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Physics Waves Quick Reference

Created by: Asser Ayman

This is a quick reference notes of waves to those who dont have time to waste however, these notes doesnt mean neglecting of other official ones

Luminous sources: Are objects that can create their own light Note: all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in vacuum Ray: Is a narrow beam of light Types of rays Converging



Shadows: occur when some light rays travel in a straight line while others are blocked by an object Note: when light hits a reflecting surface, the angle of incidence should be = angle of reflection Properties of an image of plane mirror: Laterally inverted As far behind the mirror as you are Same size as object Cannot be seen on a screen Virtual image Upright

Refraction: is the bending effect of light Reason of refraction: is the changing speed of the waves of light Note: When light travels from a less dense medium to a denser medium, it moves closer to the normal. When light travels from a dense medium to a rare one, it moves away from the normal.

Calculating the refractive index:

Created by: Asser Ayman

2. 3.

(if light goes from rarer to denser medium) (if light goes from denser to rarer medium)

Total internal reflection: when there are no light rays that refract and all of them get reflected within the medium. Critical angle: is an angle of incidence in the denser medium were the angle of refraction is equal 90. Calculating critical angle:

Note: when light enters the medium at a straight line perpendicular to the surface of the medium, it doesnt refract. Dispersion: is the splitting of white light into a band of colors when it enters a prism.

The band of colors is also known as VIBGYOR

Explanation of dispersion: when white light enters the prism, it refracts and splits into 7 colors. This happens because white light is made of a combination of colors that have different speeds when they enter the prism. Monochromatic light: is a form of light that haves only on color and does not split when it enters a prism Created by: Asser Ayman

Note: monochromatic light refracts at the two surfaces of a prism while normal light refracts only at the second surface of the prism. Lenses: are glass mediums that bend light and form images. Types of lenses: Convex lenses: is thickest at the middle and thinner round the edges. When rays parallel to the principle axis enter the convex lenses, it bends those inwards and makes them meet at a point known as principle focus. Concave lenses: is thinner in the middle and thicker round the edges, when light rays pass parallel to the principle axis, they are bend outwards. And the principle focus is the point at which the rays appear to diverge. convex lens concave lens

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Created by: Asser Ayman

Convex ray diagrams:

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Calculating magnification:

Types of waves: 1.longitudinal, 2.Transverse Longitudinal wave: the wave energy travels parallel to the direction of vibration. Transversal wave: the wave energy travels perpendicular to the direction of vibration.

Describing waves: the speed of the wave measured in m/s The number of waves passing any points each in a second. is the distance between any point in a wave and an equivalent point in the next wave Is the maximum point a wave could reach from its resting position.

The wave equation: Velocity = frequency*wavelength OR

Diffraction: is the bending of waves when they pass an obstacle with a narrow gap. When waves diffract: Waves change their shape. No change occurs in frequency, wave front or velocity of waves The size of diffraction depends on the size of the gap. Condition of diffraction: the wavelength of the wave must be greater or equal to the width of the gap. Features of electromagnetic waves: They can travel through vacuum Have a speed of 300,000 km/s They are transverse waves They transfer energy.

Created by: Asser Ayman

Electromagnetic spectrum: The full range of electromagnetic waves.

Uses of electromagnetic spectrum: X-Rays = used in medicine and detective work. Ultraviolet = used in fluoresce science and washing powder Infrared = taking satellite photos Microwaves = often used to cook food

Sound waves: are longitudinal waves Necessary things needed for transmission of sound: A source A medium A receiver

Created by: Asser Ayman

Created by: Asser Ayman