 C and -75.0 C. They are 13.5 cm apart.

5. Three charges are arranged as shown. Find the force acting on the center charge.

2.00 cm

5.00 cm

q

1

q 2

q

3

-1.00 C

-3.00 C

5.00 C

6. A charge of 15.5 C is placed 12.8 cm from a second charge. If the force between the charges is 22.5 N, what is the magnitude of the second charge?

7. Three charges are arranged as shown. (a) find the electric potential at P. (b) how much work would it take to bring in a charge of 1.25 C from infinity to point P?

P

5.20 cm

2.00

C

-1.85

C

4.80 cm

8. A proton is accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 9.0 V. Find (a) the energy of the particle, and (b) the speed of the particle.

pg. 76

Pre-AP Physics – Electric Fields – 6

Be thee?

Per

Die when I may, I want it said by those who knew me best that I always plucked a thistle and planted a flower where I thought a flower would grow. -- Abraham Lincoln

1. What is the voltage at point P which is close up to the two charges as shown?

2. Two charges are situated near point P. The angle _{}_{}_{}_{}

is 29.0∞. q _{1} = 1.

12.0

C

9.80 cm

12.5 C

P

35 C. The potential difference at point P is 6.75 x 10 ^{4} V. Find the charge q _{2} .

3. An electric field has a value of 9.50 x 10 ^{6} N/C. A positive test charge of 22.5 C is placed in the field. What force does the charge experience?

q 1

q 2

30.5 cm

40.8 cm

P

4. Through what potential difference would an electron need to accelerate to achieve a velocity of 1.00 x 10 ^{7} m/s?

pg. 77

5. An electron is fired into the midpoint of a field between two charged plates. The initial velocity of the electron is 3.6 x 10 ^{6} m/s. The plates are a distance of 1.60 mm apart. The potential difference for the plates is 120.0 V. Determine where the electron will hit on the upper plate.

D

that m 1

6. Two masses are set up as shown. The angle

makes with the vertical is 38.0∞. m _{1} is 552 g, m _{2} is 455 g. m _{1} is released, swings down and collides with the other mass. At the point of impact, the string holding up m _{1} is vertical and it hits the other ball head on. m _{1} ends up with a velocity to the right of 0.500 m/s. Find: (a) the potential energy of m _{1} relative to the top of the table, (b) the speed of m _{2} after the collision, (c) the distance x that the ball travels before it hits the deck, and (d) the kinetic energy of m _{2} just before it hits the deck.

85.0 cm

m 2

m 1

95.0 cm

x

pg. 78

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