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In 1890, Jacob Riis vividly portrayed life in an American urban slum in his work? a. How the Other Half Lives b. The Octopus c. Ragged John d. Maggie, Girl of the Streets e. My Slum Life All the following are true of railroad expansion in the late 18th century EXCEPT that it a. opened new territories to commercial agriculture b. accelerated the growth of some older cities and create new ones c. was financed by private corporations without government assistance d. led to new managerial forms and techniques e. was often capitalized beyond what was needed. Which of the following was true of the American labor movement in the late 19th century? a. It was controlled by immigrant socialists and anarchists b. It was confined to factory workers c. It was protected from employer harassment by federal law and policy d. it was allied with the Democratic party e. It was involved in a number of violent strikes Which of the following was a consequence of the shift to sharecropping and the crop lien system in the late 19th century South? a. a major redistribution of land ownership b. a diversification of crops c. a cycle of debt and depression for Southern tenant farmers d. a rise in cotton yields per acre from antebellum production levels e. the termination of control exerted by White landowners over former slaves All of the following were objectives of W.E.B. DuBois EXCEPT a. the total enfranchisement of all eligible Black citizens b. the establishment of an organization to seek legal redress of Black grievances c. the establishment of Black political power d. cooperation with White people in obtaining Black progress e. the implementation of Booker T. Washington's program for Black progress In the late 19th century United States, farmers sought federal relief from distress caused by a. low tariffs b. natural disasters c. inflationary monetary policies d. excise taxes on agricultural products e. discriminatory freight rates


Which of the following were the most persistent problem facing municipalities in the United States throughout the last quarter of the 19th century? a. decreasing municipal tax bases b. inadequate water and sewer systems c. deteriorating transportation systems d. a decline in the number of manufacturing jobs e. gang violence among unemployed youths During the last decade of the 19th century, the primary use of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act was s to a. break up business monopolies b. regulate interstate railroads c. protect American industry from foreign competition d. curb labor unions e. promote economic expansion All of the following were reasons for the failure of the People's (Populist) party EXCEPT a. the radical nature of its program alienated non farming interests b. racism strained the coalition of poor White and Black farmers c. the Democratic party co-opted some of the Populist program and its constituency d. Western and Southern farmers favored different political strategies e. The prosperity of the early 1890s undermined popular support for Populist economic reforms.







10. All of the following account for nativist sentiment against the New immigrants of the late 19th century EXCEPT that the immigrants a. practiced different religions b. had different languages and cultures c. were willing to work for lower wages than were native born workers d. were not familiar with the United States political system e. dominated the professions of law, medicine and engineering 11. Which of the following was primarily responsible for the declining death rate in American cities at the end of the 19th century? a. fewer poor people moved to the cities in the late 19th century b. cities began to provide free medical care to those who needed it c. doctors began to provide free medical care to poor people d. better transportation enabled more people to seek medical care e. cities built better sewers and supplied purified water.


12. Helen Hunt Jackson's A Centuryo f Dishonor was

significant because it aroused public awareness of the a. injustice of having taken land from Mexico b. the need for reforms in federal land policy c. wrongs that the federal government had inflicted on the American Indians d. hardships endured by Chinese laborers while building the transcontinental railroad e. plight of the share croppers in the Deep South 13. The intent of the Dawes Act of 1887 was to a. assimilate American Indians into the mainstream of American culture b. recognize and preserve the tribal cultures of American Indians c. legally establish communal nature of American Indian landholding d. restore to American Indians land seized unjustly e. remove all American Indians to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) 14. Which of the following is true of the Sherman Antitrust Act? a. it had little impact on the regulation of large corporations b. it quickly limited the number of mergers taking place c. it led to federal control of the railroads d. it forced businesses to adopt pooling agreements e. it ended effective cooperation between business and the federal government. 15. The farmers' protest movement lost momentum at the end of the 1890s for all of the following reasons EXCEPT a. the failure of the people's party in the 1896 election b. massive immigration into urban areas that led to higher prices for agricultural products c. crop failures in Europe that led to an increase in United States grain exports d. in 1898 Yukon gold strike that increased the U.S. government's supply of gold and eased farmers' access to credit e. the absorption of the populists by the American Federation of labor 16. The United States' policy toward the Native American changed dramatically with the passage in 1887 of the Dawes Act, which a. wiped out tribal ownership of property and granted 160 acres to heads of families. b. treated the tribes as independent nations. c. established new and larger reservations for all tribes. d. granted full citizenship to all tribal members. e. forbade selling alcohol or guns on reservations.

17. The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier shaped America by a. killing off many of the most adventurous individuals. b. stimulating individualism, nationalism, and democracy. c. direct government intervention. d. creating new opportunities for women e. demolishing Native Americans and profiteering from the results 18. During the late 1800s, farmers supported free and unlimited coinage of silver mainly because they believed that it would lead to a. the establishment of government farm price supports. b. higher prices for farm products. c. the lowering of rates charged by railroads. d. lower prices for consumer goods. e. more development of the railroads for transportation 19. The United States government's outlawing of the Indian Sun (Ghost) Dance in 1890 resulted in the a. Battle of Little Big Horn. b. Battle of Potowanamie Creek. c. Dawes Severality Act. d. Massacre at Sand Creek. e. Battle of Wounded Knee. 20. The two factors that did most to stimulate rapid western settlement were a. the Homestead Act and the railroad. b. removal of the buffalo and Native Americans from the plains. c. the gold rushes and the rise of the great cattle kingdoms. d. the removal of the Indians and the gold rushes. e. barbed wires the continental divide

21. Which of the following is NOT true of the mining towns

which developed between 1860 and 1890? a. were often abandoned after the mines closed. b. were predominantly settled by men. c. frequently suffered from lawlessness. d. developed town councils to settle disputes e. they had gambling and drinking as regular activities 22. Open-range ranching came to an end due to a. overproduction of beef and declining prices. b. federal support for irrigated agriculture.

c. the range wars between cattlemen and sheepherders. d. increase in cattle production in the Midwest and East. e. fencing of the plains with barbed wire. 23. During the 1860s and 1870s, the Grangers carried out all of the following activities EXCEPT a. they established cooperatives. b. they forged a political coalition with organized labor. c. they supported political candidates sympathetic to the farmers' needs. d. they disseminated information about new scientific agricultural techniques. e. help with agricultural causes 24. One of the primary beliefs of the Farmers' Alliances was that a. individual competition was the most efficient means of determining fair farm prices. b. the ratio of gold to silver should be 18 to 1. c. the railroads should be under state, not federal control. d. too much power was in the hands of a few corporations and financial institutions. e. they were undesirable in a democratic country 25. The Populists' subtreasury plan called for a. a new banking system in America. b. the government to advance credit to farmers for crops stored in government storehouses. c. a new system of credit for all American workers. d. the government to eliminate the crop lien system in the South. e. encourage reduced production of agricultural products. 26. The "Gospel of Wealth," as advanced by Andrew Carnegie, promoted the concept that people with wealth should a. give aid directly to the poor. b. devout time to the public welfare. c. donate the bulk of their wealth to religious institutions. d. use their resources to help society. e. risked only their own investment and were not responsible for the debts of the corporation.

d. held that employers could force employees to

sign and abide by "yellow dog contracts." e. entrepreneurs could now amass great sums of money for investment purposes. 28. The 1880s movement for the eight-hour working day is usually associated with which of the following labor organizations a. the Teamsters Union b. the Knights of Labor. c. the Industrial Workers of the World. d. the Congress of Industrial Organizations. e. the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union.

29. In the 19th century, railroads formed pools in order to a. share equipment and terminals for greater
efficiency. b. fix prices and divide business for greater profit. c. inflate the value of assets and profits before selling the stock. d. better serve farmers in remote rural areas. e. increase competition by dividing up large companies into smaller ones. 30. The Haymarket bombing of May 4, 1886, was important to the labor movement because it(s) a. aroused public opposition against labor, contributed to the decline of the Knights of Labor, and caused an increase in the membership of the AFL. b. brought about the use of collective bargaining to settle labor disputes peacefully. c. demonstrated to unskilled workers their vulnerability to strikebreaking actions. d. began a tradition of federal intervention by U. S. troops. e. execution was placed squarely in the Attorney General's hands. 31. The ideas of Social Darwinism allowed men of wealth, like Carnegie and Rockefeller, to a. justify the economic inequality that favored them over the nation's poor. b. argue for more government intervention in dealing with social problems. c. create more humanitarian programs for their factory laborers. d. become more humanitarian in their declining years. e. occasionally turbulent, but most grievances were dealt with effectively through collective bargaining.

27. The Supreme Court in the United States v. Knight

Company a. diminished the effectiveness of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act by ruling that manufacturing was not interstate commerce. b. declared the Granger laws unconstitutional because states could not regulate interstate commerce. c. ruled that all trusts and monopolies in interstate commerce were illegal and could be broken up by the federal government.

32. Which of the following groups would have been most likely to support Tammany Hall? a. industrial and business leaders. b. organized religion. c. poor urban immigrants. d. middle-class shop owners. e. wealthy rural landowners. 33. After 1890, increased immigration began to present a national problem because a. unskilled laborers tended to concentrate in crowded urban slums. b. contract laborers enabled employers to combat strikes effectively. c. the American educational system could not absorb the numbers of immigrant children. d. unskilled laborers could not become members of labor unions. e. skilled laborers were essential to industry

37. The outbreak of the Indian Wars of the 1870s was caused by all of the following EXCEPT a. The U.S. governments effort to isolate Indian tribes on smaller reservations b. The rejection of earlier treaties by young Sioux warriors c. The rush of gold miners into Indian lands d. Perceived failure of the U.S. government to honor past treaty commitments e. The division of tribal lands into individual farms for tribal members

38. The chief cause of farm protest in the late 19th century
was a. The closing of the open range b. Overproduction of crops on the great Plains c. Middlemen, trusts, and railroads d. The increased money supply and prices e. Increased competition from international sources 39. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 is most closely associated with a. The expensive technologies involved in deep-shaft mining b. Hostility to foreigners in western states c. Competition of a transcontinental railroad d. Farmers grievances e. Segregation and racial tensions in the South 40. As a result of the introduction of mass transit in cities? a. different social groups no longer lived close together b. working-class neighborhoods were broken apart. c. more mixed-use areas consisting of residences, shops, and factories emerged. d. human resources were drawn inward toward the central city. e. existing city government structures were so disorganized and chaotic.

34. Which of the following statements is LEAST true about immigration to the U. S. between 1880 and 1900? a. most immigrants were unskilled day laborers. b. immigration increased steadily during these years. c. immigrants tended to be Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Jewish. d. Chinese immigrants were excluded by law during most of these years. e. most immigrants came from northern and western Europe.

35. In late 19th century cases dealing with the rights of blacks,
the Supreme Court decided that a. the Fourteenth Amendment protected citizens from private acts of discrimination but not from governmental acts. b. racial segregation was constitutional as long as each race had equal facilities. c. poll taxes and literacy tests were illegal. d. the civil rights clauses of the Fifteenth Amendment were unconstitutional. e. working to develop a humanitarian form of industrialism was a necessity to a democratic society 36. Which of the following characterized agriculture in BOTH the West and the South in the period 1870-1900 a. Use of dry-farming techniques b. Increased production c. Introduction of sharecropping d. Raising crops for subsistence, not commerce e. Raising prices for farm products

41. After the Granger laws ran into legal problems and were
overturned in the case of Wabash v. Illinois, Congress attempted to provide relief through the a. Sherman Antitrust Act b. Interstate Commerce Act c. Graduated income tax d. Homestead Act e. Atlanta Compromise 42. President Grover Cleveland responded to the 1894 Pullman strike by a. intervening on the side of management b. offering to serve as a mediator. c. remaining uninvolved and doing nothing. d. intervening on the side of labor. e. eliminating health insurance plans 43. The New South movement promoted all of the following EXCEPT a. Tax exemptions to attract new industries

b. c. d. e.

Southern railroad systems integrated with the North A more self-sufficient southern economy Social integration of the races Investment in manufacturing

a. b. c. d. e.

Enforcement of the Sherman antitrust act Relief for the unemployed No regulation of business Guarantee of a living wage for workers Subsidies for farmers

44. The Supreme Court upheld separate but equal accommodations for public transportation in the case of a. Plessy v. Ferguson b. Munn v. Illinois c. Wabash v. Illinois d. Dred Scott v. Sanford e. Brown v. Topeka 45. During the railroad expansion from 1860 to 1900, all of the following were true EXCEPT a. Numerous short lines were consolidated b. Four transcontinental lines were built with government help c. Technical innovations made railroad the most popular form of transportation d. No laws were passed to regulate the railroads e. The building of railroads was used by speculators for quick profit

51. The concept of the gospel of wealth is reflected in all of the following statements EXCEPT a. Each man had a duty to become rich b. Money should be distributed to the poor and the homeless c. The wealthy had a responsibility to use their wealth for the good of society d. Wealth was Gods reward for a life of virtue and hard work e. Philanthropy should support educational, health, and religious institutions 52. Which of the following accurately describes a trend in American society in the 1880s and 1890s? a. The middle class declined in numbers and influence b. The percentage of women in the labor force decreased c. Most married women worked to support their families d. The work place became more tightly organized and structured e. The wealthy avoided signs of self indulgence

46. In the 19th century, railroads formed pools in order to

a. b. c. d. e. Share equipment and terminals for greater efficiency Fix prices and divide business for greater profit Inflate the value of assets and profits before selling the stock Better serve farmers in remote rural areas Increase competition by dividing up large companies into smaller ones

47. Which of the following was not considered a proper

function of government in the late 19th century? a. Protection of private property with state or federal troops b. Distribution of public lands to private corporations c. Protection of American industry against foreign competition d. Use of court injunctions to stop workers strikes e. Protection of workers from unfair labor practices

48. The U.S. economy in the late 19th century was

a. b. c. d. e. characterized by all the following EXCEPT Consolidation of business into trusts Technological innovations Acceptance of unions and collective bargaining Growing concentration of wealth Control of industries by bankers

53. The most effective and enduring labor union in the postCivil War era a. Championed worker cooperatives b. Supported a broad program of social reforms c. Adopted socialist and anarchist ideas about government d. Accepted both skilled and unskilled workers as members e. Focused on such goals as higher wages and shorter hours for skilled workers

54. Which of the following was NOT true of the American

Labor Movement in the late 19th century? a. Labors rights were protected by laws of congress b. A number of major strikes were defeated by business and government c. Some unions tried to organize both skilled and unskilled workers. d. Middle-class Americans often concluded that unions were radial and violent e. Immigrants were often used as strikebreakers 55. Which of the following is a correct statement about immigration from 1890-1914 a. The number of immigrants declined because of restricted quota laws

49. The decisions of the Supreme Court in the late 19th

a. b. c. d. e. century most often Favored corporations Favored labor unions Avoiding cases involving labor disputes Protected consumers Supported government regulation of business

50. Social Darwinists would most likely to support which of the following?

b. c. d. e.

Most of the immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe Most immigrants of this period were readily accepted because of their education and wealth Workers from Latin America were excluded from immigrating by federal laws Labor unions supported the rights of Chinese immigrants

fortunesprogress is not real and cannot be permanent. The above statement was written by a. Dwight Moody b. Anthony Comstock c. Henry George d. Charles W. Eliot e. Carry Nation 62. Changes in education between 1865 and 1900 included all of the following EXCEPT a. Introduction of the elective system in some colleges b. Establishment of land grant colleges and universities c. Introduction of Kindergartens. d. Increased educational opportunities for women. e. Increased emphasis on classical curriculum 63. All of the following contributed to the growth of sports and entertainment in the late-19th-cantury EXCEPT a. Puritan ethic and Victorian values b. Improvements in transportation c. Gradual reduction of working hours d. Bachelor subculture e. Advertising in the popular press

56. Which of the following groups were NOT included among the new immigrants of the nineteenth century a. Russian Jews escaping religious persecution b. Italian peasants c. Greeks, Slovaks, and Poles d. Scandinavian farmers e. Unemployed Europeans seeking factory jobs in U.S. cities 57. All of the following characterized Americas large cities in the last decades of the nineteenth century EXCEPT a. Outbreaks of deadly diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis b. Transportation limited to the central business district c. Crowded tenements d. Increasing segregation of social groups by income e. Poor treatment of water, sewage, and waste 58. Which of the following were most likely to help immigrants adjust to city life in the late 19th century? a. Politicians from Tammany Hall b. Followers of social Darwinists c. Members of the American protective Association d. Lawmakers in Congress e. Employers in major industries 59. Settlement houses were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT a. Located in poor working-class and immigrant neighborhoods b. Staffed by college-educated, middle-class men and women c. Took little interest in legislative reforms d. Taught English to immigrants e. Helped to educate immigrant children 60. Which of the following best accounts for the success of Standard Oil? a. its corporate structure--known as vertical integration--allowed the company to grow tremendously b. its scientists developed processes for refining oil more efficiently. c. it bought out the Erie Railroad in order to keep transportation charges low. d. it was one of the first companies to invest heavily in advertising. e. a gradual end to the wage system and the reorganization of society on cooperative principles 61. This association of poverty with progress is the great enigma of our times So long as all increased wealth which modern progress brings goes but to build up great

64. Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the government should own and operate the railroads in the interests of the people. The telegraph and telephone, like the post office system, being a necessity for the transmission of news, should be owned and operated by the government in the interests of the people. The passage above is most likely from which of the following a. The Interstate Commerce Act b. Grover Clevelands annual message to congress c. The platform of the republican party d. The platform of the Populist party e. The Sherman Antitrust Act

65. During the Gilded Age, at the end of the 19th century, the
question that received the LEAST attention from the Democratic and Republican parties was a. Tariffs b. Regulation of big business c. Money, Greenbacks, and silver d. Agrarian discontent e. Equality for women and minorities 66. The origins of the womens rights movement in the U.S. may be traced to the a. Seneca Falls Convention

b. c. d. e.

Niagara Movement National Womans Party Temperance movement Outbreak of WWI

67. The economic policy that looked at colonies to provide raw materials, trade, and riches was called a. Mercantilism b. Manifest destiny c. Gospel of wealth d. Dollar diplomacy e. Imperialism 68. In his interpretations of the Constitution, Chief Justice John Marshall consistently stressed the importance of a. Individual rights b. Balancing state and federal power c. Establishing judicial review d. Strict construction e. A strong central government 69. With the Revolution of 1800, the Democratic-Republican and Thomas Jefferson gained control of the national government from the Federalists and a. Ended neutrality in foreign policy b. Repealed excise and whiskey taxes c. Eliminated the National Bank d. Restructured the Supreme Court e. Stopped debt repayment

73. Which of the following political developments during the age of Jackson did the LEAST to promote democracy? a. Party nominating conventions b. kitchen cabinet c. universal manhood suffrage d. popular vote for presidential electors e. rotation of officeholders and spoils system 74. Which of the following sources would be most useful In studying the development of religious freedom during the colonial period? a. Massachusetts Circular Letter b. Act of Toleration c. Halfway Covenants d. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut e. John Lockes theory of natural law 75. It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. In defending the rights of the common people during his first term, President Andrew Jackson used these words as part of a message regarding the a. Bank of the United States charter veto b. Nullification crisis c. Tariff of Abominations d. Supreme Courts Indian removal decision e. Maysville road veto 76. Reconstruction after the Civil War ended with the a. Presidential election of 1876 b. Impeachment of Andrew Johnson c. Passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th constitutional amendments d. Rise of the Ku Klux Klan e. Passage of the civil rights act of 1866

70. Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute was the rallying cry by Americans in response to a. German submarine attacks b. Stamp Act c. British impressments d. XYZ affair e. Barbary pirates 71. Which of the following is a correct statement about Abraham Lincolns primary goal at the beginning of the Civil War? a. Emancipate the slaves b. Ensure federal supremacy over states rights c. Maintain Republican party control of Congress d. Unite the North and the West e. Restore the Union 72. Leading up to the Civil War, all of the following increased tensions between the North and South EXCEPT a. Attack on Senator Charles Sumner b. Fugitive Slave Act c. Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin d. Rise of the Know-Nothing Party e. John Browns Raid

77. One of the most important actions of Congress preceding

the Civil War was the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, which resulted in a. Permitting popular sovereignty to decide whether slavery was to be permitted in the territories b. Strengthening the Missouri Compromise c. Uniting the Democratic party d. Increased support for Stephan Douglas campaign for President e. Basic agreement between most northerners and southerners 78. In the 1840s, President James Polk added territory and secured American borders though separate successful diplomatic negotiations with a. Mexico and Great Britain b. Mexico and Spain c. Great Britain and Cuba d. Canada and Mexico e. Spain and Great Britain 79. The issue that figured most prominently in the nullification crisis during Jacksons presidency was a. States rights b. Slavery

c. d. e.

Political party rivalries Tariff fairness Sectionalism

80. The greatest achievements of the government under the Article of Confederation was its establishment of a. a bicameral legislature b. a system for orderly settlement of the West c. general postwar prosperity d. long term section harmony e. a termination date for the international slave trade