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RESEARCHERS:

Zagada, Charlyn
Magno, April Love
Capiten, Ednalyn
Retes, Cherrylou
Rafols, Ivony
Espinoza, Kenmore
Tenorio, Wilton Vil
Aclan, Kate Audi
Dayuha, Reylan
Lantaya, Gualberto
Macapobre, Marizze
Patuñgan, Gerneth
ABSTRACT

The study on the production of chalk out of sea shells was designed to produce

quality dustless and long lasting chalk to compare with the standard existing

commercialized chalks if there are any, which was sold in the market. The chalk out of

sea shells is for local or non-local used for schools or any educational aspects or even at

home which can be formed into different sizes and colors according to your will. We, the

researchers, used the sea shells to recycle and transformed it into a useful product that

will be used in our developing community.

The production of this artifact that has been created by us strictly followed the

procedures. First, collect sea shells from the sea shore. Then, boil it until it opens and

being crushed into powder and becomes ready to be processed and made to different

figures. Thus, the production of the product was accomplished and tested on its quality

and strength.

Data on the successful product were tested and was finished accurately. Results

showed that the said finished product, made from sea shells, is comparable in terms of

appearance and quality.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Having a successful investigatory project is really a great pleasure to us. It helps

us improving a certain project and identifying new discoveries from raw materials which

can be seen abundantly in our surroundings.

So, we, the researchers would like to thank to the following persons who help us

make this project successful. First, to our Almighty God who gave us the wisdom that

lead us to come up on this great idea and for the guidance that made our project fruitful.

Mrs. Irmina Calibo who helped us in the formulation of the study, and lastly, our parents

who continuously support us in our financial needs in doing our project.

Thank You very much!


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENT PAGE

Abstract ……………………………………………………. i

Acknowledgement …………………………………………. ii

Table of Contents ………………………………………….. iii

I. Introduction ……………………………………………….... 1

a. Background of the Study ………………………….... 1

b. Statement of the Problem …………………………... 2

c. Significance of the Study …………………………… 2

d. Scope and Limitation ……………………………….. 2

II. Review of Related Literature………………………………... 3

a. Conceptual Framework .......………………………… 3

b. Theoretical Framework ……………………………... 4

c. Hypothesis ………………………………………….. 5

d. Definition of Terms …………………………………. 5


III. Methodology ………………………………………………... 6

e. Equipments or Materials ……………………………. 6

f. Procedure ……………………………………………. 6

g. Data-Gathering Instrument ………………………….. 7

IV. Results and Discussions ……………………………………... 8

h. Data and Findings ……………………………………. 8

V. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation ……………….. 9

BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………… 11
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

More people used to collect seashells for fun and for past time. They made

decorations, jewelries and even accessories for a doll out of it. But don’t you know that

aside from those things, seashell can also made into a much useful thing.

We are aware that education is the most powerful key for us to succeed. And to

support this, we need some facilities and materials for us to make it easier and clearer. Of

course, we know that we already have some modernized equipments, but still, for those

hopeless countries and people who also want to be sent in school, even a worst facility

matters. We already have whiteboards that just need markers and projectors as the most

modernized. But still, the origin of those is just a simple blackboard and a piece of chalk.

So, we, the researchers, made some trials and errors from different raw materials to be

made into a more durable chalk. Until to that moment that we have agreed and succeed

in one of our trials, to make a chalk out of seashells.

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B. Statement of the Problem

The price of almost all commercialized or local products continuously increasing.

And this is a big aspect to be considered in schooling. Some of the schools don’t have

enough support from government and this thing brings difficulties for us students.

C. Significance of the Study

This study opens another way for us people to be able to save and make chalks

that is much durable with long-lasting use that will take part in our study. The study was

conducted as a remedy for the common problem of spending much in. And it also helps

us to gain money when you make this as your business affair. We can also make some

raw materials that we thought to be useless, transformed into a much useful and improved

thing.

D. Scope and Limitation

This study is focused on designing and producing alternative chalks. It also deals

with the assessment of its actual advantages as compared to some commercialized one.

The qualities and quantities data obtained in the testing of the product against the

control were limited to 3 tests only.

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

A seashell is the common name for a hard, protective outer layer, a shell, or in

some cases a "test", that was created by a sea creature, a marine organism. The shell is

part of the body of a marine animal, in most cases the exoskeleton, usually that of an

animal without a backbone, an invertebrate.

The word seashell is often used to refer only to the shells of marine mollusks, i.e.

mollusk shells, but it can also be used to mean the shells of a wide variety of marine

animals from different phyla. For helpful introductory articles, see marine invertebrates

and marine biology.

Seashells are commonly found in beach drift, natural detritus deposited along

strandlines on beaches by the waves and the tides. Shells are very often washed up onto a

beach empty and clean, the animal having already died, and the soft parts having rotted

away or having been eaten by either predators or scavengers.

Empty seashells are often found by beachcombers, and collecting these shells is a

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harmless hobby or study. However, the majority of seashells which are offered for sale

commercially have been collected alive (often in bulk) and then killed and cleaned,

specifically for the commercial trade. This type of exploitation can sometimes have a

strong negative impact on the distribution of rarer species, and on local ecosystems.

Many other kinds of sea animals have exoskeletons or shells which may, after

death, wash up on the beach and may be picked up by beachcombers; these include

remains from species in other invertebrate phyla, such as the moulted shells or exuviae of

crabs and lobsters, the shells of barnacles, horseshoe crab shells, sea urchin and sand

dollar tests, brachiopod shells, and the shells of marine annelid worms in the family

Serpulidae, which create calcareous tubes.

B. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Some people considered seashell as useless in terms of reasonable things. And

because of our research, this belief will now be changed to a bright side. For we, the

researchers will prove that seashells are not useless but are significant ones.

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C. HYPOTHESES

1.) There is significance difference between our product, chalk from sea shells and

the leading commercial one.

2.) There is significance difference between experimental chalk from sea shells and

commercial one in terms of quality and durability.

D. DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.) Seashells – is a hard, rigid outer layer, which has evolved in a very wide variety

of different animals, including mollusks, sea urchins, crustaceans,


turtles

and tortoises, armadillos, etc. Scientific names for this type of


structure

include exoskeleton, armour, test, carapace, and peltidium

2.) Cassava – A shrubby tropical American plant (Manihot esculenta) widely grown

for its large, tuberous, starchy roots. The root of this plant, eaten as a

staple food in the tropics only after leaching and drying to remove

cyanide. Cassava starch is also the source of tapioca.


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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

A. Equipment and Materials

o Seashells

o Cassava

o Mortar and pestle

o Grater

o Oven toaster

o Bowl

o Cloth

B. Procedure

1. Collect sea shells from the sea shore or left-over shell viands, and cassava.

2. Pulverized the shells until it becomes fine as powder and set aside in a container.

3. Grate the cassava and squeeze its juice using cloth. Separate the liquid from its

residue.

4. Mix the residue of the extracted cassava and the pulverized seashells. Add a small

amount of water at the right ratio of the quantity of the mixture.


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5. Mold the mixture into different shapes and sizes according to your desire.

6. Place it under the sun and wait until it dries up and is ready to be used.

C. Data-gathering Instrument

The physical characteristics of the chalk from sea shells was observed and

compared to the chalk that was commercially processed.


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CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

a. Data and Findings

Table1.Physical Characteristics of the Chalk made from seashells.

Description
Physical Characteristics
Commercial Experimental
Hardness hard Soft
Texture Rough Rough

Table 1 shows the Physical characteristics of the experimental and commercial chalk.

It shows that they have different characteristics in terms of hardness but are both

rough in terms of its texture.


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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary

The research was designed by crushing the seashells, which is the main source of

the product, and which it can be a useful and eco-friendly product and can contribute

excellently to our sobbing community. Through hard research, we, the researchers

studied the characteristics of the main source, which is seashell, and we analyzed that it

can be a great specimen in our investigatory project. We have done several experiments

which lead the researchers into a victorious ending in the said project.

Conclusion

On the experiment conducted to produce a fine product from seashell, we, the

researchers discovered the characteristics of the seashells which has specific properties

and structures. We discovered that it is on of the stepping stones of the success of the

product in which it is commercially comparable to any commercial products that are the

same with us, if there are any, in terms of quality and durability.
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Recommendation

Through hard, decisive, several experiments, the researchers have conquered an

amazing product that has a good quality. We highly recommend using our own original

finished product, made from seashells, because aside from its cheapness, it is also easier

to produce, eco-friendly, recyclable and has the potential to make our study easier and

clearer.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. www.google.com.ph

2. www.dictionary.reference.com
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