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Research Project

Causes Of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan


22-Sep-11

NFC Institute of Engineering & Fertilizer Research Faisalabad

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan


Submitted By:

Bilal Siddique M.Gulraiz Ahmed Sohaib Zafar Zubair Masood Submitted to: Sir Hassan Naveed

05 15 85 25

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Acknowledgements

First of all thanks to Almighty Allah for the successful accomplishment of this task. Allah Almighty the merciful, the beneficent Who helps us in achieving our goals. We will like to thanks our parents whose constant support was helpful during our research their encouragement and facilitation gave us energy to complete this project successfully We thank our project supervisor Professor Hassaan Naveed whose guidance enlightened our vision and made the research work easier for us. We the group members feel honored to work under his supervision. His supervision led us to the successful accomplishment of this project. A special thanks to Professor Irshad (Agricultural University Faisalabad) Mr. Tahir Raza (HOD Electrical Department NFC IEFR Faisalabad) and dean of entomology Agriculture University Faisalabad for the precious time that they took out for the interviews.

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Table Of Contents
Topic Page No.

1-Executive Summary.5

2-Introduction.7

3-Literature review....................................................................................................14

4-Questionnaire...27

5-Data Analysis..29

6-Structured Interview.42

7-Findings & Conclusions...46

8-Recommendations..47

9-Refernces49

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Executive Summary

The research was based upon finding the causes of low literacy rate of Pakistan. Literacy is very effective and important parameter of measuring social development of a society. Literacy is also the ground reason for many other social problems such as crime rate, political unawareness and terrorism which off course has turned into a cancer. The research survey and interviews were based upon the literature reviews results. A number of previous studies and analysis mostly were converging on a number of definite reasons for low literacy rate. They included Poverty Lack of awareness Gender discrimination Governments mismanagement Lack of awareness.

The research survey was based upon all these finding in the review. The options inferred from the review were tested twice in survey forms so that element of doubt and clarity is removed from the answer of respondents. Respondents were chosen from Faisalabad and within close proximity of the Institute. . We moved in the markets specially AL FATAH, D-GROUND and KOHI-NOOR in Faisalabad. The results of the survey were analyzed with simple ratio and respective percentages. The percentages and their figurative presentations are represented in data analysis of the report. Majority of the respondents opined in the favor of the poverty being the major reasons and linked it with governments responsibility to eliminate the poverty. The second major reason which people opined was gender discrimination. They were of the opinion that there was a need of a social and religious campaign to avoid further catastrophe in this regard. Apart from the surveys interviews were conducted. Educationists were supportive to a heavy budget investment in the field of education. They blamed government for not planning the policies concerning this sector. They said lack of awareness was a major reason behind low literacy.

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

After reviewing the opinions from various sectors, conclusively we come to a point that though core causes exist yet there is a need of massive state-sponsored effort to eliminate illiteracy from the country. Since the issues related are materialistic and financial therefore we are more in a need of state sponsored move. We critically analyzing our research came to a point that poverty, gender discrimination and governments mismanagement were the most important reasons where government role is always in all other factors. Population growth is a low rated reason for the low literacy rate of Pakistan. Government should launch a multi dimensional policy in this regard specially focusing on eliminating the factor of finance from education either directly or indirectly. It should also take the services of religious scholars to promote the message of importance of education.

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Introduction
Literacy is very effective and important parameter of measuring social development of a society. Literacy is also the ground reason for many other social problems such as crime rate, political unawareness and terrorism which off course has turned into a cancer. The literacy rate in Pakistan is divided into three regions that is in cities, villages and tribal areas. The literacy rate in Pakistan has been increasing every year. Below are some points regarding literacy rate in Pakistan. The literacy rate of 87% in Islamabad from 20% in Kohlu district. In the period 2000-2004, the Pakistanis in the age group 55-64 was the literacy rate of almost 30% of persons aged 45-54 were the literacy rate of about 40% of those between 25-34 were literate 50% while those aged 15-24 were literate in more than 60%. These data show that with each generation, literacy rate in Pakistan has increased by about 10%. The literacy rate in different regions, in particular by gender. In the tribal areas of literacy among women is 7.5%. In addition, English is rapidly spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population), which has authority over the English language that makes it 9-ranked English speaking nation world and third largest in Asia. In addition, Pakistan produces about 445,000 graduates and 10.000 informatics graduates a year. So the conditions of literacy rate are not adequate enough for a proper political and social development of the country. This is clearly evident from the literacy ratio, that the ground is not good for political and social awareness. Our topic is well placed for todays scenario since illiteracy itself is the direct and indirect cause of many other problems. Education is a basic right for every human and has now become a standard to measure the social progress of nations. It is surely a key to the political, social and economic development. In the recent history, it has become a prominent phenomenon. The education policy is always on the top of national priorities today. The recent flared situation of global intolerance is also believed to be linked with literacy. Literacy rates have been proved with research to be linked with the economic development of the country. The literate societies are more earning today. They have greater social and political stability. So literacy is an important aspect internationally. Pakistan faces a challenge of the low literacy as compared to the developing countries.

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

The country has one of the lowest literacy rates of the region, in OIC Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates and when dealing with the causes of this we believe that following are the major Economic causes Gender Inequality Population growth Lack of quality and awareness

Economic causes are greatly affecting the literacy rate of Pakistan. Pakistan is a developing country where 38% people are living beneath the poverty line. They dont have enough resources to fill their appetite. The household income is very meager and often not enough to support all the children for primary education. It is a matter of concern that even if the family household income is greater than the expenses the number of children is greater than savings to afford. Parents prefer their children to work so that income pressure could be met easily. The economic cause is a major cause and no research has denied this. The second major cause pointed out in various pieces of literature we studied was the gender inequality. Pakistan has a large proportion of female population which remains uneducated and thus has a serious impact on overall view of countrys literacy profile. This reason is also linked with financial constraints. The social norms give a definite preference to the male child. Thus whenever there is an option of picking the one child female child is always given the least priority. The literacy gap between male and female that was 19% in 1981 and stands 24% in 1998.It is very expensive to be poor. One clear manifestation of this truth is that poverty is major barrier to schooling. It costs about half the annual income of poor rural families to send one child to primary school for one year. Gender issues starts from the fact that social norms and religion is misinterpreted. People view that religion restricts females of the family within four walls of the house. This is a concrete belief especially in rural areas where majority of the Pakistani population resides. Here the awareness campaigns to dilute this effect are difficult because of the infrastructure unavailability. The gender inequality has severe effects over the overall literacy figures. People believe that women are not a long run family member since they have to leave after getting married. They think that men are members of family which have to support the family financially, to bear the expenditures of the family. Therefore they invest over the males neglecting the females.

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

We also view sex-segregation as a reason for our low literacy rate. In the developing country like Pakistan where finance is a major problem, where we are not strong enough monetarily, we are stressing sex segregated schools. We believe in that the cultural norms here demand such measures however they should not be considered to an extent where they become a hurdle. Although the government is doing effort to provide the segregated schools and colleges for boys and girls but still its a problem. If well wait for the separated schools for the girls we will deprive our generations from the basic right of education. Population growth is also posing a problem since the rapid population growth restricts the literacy planning. There is a sure chance that after five years or so the population figures become obsolete and planning needs to be revised. Plus the impact of an already done work is limited as a massive challenge grows within that period. The population should be controlled if the effects of the efforts are to be observed clearly. Why the ratio of the students who are just saying goodbye to school is increasing because we are not providing the education which can attract the child towards itself. The supply of female teachers is important to encourage the female education considering the cultural norms. Quality of education at primary level is not standardized. This results in high dropout rate. There is a very little convincing factor and attraction in obsolete methods of teaching. Therefore those who are already economically stressed are highly vulnerable to drop from primary level. Teachers often are well equipped and sometimes it is seen that teachers are not properly qualified even. Cases have been reported with schools having teachers who are not qualified up to primary levels. So the political involvement is also resulting in under qualified people coming to this sector. Besides, the facilities like furniture and other basic needs are not provided. The schools in rural areas are not well placed to cater majority of the population. So students from far flung areas prefer to remain in their locality because they are very poor and have no transportation means.

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Purpose of study:
We have chosen this topic to analyze the problems of low literacy rate of Pakistan. We are to research on the core issues related to the low literacy rate. We have not been able to uplift our literacy rate even after claiming to have education on our national priority list. Our low literacy seems to be the root cause of all other ills of the society that have risen to the scene in the last decade. One of them may include intolerance and lack of awareness for human rights among the masses of the nation. We shall study the root cause of the mother of the problems. Our basic purpose will be to highlight the factors that are providing a recessive and resistive force to the development of a sound education system which may be able to attract more and more population towards education.

Background:
Talking on a macro scale, according to UNESCO Pakistan is currently rated at 157 th position in the list of 174 countries of the world with a low literacy rate of 58.2%.An analysis of the literacy rate and their definitions over the years. According to a research report by Badar Muneer of National University of Science and Technology on low literacy rate of Pakistan, the major reasons and hindrances for literacy are poverty, feudalism, shooting rise in population and low allocation of budget. Our personal view is that core problem of low literacy rate is poverty. So we shall primarily continue on this line with later observations included later on.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Year of Male Female Total Urban Rural census

Definition of being literate

Age group

1951

19.2% 12.2% 16.4% --

--

One who can read a clear print in any language

All Ages

1961

26.9% 8.2%

One who is able to read with 16.3% 34.8% 10.6% Age 5 and above understanding a simple letter in any language

1972

One who is able to read and 30.2% 11.6% 21.7% 41.5% 14.3% write in some Age 10 and Above language with understanding

1981

One who can read newspaper 35.1% 16.0% 26.2% 47.1% 17.3% Age 10 and Above and write a simple letter

1998

54.8% 32.0% 43.9% 63.08% 33.64%

2004

66.25% 41.75% 54%

71%

44%

2009

69%

45%

57%

74%

48%

One who can read a newspaper Age 10 and Above and write a simple letter, in any language

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Table below shows the literacy rate of Pakistan by province. Literacy Rate Province 1972 1981 1998 2009

Punjab

20.7%

27.4%

46.6%

59%

Sindh

30.2%

31.5%

45.3%

59%

Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa

15.5%

16.7%

35.4%

50%

Balochistan

10.1%

10.3%

26.6%

45%

Table below shows the literacy rate of Federally Administered Areas. Literacy Rate Region 1981 1998 2007

Islamabad

47.8%

72.88%

87%

Azad Kashmir

25.7%

55%

62%(2004)

Gilgit-Baltistan

3% (female)

37.85%

53%(2006)

Tribal

6.38%

17.42%

22%

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Data collection and sampling:


For data collection and sampling we will interact with those people who are not able to continue their studies due to some odd reasons, try to discover those reasons and what steps should be taken by government and other organization to eradicate those problems. We will also interact with those people who didnt ever get a chance to school. We will also go to those people who say goodbye to studies after matriculations and after colleges. We will try to interact some teachers of school level and try to discover the reasons that why the majority of students leave the studies after school and colleges. We will also try to interact with some educationist and also get their opinion. We will also meet the children who are working at different workshops day and night and are struggling their bellies and also ask them that what are the reasons behind it. We will also meet their parents and ask them why they are sending their little children to jobs and not schools.

Survey Instruments:
We will go the public to collect their opinion. We will also leave questions on the face book, twitter, hi5 and all other social network sites and also give them options to answer. We will also have interview sessions with different entities. We will be using different questionnaires and survey forms to record the opinions of people related to education in different capacities.

Limitations:
Being a student we have a limited budget and we will be contained within it. We may be limited to two to three cities. Because all the group members are residents of Lahore, Faisalabad and Multan. Time limitations can also occur because we are student and we have to manage it within the range without disturbing the other engagements and subjects.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Literature review
Education is a basic right for every human and has now become a standard to measure the social progress of nations. It is surely a key to the political, social and economic development. In the recent history, it has become a prominent phenomenon. The education policy is always on the top of national priorities today. The recent flared situation of global intolerance is also believed to be linked with literacy. Literacy rates have been proved with research to be linked with the economic development of the country. The literate societies are more earning today. They have greater social and political stability. So literacy is an important aspect internationally. Pakistan faces a challenge of the low literacy as compared to the developing countries. The country has one of the lowest literacy rates of the region, in OIC Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates and when dealing with the causes of this we believe that following are the major Economic causes Gender Inequality Population growth Lack of quality and awareness

Economic causes are greatly affecting the literacy rate of Pakistan. Pakistan is a developing country where 38% people are living beneath the poverty line. They dont have enough resources to fill their appetite. The household income is very meager and often not enough to support all the children for primary education. It is a matter of concern that even if the family household income is greater than the expenses the number of children is greater than savings to afford. Parents prefer their children to work so that income pressure could be met easily. The economic cause is a major cause and no research has denied this. The second major cause pointed out in various pieces of literature we studied was the gender inequality. Pakistan has a large proportion of female population which remains uneducated and thus has a serious impact on overall view of countrys literacy profile. This reason is also linked with financial constraints. The social norms give a definite preference to the male child. Thus whenever there is an option of picking the one child female child is always given the least priority. The literacy gap between male and female that was 19% in 1981 and stands 24% in 1998.It is very expensive to be poor. One clear manifestation of this truth is that poverty is major barrier to schooling. It costs about half the annual income of poor rural families to send one child to primary school for one year.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Gender issues starts from the fact that social norms and religion is misinterpreted. People view that religion restricts females of the family within four walls of the house. This is a concrete belief especially in rural areas where majority of the Pakistani population resides. Here the awareness campaigns to dilute this effect are difficult because of the infrastructure unavailability. The gender inequality has severe effects over the overall literacy figures. People believe that women are not a long run family member since they have to leave after getting married. They think that men are members of family which have to support the family financially, to bear the expenditures of the family. Therefore they invest over the males neglecting the females. We also view sex-segregation as a reason for our low literacy rate. In the developing country like Pakistan where finance is a major problem, where we are not strong enough monetarily, we are stressing sex segregated schools. We believe in that the cultural norms here demand such measures however they should not be considered to an extent where they become a hurdle. Although the government is doing effort to provide the segregated schools and colleges for boys and girls but still its a problem. If well wait for the separated schools for the girls we will deprive our generations from the basic right of education. Population growth is also posing a problem since the rapid population growth restricts the literacy planning. There is a sure chance that after five years or so the population figures become obsolete and planning needs to be revised. Plus the impact of an already done work is limited as a massive challenge grows within that period. The population should be controlled if the effects of the efforts are to be observed clearly. Why the ratio of the students who are just saying goodbye to school is increasing because we are not providing the education which can attract the child towards itself. The supply of female teachers is important to encourage the female education considering the cultural norms. Quality of education at primary level is not standardized. This results in high dropout rate. There is a very little convincing factor and attraction in obsolete methods of teaching. Therefore those who are already economically stressed are highly vulnerable to drop from primary level. Teachers often are well equipped and sometimes it is seen that teachers are not properly qualified even. Cases have been reported with schools having teachers who are not qualified up to primary levels.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

So the political involvement is also resulting in under qualified people coming to this sector. Besides, the facilities like furniture and other basic needs are not provided. The schools in rural areas are not well placed to cater majority of the population. So students from far flung areas prefer to remain in their locality because they are very poor and have no transportation means. Education is a basic right for every human and has now become a standard to measure the social progress of nations. It is surely a key to the political, social and economic development. In the recent history, it has become a prominent phenomenon. The education policy is always on the top of national priorities today. The recent flared situation of global intolerance is also believed to be linked with literacy. Literacy rates have been proved with research to be linked with the economic development of the country. The literate societies are more earning today. They have greater social and political stability. So literacy is an important aspect internationally. Pakistan faces a challenge of the low literacy as compared to the developing countries. The country has one of the lowest literacy rates of the region, in OIC Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates and when dealing with the causes of this we believe that Economic causes Gender Inequality Population growth Lack of quality and awareness

are major reasons behind the recessive attitude of people and nation in general towards the important field of education The economic cause is a major cause and no research has denied this. The second major cause pointed out in various pieces of literature we studied was the gender inequality. Pakistan has a large proportion of female population which remains uneducated and thus has a serious impact on overall view of countrys literacy profile. Following is a brief review of the literature that we looked in which in majority supports our hypothesis of economic reasons being the foremost cause. The World Banks country brief (2005) is a piece of literature accessing the development of Pakistan and the development challenges that the country faces. However according to the report Pakistans social indicator lag behind comparable per capita incomes.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

While both male and female literacy rate has increased still the gender gap does not show any reasonable reduction, the report opines. Under the section of development challenges World Bank is of the view that poverty is the serious concern in Pakistan. The landing expressed in a pie chart explains the fact that Pakistan spends very little in the sector of education since in June 2005 only $3.6million was lend for education. This report of world bank is an indicator in the favor of our argument about economic disparity being the major reason in containing the efforts to improve the literacy in Pakistan. EFA GMR UIS Fact sheet (2011:12) statistically analyzes the fact of household wealth and its impacts on school going ratio of the children. Pakistan, according to the report, has highest number of out of school children in the region South Asia. Pakistan is among those countries which have more than 500 000 out of school children. The report while discussing the improvements in literacy rates of various countries, suggests that provision of free education programs has led to a considerable increase in school attendance. Report is of the opinion that improving the quality of education and reducing the direct and indirect costs are needed to reduce the dropout rates. Gender issue is once again highlighted as it has been in other studies. On average, in 31 countries girls are 8% more likely to be out of school than boys. Rural-urban gap is also identified. A clear link has been proved between the household wealth and probability of remaining out of school. According to statistics, compared to children from richest 20%, children from the poorest quintile are four times less likely to be on school. The report directs the policy makers, to check on the sex and location problem as well. Gender disparity is a resistive element in the way of literacy. The report defines that household wealth and sex are interlinked. Within each quintile girls are less likely to be on school than boys. This gap clearly shrinks with increase in household wealth. Our argument of gender and household wealth or economic reasons is supported through statistics. The scientific study has been clearly identifying the economic cause to be the most important factor for improving literacy. UNESCO Islamabads report Why Gender Equality in Basic Education In Pakistan while referring to PSLM1 survey literacy rate for girls and women are consistently lower than rates of boys and men. The figure coated by the report indicates the literacy rate is higher in urban areas than rural areas.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

In addition to this it also states that female literacy rate is lower than male literacy in urban and rural areas in all provinces and regions of Pakistan. Gender disparity in literacy rates is higher in some provinces (KPK and Baluchistan). A further closer analysis of PSLM data reveals the large gender disparities in some districts, Jacobabad is one to quote. A statement in some areas of countries education is still a dream for boys and unimaginable for girls guides us towards the two key issues related to literacy, low household wealth and gender inequality. The section # 6 discusses various factors contributing towards gender disparity in access to education in Pakistan. The first and the foremost factor highlighted is poverty and absence of free and compulsory education for all. The direct expenditures keep many girls and boys of the poor families out of school. The report further states the poverty is closely related to low education levels & it is also of the opinion that if girls do not become educated due to lack of funds for education in their households a circle is perpetuated which continues to unable family to afford to educate girls. Another factor is highlighted in the way of economic factor for the low literacy rates is low education budget and the report suggests that an average Pakistan have been spending around 2% of its GDP on education during 20 years. The third factor highlighted is a cultural norm which restricts movements of girls and women. The cultural for male children shortage of sex segregated schools & shortage of female teachers especially in rural areas are the highlighted reasons for gender disparity in education. The conclusion of the report stresses upon a heavier expenditure on education and assuring gender equality to boost up the literacy levels in addition an improved advocacy will also helps in achieving the goals. Dorte Verner(2005), in his study about literacy, in its third section identify high population growth inadequate schooling, low school enrolments rates and poverty few major reasons for the increase in number of illiterate people, around the globe. The research reveals that 95% of the world illiterate people live in developing countries and about 70% are women. Illiteracy rates vary with income levels and across regions in low income countries, as expressed in research paper, illiteracy is almost three as high as lower middle and upper middle income countries. It further states the illiteracy is very high in Asia. Regions with higher illiteracy rates tend to have `lower GNP per capita. There is clear link between the household wealth and literacy. Here our estimation is supported by this study of African countries while a bit of global scenario is revealed by comparison of various regions, one of which is South Asia.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Javed Hasan Aly(2007), in policy review once again is of the opinion that economic disparity and gender inequity are top core issues besides the geographic disparity containing literacy. In its section 7.3 on page 29, writer suggests the provision of compulsory and free education as one of the top policy suggestions. The writer also recommends additional resources for provinces with wider gender gaps and hiring of teacher and teacher training oriented towards reducing gaps. The writer is of the opinion that the educational status of woman of Pakistan is unacceptably low. The writer opines that this status is amongst the lowest in the world. According to Ministry of Women Development, 60% of female adult population is illiterate. 19% of women of Pakistan have attained education to matriculation. Women of Pakistan dont form homogenous entity; their opportunities vary greatly with the social system they are part of. In section 8.1.2 the author is of the opinion the main factor which keep the children out of education are: poverty, low quality of education, education not been perceived to provide economic gains and long distances to school. Once again in the section 8.2 the writer recommends a law of free and compulsory education up to X enacted by each province. This recommendation reveals that there is a serious need of evaluating and eliminating the economic disparity so that a major hurdle in the way of improving of literacy can be removed. In the section 7.4.2 of the white paper deals with the economic disparity the writer clearly states that poverty is the main obstacle to acquiring quality education and also the result of poor education to the economically deprived. Once again in its policy recommendations in section 7.4.3 greater political and financial support is suggested to be given in rural schools and other neglected areas. In a research by Munir (2005), the section 2 deals with illiterates of Pakistan, their characteristics and reasons/factors responsible for the illiteracy. Dealing with the factors of illiteracy has been done under headings. Rural people, 67% of total population, live an underdeveloped life. There is a lack of basic facilities in such areas. Awareness campaigns are needed. Besides rural population, feudal setups of many areas are hurdle since people are not encouraged for education. The result of this, writer concludes that literacy rates of rural females in KPK and Baluchistan is less than 10%.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Another major reason that really is a core to many other problems is poverty. The category is named as Poor and Disadvantaged people. The study reveals that 35% population in Pakistan is under poverty line; in rural population the figure exceeds 40%. Families in this category prefer to sustain their family income than sending children to school. Write opines that the population in Katchi Abadis, slum dwellers, people working on agricultural farms is included in this category. This supports are estimation of poverty being reasons. Since the figures of poverty line are monstrous, the fact of poverty being a core problem in the way of literacy is confirmed. Other problems include minorities rights, refugees and nomads, Handicaps and gender disparity. This is all due to the lack of facilities for the respective categories. The female education is another attention catching point, if we consider the stress laid upon it in previous studies. The writer sums up the paper by including a valid point of increase in funds allocation and awareness campaigns as need to contain this issue. Our argument of economic and gender problems are once again supported by the statistical and logical answers. The percentage of population living under the poverty line poses a serious challenge for future programs in enhancing the literacy. The effectiveness of these programs is also a matter concern due to poverty. Naushin Mahmood(2011:68), in a research conducted and compilation of statistics related to the population growth is of the opinion that Pakistan faces a challenge of having one of the highest numbers of out of-school children; most of whom are females and are more likely to be from rural areas. By 2015 the rapid increase of population will result in a population of 7.5 million boys and about 9 million girls remaining out of school or illiterate. It is the matter of great concern that the number of children who will never enter school will be augmented to 10.8 million boys and 12.2 million girls in 2015 and this will rise to a total of approximately 27.7 million by 2030 out of school children. A clear increment of 11 million who would remain out of school will be a bulky challenge in the coming decade. The working further opines that a number of factors contribute to keep secondary level enrollments low among youth of Pakistan. It points out limited availability of public school and teachers especially all-girls school in rural areas, teaching methods and schooling facilities as a few examples.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

This study suggests that there is a need of massive efforts through increased resources and focused efforts to target rural, poor and marginalized population to reduce education deficiency in Pakistan. Saqib, Riasat, Hukamdad, Safdar and Uzma(2010) discuss various factors of children enrollment on school. This is also a statistical analysis of surveys conducted by the researchers. The surveys were conducted. The researchers declare education as the biggest challenge for development of Pakistan. Maximum respondents of their survey opined economic reasons to be the major cause for low enrollment in basic education. The reasons varied a little between parents opinions and teachers views. In section 4 the researchers present conclusions. These conclusions were their analysis of the data they collected. The final statement of their conclusions was an attention point. The researchers supported an already established concept of studies that poverty was the major cause of low enrollment. This final statement goes It was concluded from the findings study that poverty is the major cause of low enrollment. District Bannu was focus of the researchers so they recommended some steps. The gender disparity was highlighted and steps to minimize this were recommended. In the recommendations the provision of cheaper or free education is also pointed. Rest of this research publication was statistical. We will like to point out an all-out support of our arguments by the researchers. We find our study heading towards two major causes. One, and major of them being poverty and second being the poverty. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan and Karamat Ali in their working paper, highlight the preference of sons over daughters in poverty stricken households. The literacy rate of Pakistan is increasing over the last few years but still it is less than many countries of the same region. Gender disparity is a big hurdle in our literacy rate. First of all the main problem is limitations of the movements of girls and women. After the age of puberty some additional restrictions are imposed to the girls. The female members of the home have to get the special permission from the elder members of the home to step out of the house. They are not allowed to move freely. They are not provided the freedom of thought and mind.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

This can also become a cause of inferiority complex. In most of the rural areas of Pakistan the basic problem starts from the birth of a female baby because its a concept in Pakistan that the birth of a female baby is considered as a bad omen. Females are always considered as a burden on the family where as the birth of males is always welcomed. Regarding the education when there are limited funds then the education of boys have always been preferred as compared to girls. They deal it as a part of business because the male members have to carry out the expenditures of the whole family whereas the female are considered as a guest since after marriage they will move to the husbands home. People in rural society stress upon the home economics only and yet not formal home economics. Further the research paper reveals that the homes where the female members play the leading role, the females are more educated as compare to males which females are more educated as to compare to males. Imran and Saeed ur Rehman(2009), express their research on the impacts of gender inequality in education. They declare education as the most important instrument for human development. It has become a universal human right and an important component of opportunities and empowerment of women. Pakistan exhibits a considerable gender inequality in education. Strong gender disparities exist in rural and urban areas and in provinces. Pakistan is a patriarchal society where women suffer all sorts of discrimination resulting in low social economic and political status. The higher earnings are related to higher level of education. There are countless issues of education in Pakistan. The work states low level of investment, poverty, gender and regional inequalities and high population growth rate. Primary enrollments are on increase but with creeping speed. There is always a wide gap between enrollments of girls and boys. A gap is also there between rural and urban enrollments. This indicates the lack of awareness and economic reasons. Middle enrollment also follows the same trend in statistics although it has statistical values. The higher earnings are related to higher level of education. There are countless issues of education in Pakistan. The work states low level of investment, poverty, gender and regional inequalities and high population growth rate. Rehanna Siddiqui(2001), in her research paper, discusses the gender dimensions of poverty in Pakistan. Gender discrimination is a universal phenomenon but its awareness varies across countries. In Pakistan gender discrimination is a major problem.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Women have to ask to the elder members of the house first to go anywhere out of the house. Still they are struggling to get the freedom of thought and mind. It is also thought that the women are made only to do the tasks relating to the home and men have to carry out the finance and the expenditures of the all the members of the home. Therefore in most of the rural areas of Pakistan women only get the training of tasks relating to the home like cooking. People believe that women are not a long run family member since they have to leave after getting married. They think that men are members of family which have to support the family financially, to bear the expenditures of the family. Therefore they invest over the males neglecting the females. We also view sex-segregation as a reason for our low literacy rate. In the developing country like Pakistan where finance is a major problem, where we are not strong enough monetarily, we are stressing sex segregated schools. We believe in that the cultural norms here demand such measures however they should not be considered to an extent where they become a hurdle. Although the government is doing effort to provide the segregated schools and colleges for boys and girls but still its a problem. If well wait for the separated schools for the girls we will deprive our generations from the basic right of education. Why the ratio of the students who are just saying goodbye to school is increasing because we are not providing the education which can attract the child towards itself. The supply of female teachers is important to encourage the female education considering the cultural norms. Sabina Qureshi(2003/2004) in her study discusses issues related to gender and factors affecting literacy in Pakistan. The education sector in Pakistan has suffered from persistent and serves under investment by the government throughout the last five decades. Public spending on education at present stands at 1.8% of GDP as against 4% Of GNP set forth by UNESCO for literacy. According to the UNDP, Pakistan is one of 12 countries in the world which spends less than 2% of GDP on education. The over-centralized management of the system of education has traditionally maintained control over financing and decision making with little role for district and local authorities. Until recent devolution plan, each provincial Department of Education was responsible for service delivery and decisions including recruitment of teachers, procurement of school furniture and signing small contracts for school improvement.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Even minor disciplinary problem were referred to provincial authorities. Over-centralization compromised the quality of service delivery by weakening the relationships of accountability between policy makers, government sector responsible for education, service provider-schools and clients-parents and students. Education deprivation and poverty go hand in hand. In Pakistan about one third of the population is poor and as such one in every there Pakistanis lives below the poverty line. The incidence of poverty is significantly higher in rural areas. Of the four provinces, Baluchistan has the lowest average income where as Punjab has the highest per capita income. Moreover, poverty tends to be concentrated in large families that have few earners, high dependency ratios, female headed households and families who dont hold assets. Within the families, women, elderly and children are the most vulnerable. Much of the poverty is chronic and almost 70 % of the countrys poor households are the headed by someone who is literate, elderly or female. The poverty of opportunity that is of education and health is more pronounced than that of poverty of income. Evidence shows that the incidence of poverty of opportunity is increasing for women than men. In the field of health, the inverse sex ratio in Pakistan, 108 males to 10 females is in sharp contrast to global norm. The literacy gap between male and female that was 19% in 1981 and stands 24% in 1998.It is very expensive to be poor. One clear manifestation of this truth is that poverty is major barrier to schooling. It costs about half the annual income of poor rural families to send one child to primary school for one year. Education is a basic human right. The UN Charter and constitution of Pakistan lay down equal provision of education and development opportunities, both for men and women. Education ensures best start to life but extant custom, traditional ascription of male and female roles and family restrictions often hold back girls from attending school thus impeding girls to take best start. In particular, SON PREFERANCE results in a discrimination against daughters.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Parents often not see education as a human right but as their discretionary power to send their daughters to school or not and therefore despite several efforts of the Government of Pakistan and international development organizations, the female literacy rates is far from equal to literacy rate is far from equal to literacy rate of males in Pakistan. Gender imbalance is compounded by the fact that there are fewer schools for girls, ratio of female teachers and women professionals in education remains very low. Some pocket improvements have been made to enhance enrollment and participation rate butt still its a long way to achieve equity and equality of educational opportunities for both males and females. This study has thoroughly identified the major reasons related to low literacy rate. Though the scope of the research is wider however the section regarding factors influencing literacy is completely focused to our research. It is convincing that the author once again reveals the similar kind of key issues as pointed out by the previous researchers. They include

Poverty Gender issues Lack of quality Lack of awareness Population Government issues

While concluding our literature review we direct our research towards the issue of poverty being a major hurdle in the way of eliminating illiteracy in Pakistan. The second issue highlighted in all the research works is the gender disparity and inequality these two basic points would be guiding issues in our research work.

Hypothesis
Economic and social issues are the core reasons for low literacy in Pakistan

Null Hypothesis Economic and social issues are not the core reasons for low literacy in Pakistan 25

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

SURVEY
There were five reasons which we primarily focused upon. These were developed as the ground for research through previous studies. The researchers and research teams from various institutions like UNESCO, PIDE and World Bank opined in the favor of these topics. In fact time and again we found these topics all the way. Our research circle and scope was limited since being students we had limited resources. These five major causes were tested for public opinion from various angles. The survey conducted was with repeated questions surrounding the facts. Gender disparity for instance was asked once in a straight manner while the other time provision of sex segregated schools was questioned. This would give respondents a chance to speak clearly about his her opinion while remaining within scope of our research. The questionnaire therefore became primary source of our data about public opinion. This was our direct interaction with the public apart from our opinion poll on social media website Facebook. The data collected through this was analyzed graphically and tested for its reliability. In the literature review first we studied the past research papers and tried to get benefit from them. Keeping all the reasons under consideration we prepared a questionnaire and then moved towards markets. To get the public opinion we moved in the universities, AL FATAH, KOH-I-NOOR PLAZA, D-GROUND and a number of places in Faisalabad. Keeping the analysis in our mind we started taking interviews. We interviewed a number of well known personalities. For those people which were from far areas, where we couldnt approach we introduced a number of questions on the Facebook. In compiling the data we also considered the opinions of Facebook respondents. The raw data was compiled into an analyzed one so that conclusions could be drawn. The interviews were random and mostly detailed. The vision of educationists was revealed to us. We were able to finally adapt these data resources for analysis.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Questionnaire
Information collected will be used for educational purposes only Name: Age:..Profession: In your opinion what is the most important hurdle in the improvement of literacy rate? A) Financial Strains B) Lack of Awareness C) Improper Governmental Policies D) High Population Growth E) Gender Inequality through Social norms. If financial aid is provided, then student enrollment will increase at primary level. A) Yes B) No C) Not necessarily If schools are made available at feasible locations this will increase student enrollment A) Yes B) No C) It will yet depend on other parameters Inadequate facilities at school are the major reason for dropout rate of students. Do you agree? A) Yes B) No C) YES but its not the only contributor Comments(If C)....................................................................................................................... Teachers are not being properly trained by Govt., which leads to lack of quality? A) Yes B) No C) comments.. Provision of Sex segregated schools in a greater number can bring a high number of pupils to school A) Yes B) No C) Yes but not only with this A religious and social awareness campaign is seriously needed against the Gender issues to increase literacy. A) Yes B )No, there is enough recognition for women C) Only in certain areas Provision of free education will be the most important booster for literacy. Do you agree? A) Yes B) No C) comments.. Importance of education needs to be explained to majority of population. Do you agree? A )Yes B)No Population needs to be controlled to properly work on literacy programs. Do you agree? A) Yes B)No

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

1. What should be the immediate step to improve literacy? . 2. List major reasons you believe are responsible for low literacy in Pakistan(In the order of priority)

Signature____________________________

Snap Shot of Survey 28

Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Data analysis
The survey was conducted from variety of professions and people with different income. The survey was limited to Faisalabad due to limitations of finance and time. The multiple choice questions were drafted to test public opinion on specific causes. These results are listed as below.

List the major reasons for low literacy rate in Pakistan or what steps government should take to improve literacy rate in Pakistan? Following are the opinions of the majority of the respondents which come out as a result of our survey. The suggestions of the most of the people are directed in these points. Poverty Government policies Lack of awareness in parents and students Lack of training Lack of knowledge Lack of opportunities Adequate facilities Low teaching standard Media can play its role Schools must be at proper places Feudalism must be eradicated Free education Control the corruption Women awareness No politics in the educational sector Importance of education Educational system must be changed Follow our Urdu language in place of English

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

In your opinion what is the most important hurdle in the improvement of literacy rate?

6% 5% 30% Financial strains Lack of awareness Government policies 38% High population Gender inequality 22%

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Financial staires Lack of Government High awareness policies population gender Inequality

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Total Financial strains Lack of awareness Improper govt. policies High population growth Gender inequality

100 30 22 38 05 06

First question our survey was a comprehensive multiple choice. The back ground of the question was the literatures highlighted points. The five key issues that came up in our literature review were clearly asked to be chosen from. They are Financial strains Lack of awareness Improper government policies High population growth Gender inequality through social norms

The results were quiet confirmatory for our hypothesis. Financial strains 30% Lack of awareness 22% Improper government policies 38% High population growth 05% Gender inequality through social norms 06%

Improper government policies were targeted for not being able to alleviate poverty which is the actual root cause of the low literacy rate. Majority of the respondents were of the opinion that people are not turning towards education due to lack of finance. However they blamed of improper policies for this. Therefore the governmental policies were in fact other side of the picture of financial constraints.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

If financial aid is provided, then student enrollment will increase at primary level.

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes no not necessary

Total Yes No Not necessary

100 65 25 10

This question was in fact another dimension of confirming our finding that financial problems were containing people from going to schools. This question also reveals whether finance is the major and foremost cause of not sending children schools. The results really supported the hypothesis that if finances are available majority can compromise other factors. Other factors include availability of better facilities and easier access to schools.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

The results expressed in graph above are very decisive and helped us to evaluate the issue of financing primary education. 65% of the respondents were of the opinion that yes people would send their children to schools if financial aid is provided. 25% were of the view that yet other factors would be effective in deciding. 10% respondents yet opined that financial aid is not the solution since it would devalue education in the eyes of already ignorant people, especially in rural areas. This was the argument that majority of negates presented while responding to our questions. If schools are made available at feasible locations this will increase student enrollment

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes no it depends

Total Yes No It depends

100 62 16 22

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

The data speaks for itself. A clear ratio difference of opinion is there. Majority of the respondents opined in favor of developing schools at feasible and easily accessible places. More than 20 respondents were of the opinion yet it will depend on other factors. Simple and easy question was asked with a research background. This was not at all ambiguous in its statistics which appeared. Inadequate facilities at school are the major reason for dropout rate of students. Do you agree?

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 yes no yes(conditional)

Total Yes No Yes (conditional)

100 56 18 26

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

A few respondents were of the opinion that the facilities in primary education sector were quite adequate however majority considered it to be a cause and a hurdle in bringing pupils to schools. Majority of the respondents answered while considering government schools. They were of the view that due to competition, since education has turned into a commercial field, private schools are providing best possible facilities within different range of fees they charge. More than 20 surveyed people opined that although the facilities were not enough in schools yet there were other factors which need attention.

Teachers are not being properly trained by Govt., which leads to lack of quality?

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 yes no

Total Yes No

100 70 30

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

70% and 30% ratio was once again clearly in the dimension of teacher training. The question is another effective scale of views of public about govt. efforts in upgrading the education sector of Pakistan. People said that not the degree holders, competitive people should be employed in the sector. The respect of the teachers by the administration should be assured and teaching should be made into a handsome and dignified profession which it surely deserves to be.

Provision of Sex segregated schools in a greater number can bring a high number of pupils to school

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 yes no yes(conditional)

Total Yes No Yes (conditional)

100 37 39 24

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

This was the second major issue in our literature view so we constructed a clear question to see the public opinion. A mixed mind set of the general public came up. Majority of the people were in the category which thinks that sex segregated schools would not help in improving school attendance. However yet the results of three options provided reveal that majority of the people say that there should be sex segregated schools. Yes conditional option means that there are other factors linked as well.

A religious and social awareness campaign is seriously needed against the Gender issues to increase literacy.

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Certain Areas

Total Yes No Certain Areas

100 64 09 27

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Need for a social and religious campaign is highly felt among the masses. Respondents majority said that there must be a campaign, almost 30% replying it to be needed in only certain areas. A few respondents were of the opinion that people of Pakistan had enough awareness of the religion and there were no misconceptions about the religion and education connection.

Provision of free education will be the most important booster for literacy. Do you agree?

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

Total Yes No

100 79 21

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Provision of free primary education was found to be highly popular among the public. Almost a ratio of 80% to 20 % was seen. Once again negates of this statement argued on the point that ignorant population would see education as a devalued thing. This way we will in fact have another front to fight on.

Importance of education needs to be explained to majority of population. Do you agree?


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

Total Yes No

100 83 17

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

The importance of education yet need s to be explained to majority of the population, pour survey revealed. People were of the opinion that yet people do not know that a better educated individual have a greater probability to be employed. Not only employed but well employed.

Population needs to be controlled to properly work on literacy programs. Do you agree?


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

Total Yes No

100 75 25

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

The population factor was considered to be hurdle in the way of developing a long run policy. The policy designed for next 5 years or so would not be effective since the flood of population will surely change demographics. The high difference in the opinion was helpful for us to easily demonstrate the conclusion. The figure above speaks the results of the survey.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Structured Interviews

What is the major root cause of low literacy rate in Pakistan?


According to our interviews the following opinions come as the major root cause of low literacy rate in Pakistan Awareness Poverty Government policies Teacher training Punctuality Excess of students in the class

According to definition of literacy a person who can read and write his name is a literate person. Even then 42% of Pakistanis dont know to write his name. The main reason of our low literacy is awareness. People are not aware enough. They dont know the importance of education. We are still living in the Stone Age. Poverty is considered as the second most reason because the majority of the citizens have dont enough finance to bear the expanses of quality education which also leads to the government policies as the third most reason of low literacy rate. An agricultural engineer has quoted Pakistani people are not aware. They dont know the benefits of education. Dean of entomology has quoted The basic reason of low literacy rate is punctuality. There is no check and balance for the teachers in the rural areas. The come and go according to their own will. Teacher training is also a big problem in our rural. They are not trained enough

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

The strength of students is very high. It is impossible for a teacher to go to every student and ask him for his problems. Therefore it totally depends upon the tuition which increases the expenses and it is also a big hurdle for a poor person to carry out the expenses of tuition in to school.

Do you think there is a need of HEC like body for primary education?
We already have a body like HEC named as director schools and director colleges. So there is no need to another body like this. The basic thing we need is the implementation. Law itself is not profitable the implementation of the law makes it effective so basic thing we need is the implementation. Director schools and director colleges if we are going to make a body like this it will be just the wastage of money and time. Actually we need the booster for the bodies literacy mass education organizations. This booster may help us to increase the literacy rate in Pakistan.

Gender issues still prevail. What is the solution of this?


According to our interviews the solution which comes in front of us is Create awareness

Gender issues can resolve by creating a sense of awareness among the people. We know that in our developing country we have to work together and stand in the row of developed countries. So it is the need of our hour to adjust these issues and work for the betterment of our country. Dean of entomology has quoted I m strictly against the female education. First of all majority of the females dont do job after completing their education. Secondly after marriage they get the holidays of the maternity period for three months. After three months they dont know anything about the course outlines and the next is just the paper work. They cannot produce results according to expectations.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

What if the universities take a step for primary education?


Dean of entomology agriculture university Faisalabad has quoted Still the question arises about implementation. The basic thing is the implementation. If we can implement it then it will be profitable for us. Doctor Engineer M. Irshad has quoted Yes, it is good for us. In fact the agriculture university Faisalabad also running some sort of schools like this named as Laboratory High School Faisalabad Head of Department Electrical engineering NFC IE&FR has quoted No, I dont think so it will be good because we dont know what are the needs and requirements of the primary level. The people appointed there can handle it more efficiently. They have enough know how bout it so they can do it in a better way. It is need of hour to promote the primary education, to aware the people so according to us universities should take the initiative in any way.

What changes do you suggest in present HEC culture?


The first thing we need is the implementation. HEC has introduced another thing which is named as impact factor which is a very positive thing. This leads to the concept that HEC is working properly and efficiently. There is bit change which we change is the administration. The administration must be strong to implement the laws.

What are the areas in which government has nothing to do?


According to the reports two kinds of families are not educating their off springs. Very royal families Very poor families

Royal families are not in the favor of high education. They just want to give their sons the basic education and then ask them to come into the business. Very poor families are not able enough to carry out the expenditures of the education.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Therefore due to their home conditions they ask their sons to do the job right from the very first day and this is also the cause of childhood labor. Dean of entomology Agriculture University Faisalabad has referred to the example of computer literacy that youth is not supporting it. People are not willing to put effort in it.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Findings and Conclusion


After reviewing the opinions from various sectors, conclusively we come to a point that though core causes exist yet there is a need of massive state-sponsored effort to eliminate illiteracy from the country. Since the issues related are materialistic and financial therefore we are more in a need of state sponsored move. Population growth is a low rated reason for the low literacy rate of Pakistan. We critically analyzing our research came to a point that poverty gender discrimination and governments mismanagement were the most important reasons where governments role is always in all other factors. Population growth is a low rated reason for the low literacy rate of Pakistan. The government is to be the ultimate authority in this regard. If we want a major shift in this regard we need concrete efforts by government on massive scale. It is quite obvious that nothing in private sector can fund the vast field of primary education. We therefore think that without a special effort of state, Pakistan will keep on creeping like it is doing right now. It is simple to state that there are core issues. They act as hindrance factors in the way of improving the literacy figures. These are confirmation of our hypothesis. The dimension of viewing them is changed though. These factors are clearly economic and social as stated in our hypothesis. Economic constraints for instance are the real issue. However if we see this comes under the fold of government responsibility. No other stake holder can be as powerful as government and its effective policies. Either directly government can eliminate the core reason or the effect of that core reason can be diluted.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

Recommendations
After review of our research and analysis of public opinion we recommend some of the vital steps in this regard. These suggestions are based on consensus. Government should launch heavy finance schemes for the education sector. Primarily focusing on the government schools so that a cheaper education could be provided. This should be accompanied with transparency in financing schemes so that implementation could be proper. There should state supported social awareness campaign. If such campaigns are not sponsored at least they should be endorsed. The campaign should have religious dimension so that gender discrimination and misinterpretation should be curbed. The campaigns should be on large scale. The schools should be restructured as far as the facilities and teacher training are concerned. There should be consistent mechanism for the teacher refresher courses and preferably they should be managed locally. A national body to monitor primary education should be setup having full authority. The budget allocations should be greater than 4%. Direct sponsor schemes should be launched to improve the facilities in schools. In this way many organizations can be asked to invest in the education sector.

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Causes of Low Literacy Rate In Pakistan

References Sabina Qureshi(2003 2004), Pakistan: Education and Gender policy Girls education: A lifeline to Development. Central European University, centre for policy study, CPS International Fellowship program.

PPAF Media & Communication unit (2005), The World Bank in Pakistan: Country brief

Dorte Verner (2005), What Factors Influence World Literacy? Is Africa Different? World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3496. 7-11 Javed Hasan Aly(2007), Education In Pakistan, A White Paper; Document To Debate And Finalize The National Education Policy. Ministry of Education Pakistan. Imran Sharif Chaudhry, Saeed-ur-Rahman(2009),The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education on Rural Poverty In Pakistan: An empirical Analysis, European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences. UNESCO Islamabad (2010), Why Gender Equality in Basic Education in Pakistan. www.unesco.org.pk Naushin Mahmood(2011;68), The Demographic Dividend: Effects of Population Change on School Education in Pakistan, Pakistan Institute Of Development Economics Islamabad. www.pide.org.pk UNESCO Institute of Statistics (2011), Out of school Children: New Data reveal persistent Challenges Education for all Global Monitoring Report, UIS Factsheet No. 12. www.unesco.org.pk

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Dr. Saqib Shahzad, Riasat Ali, Hukamdad, Safdar Rehman Ghazi, Ms. Uzma Syeda Gillani (2010), Access and Equity in Basic Education, Asian Social Science www.ccsenet.org/ass Munir Ahmad Chooudhry(2005), Pakistan: Where and Who are the Worlds Illiterates?, Background Paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2006 Literacy for All. United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization www.unesco.org.pk Rana Ejaz Ali Khan, Karamat Ali (01-05), Bargaining over Sons and Daughters Schooling; Probit Analysis of Household Behavior in Pakistan

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