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The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model of Instruction

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The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model of Instruction


Research paper from UCLA

The Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model of Instruction

OBJECTIVES As a result of studying the contents of this chapter and the successful completion of the accompanying exercises and activities, you should be able to: 1. define, in general terms, the concept of learning styles 2. describe the relationship between the principles and the organization and use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model of instruction 3. list and describe the main characteristics of a classroom that employs use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model 4. discuss the impact that the use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model will have on the following instructional elements: the role of the students, the role of the teacher, the physical arrangement of classrooms, the materials and i d d d h f h l i k d k b h d
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equipment needed, and the nature of the learning tasks undertaken by the student. 5. cite and discuss the instructional planning in relationship to daily lesson plans, use of instructional objectives, student assessment, and progress monitoring that will have to be made to effectively use the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model. 6. develop a series of lesson plans for a subject or course that reflect the use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model 7. describe in detail your vision of a typical class period using the course syllabus you developed for the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model INTRODUCTION TO LEARNING STYLES Learning Styles is a popular and sometimes controversial approach to instruction that provides teachers with an organized system for the application of individualized instruction in their classrooms. The basic assumptions are quite simple - and quite appealing. All children can learn, but not all children learn in the same ways. Different children learn best in different ways and there is no one approach to instruction that fits all children. Consideration of different styles of learning should be made as instruction is designed and implemented. As the student population in our public school classrooms increasingly becomes more diverse, and as many students, particularly culturally different students, struggle to keep up, educational reforms involving a learning styles approach to instruction are spreading. Most educators readily agree that people learn differently. However, moving from that simple and basic assumption to the development and implementation of an agreed upon theory-based instructional model that is supported by the research and professional literature has been difficult. Many educators advocate a learning styles approach to instruction, and there are several learning style approaches in use today. In this chapter we will present the Learning Styles Model developed by Rita and Kenneth Dunn. The Dunn and Dunn approach is one of the most widely used models of teaching today. However, before we focus specifically on the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model, we would like to briefly review learning style models in general to set the stage for an in-depth review of the Dunn and Dunn Model.

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Major Learning Styles Models There are a number of definitions of learning styles. Practitioners surveyed by the American Association of School Administrators seemed to agree that "learning styles refers to the ways individual students learn best" (page 12, AASA, 1991). A more complex and comprehensive definition is provided by a National Association of Secondary School Principals (ASSP) task force formed to study the concept of learning styles The task force defined learning style as: "the composite of characteristic cognitive, affective, and physiological factors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how a learner perceives, interacts with, and responds to the learning environment. It is demonstrated in that pattern of behavior and performance by which an individual approaches educational experiences. Its basis lies in the structure of neural organization and personality which both molds and is molded by human development and the learning experiences of home, school, and society (Keefe & Languis, 1983)" Three of the most popular learning styles models are the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model, McCarthy's 4 MAT System, and Gregoric's Mediation Abilities Model. Unfortunately, these three approaches have been developed independent of each other - and each with little recognition of the others' work. Figure 6.1 presents the developers, the theory base, and the instructional emphasis for each of three models. Figure 1 - Learning Styles Models
Developer Anthony Gregoric, Katherine Butler: The Mediation Abilities Model Theory Basis Mediation Ability: The identification and use of four ability channels of concrete sequential thinking, abstract sequential thinking, abstract random thinking, and concrete random thinking Instructional Emphasis Recognition that teachers as well as students bring individual styles to the instructional setting. Emphasis is on individual awareness of "mediation abilities" and accommodation of these styles in classrooms. Identification of key learning styles of each student and matching instruction and learning activities with each student's styles. Learning style elements are identified across five categories:

Rita Dunn, Kenneth Dunn, Marie Carbo:

Cognitive Style and Brain Lateralization Theory: A Diagnostic-Prescriptive approach using a

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The Learning Styles Model

framework of 21 specific styles

categories: Environmental, Emotional, Sociological, Physiological, and Psychological (Cognitive Processing)

Bernice McCarthy: The 4 MAT System

Brain Lateralization and Cognitive Style Theory used as a basis for identification Curriculum and instructional activities are designed to of individual styles along two continuums: provide instruction for all Perception and Processing result in four students across each of the four major learning styles. major learning styles of Imaginative Learners, Analytical Learners, Common Sense Learners, and Dynamic Learners.

The Mediation Abilities Model grew out of Anthony Gregoric's interest and study of individual differences and how these differences have an impact on the individual's life. Gregoric theorized that individuals approach life tasks primarily using two ability continuums as mediators for interacting and learning: How you perceive tasks and activities and how you order tasks and activities. Within different people, each of these two mediation abilities manifest themselves along a continuum. Perception abilities may vary on a continuum from concrete perceptions to abstract perceptions. Ordering abilities will vary along a continuum from random ordering to sequential ordering. Mediation abilities theory also places an emphasis on the individual's understanding of his or her styles (Butler, 1985). In application, the Mediation Abilities Model provides the foundation for identifying both teacher and student learning styles. Once a teacher fully understands her or his learning style, instructional procedures are selected to accommodate or to reinforce this natural style. The 4 Mat Systems approach to the application of learning styles emphasizes the development and use of a structured curriculum that is designed around the understanding of learning styles. McCarthy's 4 MAT curriculum system is built on David Kolb's theory that individuals learn new information and/or approach new situations in one of two ways-through feeling or through thinking (AASA, 1991). These two main dimensions of learning are further divided into four major learning styles - imaginative learners, analytic learners, common sense learners, and dynamic learners. McCarthy translated Kolb's theory into practice. The 4 MAT System promotes instruction that provides all students an opportunity to learn using all four styles one at a time

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opportunity to learn using all four styles, one at a time. Instruction is sequenced so that 25% of instructional and learning time is devoted to each of the four classifications of learning style. "In this way, all students, whatever their learning styles, get a chance to "shine" 25% of the time. That is not possible in most schools today. Only the Twos get the kind of teaching they need. The other three types are expected to learn in the Two Model" (pg. 47, McCarthy, 1987). In this quote, the "Twos" that McCarthy is referring to are the Analytic Learners. In summary, each of the three main approaches to learning styles instruction - Dunn and Dunn's Learning Styles Model, Gregoric's Mediation Abilities Model, and McCarthy's 4 MAT System - have several aspects in common. Each recognizes the need to address individual differences in learners. Each suggests that more learning takes place as a result of individualized and small group learning activities than through large group instruction. Each advocates that to be effective, instruction must be organized to accommodate a variety of learners and learning styles. And, finally, each model has been adopted and implemented in a variety of school systems across the country. BACKGROUND OF THE DUNN AND DUNN LEARNING STYLES MODEL The Learning Styles Model described in this chapter has been developed over the last twenty-five years by Rita and Kenneth Dunn. Rita Dunn is a professor and Director of the Center for Study of Learning and Teaching Styles at St. Johns University, New York. Kenneth Dunn is a professor and coordinator of Administration and Supervision Programs at Queens College, City University of New York. In 1979, under Rita and Kenneth Dunn's leadership, St. Johns University established the Center for Learning and Teaching Styles to provide research, curriculum development, in service training and public service information about learning and teaching styles and their application in instruction. The Dunn's combined publications include 12 books and more than 250 book chapters, articles, research papers, and monographs (Dunn and Dunn, 1993). As the model has developed and gained popularity, the National Association of Secondary Principals (NASSP), the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD), and the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) have promoted the use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model through their publications and workshops. To encourage the adoption and use of learning styles concepts in the public schools, the NASSP and St. John's University have sponsored the Learning Styles Network which publishes a newsletter and provides information and assistance to school administrators and teachers interested in using learning styles in their schools. In general terms, the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model utilizes a clinical or diagnostic teaching framework. The model is designed and planned based on the theory that individual students learn best in different ways. C tl d ti h t t hi dl i i t id tif th ( d liti f t l )
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Consequently, a productive approach to teaching and learning is to identify the ways (modalities, preferences, or styles) in which an individual student learns best and then use that information to plan instructional procedures and arrange learning situations to accommodate the student's individual learning preferences or styles. When considering the major elements of instructional situations, as presented in Chapter 2, the dimensions of the instructional situation affected most are the physical setting or organization of the classroom and the instructional materials and procedures. Changes in the way classrooms are organized and in the way instruction is presented are made to accommodate each student's individual preferences . The model is based on the assumptions that (1) it is possible to identify individual student preferences for learning environments and (2) it is possible to use a variety of instructional procedures and to modify the instructional environment to match the preferences. As a result, the student will improve his or her ability to learn. Theoretical Foundations The Learning Styles Model as developed by Dunn and Dunn is built on the theory that each individual has a unique set of biological and developmental characteristics. These unique characteristics impact substantially on how a person learns new information and skills. The belief that individual students learn differently is well established in the educational literature (Good & Brophy, 1986). If the instructional situation is organized in a manner that takes advantaged of the individual's learning strengths, the rate and quality of learning will improve. The Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model draws upon two basic theories - cognitive style (Kagen & Kogen, 1970)) and brain lateralization (Orstein & Thompson, 1984). Two main dimensions or categories of cognitive style have been identified; conceptual tempo and field dependenceindependence (Good & Brophy, 1986). Conceptual tempo refers to a continuum of thinking style from impulsive thinking to reflective thinking that is observed as an individual responds to a variety of situations or learning tasks (Kagen & Kogan, 1970). It is possible for an individual to have a thinking style at one of these two extremes and it is also possible for an individual to have a thinking style that is somewhere in between these two extreme styles of thinking. The concept of field dependence-independence is closely related to the concept of global-analytic thinking styles. Again a continuum of thinking ability is used. On one end of the continuum are individuals who perceive information in a holistic and/or simultaneous manner (global thinkers), while learners at the other end of the cognitive style continuum perceive information sequentially in independent parts (analytic thinkers). Growing out of her work in public and private school settings, Rita Dunn became interested in the development of a process to identify the unique learning preferences of students. Her efforts in this area led to the development of the

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p y q gp p Learning Styles Inventory which she used to identify individual learning styles. The Learning Styles Inventory identifies five major categories of stimuli sources and twenty-one learning style elements (Dunn, Dunn & Price, 1984). Later, the Reading Styles Inventory was developed by Carbo and Dunn (1986) to identify specific learning styles related to reading instruction and learning to read. Through the years the learning styles approach to instruction has gained in popularity and is being used widely in schools, not without its critiques, however. Some professionals question the use of the learning styles model - citing the vagueness of the underlying concept of learning styles. Curry (1987; 1991), in extensive reviews of the cognitive and learning styles literature, suggests that learning styles as used by Dunn and Dunn is actually made up of three distinct "sub-constructs": (1) instructional preference, (2) information process style, and (3) cognitive personality style. Although supporting the reliability and validity of the Learning Style Inventory, Curry suggests that some of the learning style elements - the psychological elements of Global/Analytic, Hemisphericity, and Impulsive/Reflective - are not compatible with the construct of instructional preference (Curry, 1987). Although many educators support the concept of learning styles and have supported the implementation of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model, there is substantial concern with the conceptual framework and theoretical underpinnings of the model. In the early 1980s, the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) appointed a task force to study the concept of learning styles with the goal of improving on the theoretical framework for the use of learning styles approaches in schools and to develop a psychometrically sound instrument to assess style (Keefe & Ferrell, 1990). As a result of these efforts, the NASSP has produced a framework of learning styles that is similar, but varies some from the Dunn and Dunn learning styles framework. The Goals of the Dunn and Dunn Model The Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model has been developed for use across grade levels to improve the academic performance of all students, and in particular, low achieving students. The general goal of the model is to improve the effectiveness of instruction through the identification and matching of individual learning styles with appropriate learning opportunities. Although the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles model was originally designed to be used primarily at the middle school and high school levels, it is being used frequently at all grade levels, . The development of the model originally grew out of concerns about the lack of achievement of "educationally disadvantaged students." In the State of New York, many public school students from poor, impoverished home situations were not progressing as expected. In 1967, Rita Dunn was asked by the New York State Department of Education to help design and direct a program that would improve the effectiveness of instruction for students who were not demonstrating appropriate progress in academic
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improve the effectiveness of instruction for students who were not demonstrating appropriate progress in academic achievement. For many schools that have adopted the learning styles model the decision has been based on an interest in increasing academic achievement of their student population, and in particular, improving performance of low achieving students. The use of the learning styles model requires teachers to reorganize the instructional environment and instructional procedures to change from lecture dominated methods of teaching to flexible classrooms that facilitate several simultaneous approaches to learning. THE ORGANIZATION AND USE OF THE MODEL To understand how the use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model will affect you as a classroom teacher, you need to understand how the model is organized and how it is used for instruction and learning. The major components of the model include (a) the model's principles, (b) the learning style elements, (c) the identification of learning styles, and (d) the model's impact on the dimensions of the instructional situation. As we discussed in Chapter 2, consideration of the dimensions of the instructional situation will include how the use of the model affects what the teacher does, what the student does, the organization of the physical setting or the classroom, the nature of the instructional procedures and materials, and the instructional tasks. The Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model uniquely affects each of these dimensions and, in turn, determines the knowledge and skills that you, the classroom teacher, will need to master for effective use of the model. The Underlying Principles The Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model identifies several main principles or theoretical assumptions. In the use of the model, teachers, administrators and staff must be committed to the following principles: 1. Most individuals can learn. 2. Instructional environments, resources, and approaches respond to diversified learning style strengths. 3. Everyone has strengths, but different people have very different strengths. 4. Individual instructional preferences exist and can be measured reliably. 5. Given responsive environments, resources, and approaches, students attain statistically higher achievement and attitude test scores in matched, rather than mismatched treatments.

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6. Most teachers can learn to use learning styles as a cornerstone of their instruction. 7. Many students can learn to capitalize on their learning style strengths when concentrating on new or difficult academic material. (Dunn and Dunn, 1993) As we review the principles identified by the model developers, it's clear that some of the principles are unique to the model while others are not. The principle that most individuals can learn is not unique to this model. In fact, this principle has been incorporated into most of the current school reform models and efforts. The principle, as stated, needs elaboration. Of course most, if not all, individuals can learn. Some of the obvious questions that this principle stimulate are: What can most individuals learn? How much can most individuals learn? Under what conditions can most individuals learn? At what pace can most individuals learn? When the statement that "most or all children can learn" is used as an underlying principle supporting an instructional model or a philosophy of education, what the users are saying is that with the right kinds of instruction and expectations for success, most children can learn much more than would be the case without appropriate instruction and expectations. The third principle-everyone has strengths, but different people have very different strengths-is also a widely accepted assumption and is not unique to the application of learning styles. All the other principles, however, are unique to the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model. The Learning Style Elements The use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model involves two main types of activities, (1) the identification of individual learning styles, and (2) the planning and implementation of instruction to accommodate individual students' learning style strengths. Underlying both of these sets of activities is a series of 21 "learning styles elements" as defined by Dunn and Dunn (Dunn, Dunn and Price, 1984; Carbo, Dunn & Dunn, 1986; Dunn & Dunn, 1993) . Chart 6.1-Dunn and Dunn's Learning Style Elements

Environmental Stimuli Preferences

Sound Preference Light Preference Temperature Preference Design Preference

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Emotional Stimuli Preferences

Motivation Preference Persistence Preference Responsibility Preference Structure Preference Self Preference Pair Preference Peers/Team Preference Adult Preference Varied Preference Perceptual Preference Intake Preference Time Preference Mobility Preference Global/Analytic Style Hemisphericity Preferences Impulsive/Reflective Preferences

Sociological Stimuli Preferences

Physiological Stimuli Preferences

Psychological Stimuli Preferences

The 21 elements are grouped across five "stimuli" categories, environmental preferences, emotional preferences, sociological preferences, physiological preferences, and psychological (cognitive processing) preferences. Each of the 21 elements, presented in Chart 1, is described below. Environmental Stimuli Sound Element - This element refers to a student's preference for background sound while learning. To what extent do you prefer silence, or background noise or music while concentrating or studying? Light Element - The Light Element refers to the level of light that is preferred while studying and learning. This element explores the extent to which a student prefers soft, dim or bright light while concentrating and studying.. Temperature Element - What level of temperature do you prefer while involved in studying and/or other learning

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Temperature Element What level of temperature do you prefer while involved in studying and/or other learning activities? Preferences on this element may vary from a cool room or a warm room while studying or engaged in various learning activities. Design Element - The Design Element is associated with the room and furniture arrangements that the student prefers while learning. Do you prefer to study sitting in a traditional desk and chair? Or, do you like a more informal arrangement with different types of furniture - such as a couch, a reclining chair, or pillows and carpet on the floor? Emotional Stimuli Motivation Element - This element deals with the level and/or type of motivation the student has for academic learning. That is, the extent which a student is interested in school learning. Are you self-motivated (intrinsic), motivated through interest in, and contact with peers, or are you primarily motivated by adult feedback and reinforcement? Persistence Element - This element relates to the student's persistence on a learning or instructional task. The persistence preference relates to the student's attention span and ability to, or interest in, staying on one task at a time. Do you have a preference for working on one task until it is finished or do you prefer to work on a variety of tasks simultaneously? Responsibility Element - To what extent do you prefer to take responsibility for your own academic learning? This element involves the preference to work independently on assignments with little supervision, guidance or feedback. Do you prefer to work independently without an adult telling you how to proceed? Or, do you prefer to have frequent feedback and guidance? Structure Element - This element focuses on the student's preference, or lack of preference, for structured learning activities and tasks. Do you prefer being told exactly what the learning task is, how you should proceed and what is expected of you? Or do you prefer to be given an objective and then be left alone to decide what procedures or options you will use to obtain the objective? Sociological Stimuli Self Element - The Self Element relates to your preference for working on a learning task by yourself. When working on an assignment do you prefer to work alone or do you prefer working as member of a group? Some students prefer working on a learning task by themselves. Others may prefer working with someone else. With other students it may depend on the t pe of learning task
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depend on the type of learning task. Pair Element - This element relates to working together with one other student. Do you prefer working together with one other person as opposed to working as a member of a group? Some students may prefer working with one other student but not with a small group of students or alone. Peers and Team Elements - Do you like working as a member of a team or, do you prefer to complete a learning task by yourself? This element helps determine a student's preference for working with a small group of students with a lot of interaction, discussion and completing the task as a team. At the other end of this element is a preference to work alone. Adult Element - How do you react to working with an authority figure? Do you like to work together with an adult and/or teacher or do you react negatively to teacher or adult interaction during a task? This element relates to preference for interactions and guidance from an adult. Varied Element - This element refers to a preference for involvement in a variety of tasks while learning. Do you like routines or patterns or do you prefer a variety of procedures or activities while learning? Physiological Stimuli Perceptual Element - Learning by listening, viewing, or touching is the focus of this element. Do you prefer instruction and retain more information when the activities involve visual materials (viewing pictures, maps or reading), auditory activities (listening to tapes, lectures, music), or tactual and kinesthetic involvement, such as note taking, and/or working on projects that involve making things (i.e., science projects, storybooks, diaries, model building, etc.)? Intake Element - The Intake Element is concerned with the need to eat, drink, or chew while engaged in learning activities. Do you prefer to drink something while studying, such as a soft drink or coffee? Do you prefer to chew gum? Does munching on snacks help you concentrate? Time Element - This element is related to the concept of energy level at different times during the day. Do you prefer to work on a task that needs concentration in the early morning, late morning, early afternoon, late afternoon, or evening? Mobility Element - Can you sit still for a long period of time as long as you are interested in what you are doing, or do you prefer to move constantly - standing, walking, changing body positions? The Mobility Element is concerned with

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y p y g g g g yp y the extent to which you prefer to be moving your body, perhaps even unconsciously, while involved in a learning task. Psychological Stimuli Global-Analytic Element - This element relates to determining whether a student learns best when considering the total topic of study, or when approaching the task sequentially - one aspect at a time. Students that have a preference for global learning are concerned with the whole meaning and the end results. They need to start with an overview of the "big picture" before they deal with elements of the whole. Students who prefer an analytic style of learning prefer to learn one detail at a time in a meaningful sequence. Once they know all the parts, they put the parts together and comprehend the "big picture." Hemisphericity Element: The Hemisphericity Element is associated with left or right brain dominance. Left brain dominance individuals tend to be more analytic or sequential learners, while right brain dominance tends to be associated with simultaneous or global learners. This preference element overlaps with the Global/Analytic Element. Impulsive-Reflective Element: This element relates to the tempo of your thinking. Do you prefer to draw conclusions and make decisions quickly or do you prefer to take time to think about the various alternatives and evaluate each of the possible alternatives before making a decision? Variations in the Specific Learning Styles Elements Although the general premise of the existence of individual learning styles is widely accepted and, therefore, promotes the use of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model, there are a number of extensions and/or variations of the modelparticularly in relationship to the nature of the specific types of learning styles and how the elements are assessed. One extension of the Dunn's model development work was undertaken by a task force formed by the National Association of Secondary School Principals. The task force arrived at a revised set of learning styles elements. Instead of the five stimuli groupings and 21 learning style elements advocated in the Dunn and Dunn model, the NASSP identifies four categories and 23 elements. These are: 1. Cognitive/information processing elements of spatial, analytic, sequential processing, memory, simultaneous processing, discrimination, and verbal-spatial. 2. Study preferences of mobility, posture, persistence, sound, afternoon study time, and lighting.

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3. Perceptual responses of visual, emotive and auditory. 4. Instructional preferences of early morning time, late morning time, verbal risk, manipulative, grouping, and temperature. A number of schools and teachers who employ the use of a learning styles approach to instruction use the NASSP version of learning styles and the Learning Styles Profile, which grew out of the NASSP efforts. Identification of Individual Learning Styles A primary component of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles model is the process of identifying each student's individual learning style. How do we know what learning styles each student has or prefers? There are a number of different ways to determine an individual student's learning style. Guild and Garger (1986) identify five different approaches to assessing learning styles. These include the use of: (1) self-report inventories, (2) tests, (3) structured interviews, (4) observations of students during learning situations, and (5) an analysis of products produced by students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) and the Reading Styles Inventory (Dunn, Dunn & Price; Carbo & Dunn) are the assessment instruments recommended by the model developers. However, the Learning Styles Profile (Keefe & Monk, 1986) is also used extensively with learning style programs that are primarily based on the development work of the Dunns. Over the last 15 years several versions of the Learning Styles Inventory have been developed and used, including instruments for elementary, high school, and adult age levels (Guild and Garger, 1986). The latest version of the LSI is designed for students in grades 3 through 12 and contains 104 forced choice statements. The student reads each statement and then selects one of five choices in response to the statement. For example, the student reads a statement like, "Sound bothers me when I am studying." - and selects one of the following response choices : Strongly disagree, Disagree, Uncertain, Agree, or Strongly agree. The LSI cannot be hand scored. You must use one of two computer-assisted programs, available from the developers, to score the Inventory. The computer-assisted scoring programs also conduct an analysis of the results and provides a description of the individual's learning styles (Dunn and Dunn, 1993). With the use of the computer-assisted Reading Styles Inventory (Carbo, Dunn, & Price), you will receive a computer generated analysis of the administration of RSI that will give you a reading styles diagnosis and recommended

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strategies to teaching reading for the student. An excerpt from a report generated from the Reading Styles Inventory is shown below.
Diagnosis perceptual strengths poor auditory strengths excellent visual strengths strong tactual preferences Recommended Strategies for Teaching Reading limit listening activities that focus on decoding use visual aids: word flash cards, charts, board work use tactical activities: writing, typing, manipulatives combine reading with making/building/doing; use games RSI Manual p.21#27C p.22#28A p.22#29A p.23#30A

From a computer printout resulting from the administration of the Reading Styles Inventory (Carbo & Dunn, 1986) Some teachers that have implemented the general concepts involved with the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model have developed their own procedures for identifying each student's learning styles. Others have used the Learning Styles Profile, an instrument that grew out of the work of a task force formed by the National Association of Secondary School Principals. Believing in the learning style process, but concerned with the validity of the theoretical constructs underlying the use of current learning styles models, the NASSP formed a task force to develop a theoretically and psychometrically sound instrument to assess style (Keefe & Ferrell, 1990). After extensive development work, the NASSP task force standardized the final 126 item Profile using a normative sample of 5000 students across the United States. Subsequent reliability and validity studies suggest that the Learning Styles Profile is an improvement in the learning styles measurement process - both in terms of theoretical constructs underlying the measurement of learning styles and in the psychometric characteristics of the measurement procedures. The Dimensions of the Instructional Situation How does the use of the learning style model affect the instruction? Now that you are familiar with the model's principles, the learning style elements, and the process of identifying each student's learning styles, let's look at how the use of the model affects what you do as a teacher. We will also examine how the use of the model affects what the student does, how your classroom is organized, what instructional procedures and materials you will be using, and the nature of the instructional tasks encountered by the student. We will first give you a brief overview of these dimensions in Chart 6.2 followed by a discussion of what is involved in each of the dimensions.

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Chart 6.2 - Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model


Dimension of Instruction The Teacher The Dimension's Role   Helps students identify styles Organizes flexible classroom Develops/maintains learning resources Facilitates instruction Understands own learning styles Selects appropriate learning activities Responsible for completing tasks Monitors progress toward objectives Allows each student choices for learning Provides a variety of learning activities Provides an array of settings and grouping arrangements Variety of instructional activities leading to same objectives Designed/Developed by Teachers Selected by Students Teacher Designed and Facilitated Subject content determined by school Students responsible for mastery

The Student

Physical Setting

Instructional Procedures and Materials

Instructional Tasks

The Teacher When using the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model, the teacher's primary role in the instruction is that of the leader and facilitator of instruction. As a teacher, to effectively use the learning styles model as advocated by the Dunns, you must have the knowledge and skills to (a) understand and use the different learning style elements (i.e., perceptual preference, design preference, motivation preferences, etc.); (b) organize your classroom to support a variety of learning styles; (c) supervise the use measurement procedures to identify each of your student's learning styles; (d) identify, develop and maintain a variety of learning resources designed to match a variety of learning styles; and finally,(e) master the art of simultaneously maintaining and facilitating large group, small, group and individual instructional and learning activities.

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g One of the major tasks that the teacher using the learning styles model has is the identification of students' learning styles. As we discussed earlier, the Learning Styles Inventory or the Reading Styles Inventory are the two instruments that have been developed and used by the model developers. Because these instruments are computer scored and analyzed, it is not possible to provide you with the items in this book to learn and to practice with. The NASSP's Learning Styles Profile(Keefe & Monk, 1986) can be administered and scored directly. Items from the Learning Styles Profiles are included in the appendix to review and use in learning and practice exercises. Perhaps one of the most difficult tasks confronting the teacher using the model is the organization and maintenance of variety of learning options to allow students to select learning activities that are compatible with their learning styles. To facilitate the use of the adaptive learning environment approach to instruction, a number of alternative learning activities must be planned and developed that facilitate the student's mastery of the content and obtaining the instructional objectives associated with the course of studies. A variety of learning materials, packages, and projects that provides a rich resource "bank" is a key to the successful use of the model. The maintenance and use of a learning resource library allows students to become involved in the instructional decision making. The involvement of student in deciding how she or he will learn a task is, in our estimation, a critical key to the success of the model. The importance of this factor has not often been recognized. Regular and routine progress monitoring is also a major task of the teacher. A variety of continuous progress monitoring systems can be used to obtain performance information. The Student A major role of each pupil is developing an understanding of his/her learning preferences and then using this understanding for selecting available learning activities. It is the student's responsibility to monitor his/her progress and to obtain closure in meeting instructional objectives. According to teachers interviewed during site visits, the student's primary task is matching his or her learning preferences with the available learning options--with the end result in mind--accomplishing the learning objectives in the course. The student's opportunity to take ownership for decisions about how to be involved in instruction builds motivation and responsibility. Consequently, the student is motivated to follow through with the learning activities until the content is successfully learned. As a part of this process, students act as their own progress monitor and are in charge of controlling their own behavior. They must know their assignments in regular class and agree to follow through with the required work to demonstrate success. As a part of this process, each student is expected to be aware of his/her own strengths and weaknesses, using strengths to compensate for weaknesses. The Classroom Physical Setting

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As you walk into a classroom designed to facilitate a learning styles approach to instruction, there are visible and obvious characteristics that you will notice. The physical arrangement of the classroom and the general atmosphere are unique. Learning styles classrooms have a mixture of furniture and equipment arrangements different from the typical classroom with rows of student desks. The furniture configuration usually includes one or more tables that will accommodate small groups of students. Individual student desks will also be seen, but their arrangement depends on the particular classroom. In other areas of the room you may see easy chairs and/or carpets and lounging cushions. There is no one "best" room arrangement to accommodate the use of the learning styles model. Chart 6.3 illustrates one room arrangement that provides an area for large group direct instruction as well as several areas for independent work, work in pairs, and work in small groups. Chart 6.3 - A Learning Styles Classroom: Large group plus Several Areas (From Dunn & Dunn, 1993) The developers, Rita and Kenneth Dunn, recommend that teachers involve their students in redesigning the educational environment and during the redesign process they recommend that you consider: o whether or not you want a total or partial redesign o the use of a quiet, casual reading area where no talking is permitted o the use of a "den area" concept to establish small work areas o the use of an informal "living room area" o the use of learning stations, interest centers, game tables, and media corners (Dunn & Dunn, 1993). In classrooms we have visited, the room arrangement and the learning styles model appear to promote an atmosphere that reflects a friendly informality and at the same time there is a high level of student responsibility for on-task behavior. Mutual respect between teacher and students and among students is also observable. The Instructional Materials and Procedures As a teacher, use of the learning styles model means that you will spend a lot of time in selecting, developing, maintaining, organizing and cataloging a variety of instructional resources and materials as well as a variety of lesson

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plans. Some students will need instructional resources and materials that are designed for global learners while others will benefit most from materials and resources designed for analytic learners. Along the perceptual dimension, some students will need materials designed for tactual or kinesthetic learners while others will respond to materials designed for visual or auditory learners. As you build a library of instructional resources and materials, it is important to keep two criteria in mind. First, try to prescriptively accommodate the different learning styles that may emerge from the assessment of each of your students' learning styles. Second, the instructional materials should be designed to facilitate successful mastery of the sequence of instructional objectives for your grade or course. Dunn and Dunn recommend the use of specially designed material and/or procedures across five main categories. We will briefly introduce you to these recommendations to provide you with initial guidance and suggestions for teaching using a learning styles approach. However, for an in- depth guide to the development and use of instructional procedures and materials, we recommend that you use one of the two learning styles "how to" books by Rita and Kenneth Dunn: Teaching Elementary Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles (1992) or Teaching Secondary Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles (1993). Teaching Global Learners Begin lessons with an "anticipatory set" that looks at the topic from a broad perspective. In an Algebra class for example, you might have a computer programmer as a guest to discuss how computer logic is a form of algebraic equations. Or, begin a unit on the Great Lakes region of the United States by reading the award winning children's book, Paddle To The Sea , a story about a wooden carving that floated around the Great Lakes, down the St. Lawrence Sea Way and finally reaching the Atlantic Ocean. Organizing students into discovery learning groups is also a technique recommended for global learners. Rather than, step-by-step, telling students what you want them to know about a topic, let them learn from a group discovery process. Assign a group of three students a topic of study and, using reference materials, ask them to summarize the major aspects of the topic. Global learners generally prefer to be involved in concrete learning tasks which translate into lessons that involve "hands-on" projects. Learning activities may include drawing graphs, writing a report, playing an instructional game, or working on a class project. The main consideration is the use of instructional activities that involve the students in working on a product that reflects the content of what is to be learned. Teaching Analytic Learners Begin by specifying your expectations for the students. Provide a written outline of the sequence of topics you will be presenting. Typical course outlines specify the dates and sequence of the topics to be covered in the course. Most courses at the college and university level are designed for analytic learners because that's how the professors were

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courses at the college and university level are designed for analytic learners because that s how the professors were taught and they are very comfortable with this style of instruction. An analytic approach to instruction is so prevalent in higher education that the large majority of faculty members organize their course outlines in a structured, sequential manner. Other instructional features that you may use effectively with analytic learners include (a) use of charts and maps to illustrate the relationships between the topics to be learned, (b) provide detailed written directions for all assignments and projects, (c) use of direct instructional procedures with formal lectures, notes on the chalkboard, and/or slide presentations, and (d) frequent testing and feedback to the student. Small-Group Instructional Techniques Small group instructional activities are recommended for students who have learning styles preferences that include responsible, motivated, peer-oriented, and persistent. Some of the recommended small-group instructional procedures include the circle of knowledge technique, team learning, brainstorming, use of case studies, and simulations and role playing, Clearly, students with learning styles that indicate a preference for small group and peer oriented learning activities would prefer classrooms that use many of the cooperative learning activities that are described in Chapter 4. The cooperative learning instructional techniques that you learn to use as you work on Chapter 4 can appropriately be applied to use with students who have indicated peer and team learning preferences as well as for students who indicate that they are positively motivated by their peers. Tactual/Kinesthetic (Hands-on) Learning Resources The research on the effectiveness of learning style approaches to instruction suggest that many of the students that have a record of school failure are students who are tactual and/or kinesthetic learners (Dunn & Dunn, 1993). Multi-sensory and/or tactile oriented instructional materials involve the student in seeing, touching, and doing. One technique is the use of task cards. One type of task card is a small card with a question on the front side and the answer on the back side. Other tactile / kinesthetic techniques used in classrooms using the learning style model include programmed learning sequences, independent study activity packages, and multisensory instructional packages. The Instructional Tasks The curriculum content, that is the instructional goals and objectives, is not affected by the adoption of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles model. The major emphasis of this model is on the organization of the classroom and the use of optional instructional activities and procedures. The model has been used effectively at the elementary, middle and high school levels as well as across subject matter or content areas. Because of the individual nature of the instruction and l i it i i t tt l l ti l t t th t d t th t ti d/ bj ti i t d ith
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learning, it is very important to clearly articulate to the students the expectations and/or objectives associated with a particular subject. Accordingly, successful use of the model must include some form of continuous progress monitoring that involves four important components: (a) a clear series of measurable instructional objectives, (b) the frequent use of curriculum-based measurement procedures, such as teacher made criterion-referenced tests and product portfolios (c) a record-keeping system to keep track of each student's progress, and (d) a system of reporting progress to students and parents. Many of the procedures discussed in Chapter 3 incorporated in the Learning For Mastery Model can be used in combination with a learning styles approach. A Typical Learning Styles Class When you walk into a Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles classroom you will immediately notice differences in the physical arrangement of the room and the classroom atmosphere. You may see small and/or large groups of students working together. Other students will be working independently at their desks. The teacher will be involved in a combination of activities. She may be providing direct instruction to a group of students or she may be giving guidance and feedback to individual students, one at a time. Do not be surprised to see a very informal atmosphere, with some students, sitting, lounging or laying on the floor with pillows - using writing tablets and/or other instructional materials. Hands on projects are frequently in progress, with one student or a group of students, working on constructing a product related to the topic of study. It soon becomes clear that each student is on their own to decide how they will be involved in working on the topic that is being studied. Even though you may notice more movement and more noise than in most classrooms, there is a high level of on-task behavior on the part of the students. To continue with the development of a clear picture of what a Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model classroom actually looks like-in terms of classroom activities, let's visit a classroom where the model is being used. In Sharrie Johnson's 12th grade Calculus class at a High School in Texas, the use of the learning styles model was clearly visible. A group of six students were seated together at a large table close to a chalkboard where Ms. Johnson was demonstrating to them the steps to follow in working through a calculus problem. Seated nearby, at individual desks, four students were working independently, while in another part of the room two other students were laying on a carpet with lounging pillows and writing tablets, working independently on calculus problems. Ms. Johnson frequently checked the work of the students at the group table, and on occasion, would briefly check the progress of the other students in the room. From time to time, students working individually attended to Ms. Johnson's lesson either from their location at an individual desk or from the lounging area. Occasionally a student would join the group table to review a specific aspect of the problem under study. After the class was over, I spent some time talking to Ms. Johnson about the

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p y , p g implementation and use of the adaptive learning environment approach to instruction in the high school. She indicated that she attended the Learning Styles workshop at the St. Johns training program in New York several years ago and has been using the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model and philosophy daily in all her classes. She feels that math teachers are the most difficult to convert to using the adaptive learning environment approach to instruction because math is seen as very concrete and structured and therefore, must be taught using traditional structured instruction. However, she has found the use of the learning styles approach to instruction to be very effective. She allows students to select the procedures to use to achieve mastery of the content objectives. A number of application oriented instructional projects have been developed for students with learning styles that support experiential activities--involving visual, tactual and kinesthetic activities. Ms. Johnson believes that the most critical learning styles elements are the sociological elements and the perceptual-motor element. She uses projects that involve the learner in a meaningful activity. An example of this type of project involved pool playing. With this project the student has to demonstrate how calculus can be used to calculate the impact angles needed to assure hitting the ball into the pool table pocket. Instruction in Ms. Johnson's room and many of the other rooms at the High School involved a variety of learning or instructional methods. These methods included the use of individual instructional projects, small group projects, individual use of audio tapes, video tapes, textbook readings, cooperative learning groups, individual student tutoring, large group instruction, and independent study Application with Students with Disabilities The instructional flexibility advocated by the model will facilitate meeting the needs of students with disabilities within the regular class program. Although a special education support system will be needed for students with disabilities, the learning styles models facilitates the potential for the regular classroom to be "the most appropriate" instructional setting in relationship to meeting the students' unique needs. The individualized approach to instruction and learning that underpins the learning styles model allows students who are at different levels of achievement to clearly focus their efforts on appropriate objectives and activities. It is recommend that the student's IEP be used as a guideline for planning the instructional tasks for the students that have been identified as having a disability. Although you, as the regular class teacher should be responsible for the instructional planning and the instruction of students with disabilities that are placed in your classroom, you should receive assistance from a special teacher with the selection, collection and development of instructional resources that match the learning styles of the student. The special teacher should also be available to provide direct instruction, tutoring, coaching, assistance with continuous progress monitoring, and the evaluation of the special students' progress.

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EVIDENCE OF EFFECTIVENESS Some educators believe that the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles approach to instruction has been over commercialized, with the model developers, test publishers, and training consultants benefiting commercially from the needs of public schools. This concern has stimulated more than the usual amount of attention on the question of the model's effectiveness. Although few professional educators would argue that individual learning differences do not exist, there is some concern that many of the specific learning style elements addressed in the model are merely artifacts of the learning styles identification process and that the underlying constructs have not been supported by research evidence. As mentioned earlier, a construct analysis by Curry (1987) and the development of a learning style paradigm by NASSP have provided at least partial support for the validity of the learning styles construct. After an exhaustive review of the measurement instruments used to determine learning styles, Curry suggests that the Learning Styles Instrument is one of the few instruments of this nature that has established sufficient reliability and validity to support its use. In one review on learning styles as applied to reading, Stahl (1988) states that the "research on reading styles is not present sufficiently rigorous or valid." In another review, Kavelle and Forness (1987) conclude that there is no evidence that "modality instruction", that is, instruction that is geared toward the measured visual or auditory strengths of a student, facilitates academic learning. Research investigating the effectiveness of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model does not lack volume. Rita and Kenneth Dunn report over 250 references on the implementation and effectiveness of the model (1993). One of the more convincing surveys of research on learning style was conducted by Dunn, Beaudry and Klavas (1989). They summarized twenty-four specific studies that basically support the effectiveness of the learning styles model. Learning Styles and Instructional Environments. A number of studies have been conducted examining the impact of matching instruction with learning preferences associated with the classroom environment. Almost all of these students demonstrate that students perform significantly higher on academic tasks as a result of the use of the learning styles model. Studies investigating sound preferences (DeGegoris, 1986); mobility preferences (Miller, 1985; Stiles, 1985; Dell aValle, 1984); formality/informality preferences (Hodges, 1985; Stiles, 1985; Shea, 1983); lighting preferences (Krimsky, 1982); and intake preferences (MacMurren, 1985) all reported a significant impact on academic performance when a students' preference of a specific element was considered during instruction. Only one study, investigating temperature preferences (Murrain, 1983), demonstrated no significant differences as a result of matching preference and instruction.

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Learning Styles and Perceptual Preference. Eight studies found that when students were taught with instructional resources that both matched and mismatched their preferred perceptual modalities (auditory, visual, tactile), they achieved statistically higher test scores in modalitymatched treatments. In addition, when children were taught with multisensory resources, initially through their most preferred modality and then through their secondary modality, scores increased even more (Martini, 1986; Kroon, 1985; Jasonbeck, 1984; Wheller, 1983; Weinberg, 1983; Carbo, 1980; Wheeler, 1980; Urbschat, 1987). Learning Styles and Sociological Preferences. In four out of five studies identifying students with sociological preferences (learning alone, with peers, in teams, with adults, with media, or in several ways), the students achieved significantly higher test scores when instructional conditions were matched and significantly lower test scores when instructional conditions were mismatched (Giannitti, 1988; Miles, 1987). Some critics have pointed out that many of the studies supporting the effectiveness of the model have been in the form of doctoral dissertations. Although some of these studies have received national awards from professional associations, there is concern that they have not been through a rigorous peer review process (Curry, 1991). On the other hand, it may be argued that doctoral dissertations have the benefit of frequent committee review. Good and Brophy (1986) suggest that educators should view the support, or lack of support, of theoretical constructs underlying classroom practices from the perspective of the practitioner. The educational implications drawn from the typical comparison group, quasi-experimental research is, in most instances, less than conclusive. Regardless of the evidence, or lack of evidence, supporting meaningful theoretical linkages between classroom organization and biological and developmental learning preferences, there are many good pedagogical and logical reasons for advocating that students be taught using a variety of methods and classroom settings (Good & Brophy, 1986) Most schools that have adopted the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model have established less rigorous, but meaningful, program evaluation efforts. Many of these schools report a positive impact on such variables as students' grades, attendance, and state-wide assessment programs. At one high school visited, in addition to positive changes in grades of underachieving students, comments made by staff members concerning the effectiveness of the learning styles model included the following: 1. One of the most visible outcomes has been the improvement of classroom discipline. 2. Out of 69 students identified as learning disabled, only two failed a class. This was in stark contrast to over half of

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2. Out of 69 students identified as learning disabled, only two failed a class. This was in stark contrast to over half of the identified special education students failing at least one class in each of the previous years. 3. When examining the grades of low achieving students across two sections of Algebra II, where one section followed traditional instruction and the other section used the adaptive learning environment model, there was a much larger number of the low achievers passing in the learning styles classroom. Before use of the learning styles model a high percentage usually failed. 4. A group of seniors who had previously failed the state-wide competency test in language arts and math all passed the same test after introduction of learning styles instruction. 5. The percentage of students with disabilities dropping out of school each year decreased. 6. Parents of special education students have overwhelmingly accepted the model because their children feel more comfortable in a regular classroom than in a separate instructional program. 7. Satisfaction of teachers and students with their high school program improved. Summary: What Is Involved in Using the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model to Teach As you prepare to use the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model in your classroom as a primary approach to instruction there are a number of competencies that you should be able to demonstrate. First, it is important that you develop a thorough understanding of the learning style elements which you will be using to facilitate instruction in your classroom. Based on that understanding and your own beliefs about instruction and learning, you must decide if you are going to emphasize and use all of the learning style elements as described on pages 15 through 18, or focus on a subset of the elements. Next, you should be able to set up a process to identify each student's learning styles. If you want to adhere strictly to the Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model you should use the Learning Style Inventory, or the Reading Style Inventory if you are focusing on developing reading abilities. Remember, the use of these inventories requires the use of a computer assisted scoring program. If you want more control over the analysis of learning styles you may want to use the NASSP's Learning Style Profile, which includes most of the elements in the Dunn and Dunn model. For most classrooms, an adoption of the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model will require a reorganization of the physical classroom setting and the collection of an array of different instructional procedures, materials, and f i th d l ill d t ll t ti t t bli hi l i i t D i th i iti l t
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equipment. During the initial stages of using the model you will need to allocate time to establishing a learning materials resource library for your classroom. In addition, if the curriculum scope and sequence and instructional objectives for your class have not been clearly specified, time must be devoted to developing your objectives and expectations as the major component of a structured progress monitoring system. You will need a process that will allow you to track mastery of the objectives for your grade or course. Additional Training. Teachers planning on using the model have several alternatives for developing the knowledge and competencies important for success. Training is available at the workshops and institutes provided by the Center for the Study of Learning and Teaching Styles at St. Johns University in New York. It is also possible to find a qualified staff development person to provide training in the use of the model. A number of schools have hired trainers to train at the school site, using experienced trainers from the Center for the Study of Learning and Teaching Styles. In addition to formal training, many teachers have initiated the use of the learning styles approach in their classroom through self study, and the use of training materials available in the literature and from the Center and from the developers including video training tapes and training manuals. Some Final Advice In talking with teachers who have successfully used the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model it is clear that time needs to be devoted to communicating a clear understanding of the model and why you are using it. A lack of understanding by students, parents, and your school administrators, as well as the other teachers in your school may cause problems. A thorough orientation for each of these groups is important to provide the support needed to sustain a successful implementation of the model over time. Many administrators, parents, and students are very comfortable with a traditional, structured approach to instruction where the students are seated in rows of desks and the teacher is presenting information to the whole group. Many people have developed a bias as to what instruction "is supposed to be like." They feel comfortable with lecturing and do not want to change. A common concern is that the instructional flexibility advocated by the model will lead to "off-task" behavior. Variations from familiar approaches to instruction will be a source of concern unless everyone involved understands why you are organized differently. At the high school level, some parents may complain that a learning styles approach to instruction will not prepare their child for college, because college is organized for analytic thinkers - students that have developed good skills for

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g , g g learning with traditional instructional procedures.

Be sure that you understand the concepts involved in the model and have the skills needed to implement the model in your classroom. Without the appropriate knowledge and skills the learning styles approach to instruction will be difficult to implement and you will run the risk of not being effective. Changes will not occur overnight and results will be seen gradually. If you are going to use any new or different approach to instruction, be patient and persistent. Successful implementation will take time. REVIEW QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES Questions 1. What are learning styles and why are they important in instruction? 2. What are the principles that support the use of the learning styles model? 3. Can you cite most of the 21 learning style elements that are used as the basis for the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model? 4. What are the five main implementation activities that you, as a teacher, will have to engage in to use the learning styles model in your classroom? Exercises 1. Using the learning styles items presented in the appendix, administer the items and determine the learning styles and/or preferences of several students. 2. Fred Jackson has just completed the Learning Style Inventory and an analysis of the results indicates that he is a global learner, has strong tactile preferences, poor visual strengths, strong auditory strengths and prefers to work alone with little adult supervision. Describe the general types of instructional materials and activities that you would plan to use with Fred. 3. Select an instructional topic and a grade level and develop a weekly lesson plan for a classroom of 23 students that allows you to address at least five different learning styles among the group of students
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allows you to address at least five different learning styles among the group of students. LEARNING STYLES OBSERVATION GUIDE The purpose of the questions in this guide is to provide you with a process to structure observations of a classroom and to determine the degree to which the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles Model is being implemented in that classroom. The more Yes answers you arrived at during your observation the higher the degree of application of the model. 1. Is the classroom physically arranged in such a manner that it appears to conducive to the use of a variety of learning activities with different students simultaneously? Yes No 2. In talking with the classroom teacher about the Dunn and Dunn model, is it evident that she or he has a thorough understanding of the learning style elements? Yes No 3. Is there evidence that each student's learning styles have been identified? Yes No 4. Is the Learning Style Inventory, the Reading Style Inventory, or the Learning Style Profile being used to identify learning styles? Yes No 5. As you talk to students are they aware of their individual learning styles? Yes No 6. Is there evidence that the students use information about learning styles to make decisions about how they will study? Yes No 7. Is there an array of different instructional procedures, materials, and equipment available for students to use? Yes No 8. As you talk to students is it clear they have an understanding of the objective(s) they are currently working on? Yes No 9. Does the teacher use structured procedures for monitoring the progress of each student? Yes No 10. Do the teacher's prepared lesson plans reflect different learning strategies for different students? 11. Does the teacher interact in a variety of different ways with different students in the classroom? Yes No

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12. If students are working in pairs or groups are the discussions focused on learning tasks associated with the objectives? Yes No REFERENCES American Association of School Administrators (1991). Learning styles: Putting research and common sense into practice. Arlington, VA. Dunn, R., Beaudry, J. & Klavas, A. (1989). Survey of research on learning styles. Educational Leadership. March: 5058. Dunn, R., Dunn, K., & Price, G.E. (1985). Learning styles inventory (LSI): An inventory for the identification of how individuals in grades 3 through 12 prefer to learn. Lawrence, KS: Price Systems. Carbo, M., Dunn, R. & Dunn, K. (1986). Teaching students to read through their individual learning styles. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Dunn, R. (1983). Learning style & its relation to exceptionally at both ends of the spectrum. Exceptional Children, 4(6): 496-506. Curry, L (1987). Integrating concepts of cognitive or learning style: A review with attention of psychometric standards. Canadian College of Health Service Executives, Ottawa, Canada. Curry, L. (1990). A critique of the research on learning styles. Educational Leadership, October: 50-52. Dunn, R. & Dunn, K. (1993). Teaching secondary students through their individual learning styles: Practical approaches for grades 7 - 12. Allyn & Bacon: Boston. Dunn, R. & Dunn, K. (1993). Teaching elementary students through their individual learning styles: Practical approaches for grades 3 - 6. Allyn & Bacon: Boston. Butler, K. (1985). Learning and teaching style: In theory and practice. Maynard, MA: Gabriel Systems, Inc.

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Good, T. & Brophy, J. (1987). Looking in classrooms(4th ed.) . New York: Harper & Row. Guild, P. & Garger, S. (1986). Marching to different drummers. Alexandria, VA.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Keefe, J. & Monk, (1986). Learning style Profile Examiner's manual. Reston: VA: NASSP. Kagen, J., & Kogen, N. (1970). Individual variation in cognitive processes. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael's manual of child psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Wiley. Keefe, J. & Ferrell, B. (1990). Developing a defensible learning style paradigm, Educational Leadership, 10, pp. 57-61. Orstein & Thompson, 1984 McCarthy, B. (1987). The 4MAT System: Teaching to learning styles. Barrington, IL: EXCEL, Inc. Stahl, S.A. (1988). Is there evidence to support matching reading styles and initial reading methods? Phi Delta Kappan, 70(4).

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