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Circuit Description:
This simple circuit circumvents the problem present in previously published circuit (EFY, April 88). The motor is not switched on and off every few minutes but only when the tank is completely empty. This modified version of Improved Water Level Controller has been provided with two flips-flops for the two tanks and each tank has three probes to monitor its status.

Circuit Components:
1. PCB (Printed Circuit Board): The PCB used in this water level controller is of dimensions 6.2cm x 5.4cm. 2. Resistors: The resistors used in this circuit and their values are given below: Resistors 1st band 2nd band Black Purple 3rd band Red Red 4th band (tolerance) Gold Gold Resistors values 10x100+5% =1kilo-ohm 47x100+5% =4700ohm or 4K7

R1,R2,R3,R4,R5 Brown R6,R7,R8,R9 Yellow

3. Capacitors: The capacitors used here are C1,C2,C3,C4 and C5. The types and values of capacitor used in the circuit are given below: Ceramic capacitors: C3, C4, C5 = 0.1uf Electrolytic capacitors: C1 =1000uf/16V C2 =47uf/16V

4. Semiconductors: A semiconductor is a substance, usually a solid chemical element or compound, that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not others, making it a good medium for the control of electrical current. Its conductance varies depending on the current or voltage applied to a control electrode, or on the intensity of irradiation by infrared (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), or X rays. The semiconductors used here are: U1-7805: 7805 is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. It is a member of 78xx series of fixed linear voltage regulator ICs. The voltage source in a circuit may have fluctuations and would not give the fixed voltage output. The voltage regulator IC maintains the output voltage at a constant value. The xx in 78xx indicates the fixed output voltage it is designed to provide. 7805 provides +5V regulated power supply. Capacitors of suitable values can be connected at input and output pins depending upon the respective voltage levels.

Pin Diagram:

Pin No. 1 2 3

Function Input voltage (5V-18V) Ground (0V) Regulated output; 5V (4.8V-5.2V)

Name Input Ground Output

U2(IC)(N1-N4), U3(IC)(N5-N8)- 7400: The 7400 series of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are historically important as the first widespread family of TTL integrated circuit logic. 7400 series parts were constructed using bipolar transistors, forming what is referred to as transistortransistor logic or TTL. Newer series, more or less compatible in function and logic level with the original parts, use CMOS technology or a combination of the two (BiCMOS).

5. Transistors: Transistor is a three-terminal, solid-state electronic device used for amplification and switching. The transistors used here are: T1,T2,T3,T4- BC548: The BC548 is a general purpose epitaxial silicon NPN bipolar junction transistor found commonly in European electronic equipment. The part number is assigned by Pro Electron, which allows many manufacturers to offer electrically and physically interchangeable parts under one identification. The BC548 is commonly available in European Union countries. It is often the first type of bipolar transistor young hobbyists encounter, and is often featured in circuit diagrams and designs published in hobby electronics magazines. If the plastic TO-92 package is held in front of one's face with the flat side facing toward you and the leads downward, the order of the leads, from left to right is collector, base, emitter.

T5- SL100: SL100 is a general purpose, medium power NPN transistor. It is mostly used as switch in common emitter configuration. The transistor terminals require a fixed DC voltage to operate in the desired region of its characteristic curves. This is known as the biasing. For switching applications, SL100 is biased in such a way that it remains fully on if there is a signal at its base. In the absence of base signal, it gets turned off completely. The emitter leg of SL100 is indicated by a protruding edge in the transistor case. The base is nearest to the emitter while collector lies at other extreme of the casing.

6. Diode: A diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric transfer characteristic, with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a pn junction connected to two electrical terminals.[1] A vacuum tube diode, now

rarely used except in some high-power technologies and by enthusiasts, is a vacuum tube with two electrodes, a plate (anode) and cathode. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction).This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current, including extraction of modulation from radio signals in radio receiversthese diodes are forms of rectifiers.

The diode used here is D1- IN 4007.

7. RELAY: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.

The relay is of specification 12V-150E.


The operation of the circuit is as follows: when there is no water in the overhead tank transistor T1 and T2 do not conduct ,which reset the flip-flop comprising gates N1 and N2. Since its Q output is used, the output fed into N3 is 1. When the underground tank is full, transistor T3 and T4 both conduct, thereby setting the flip-flop comprising N7 and N8 whose Q output, namely 1 is fed into N3. The output of N3 is 0 which is inverted and used to trigger transistor SL100, and the motor is thus switched on.