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SolutionstoSpecialRelativity

P758:2,3,6,9,11,20,27,35,43,78

2.Aspaceshippassesyouataspeedof0.750c.Youmeasureitslengthtobe28.2m.
Howlongwoulditbewhenatrest?
Solution:Thelengthatrestisitsproperlength,and
2
42.6 1 1 0.75 28.2 m m
p
L L = = =

3. A certain type elementary particle travels at a speed of 2.7010


8
m/s. At this
speed, the average lifetime measured to be 4.7610
6
s. What is the particles
lifetimeatrest?
Solution:Thelifetimeatrestisthepropertime,and
6 6 2
4.76 10 s 1 0. 2.07 10 s 9
p
T T

= = = .

6. Suppose you decide to travel to a star 75 lightyears away. How fast would you
havetotravelsothedistancewouldbeonly25lightyears?
Solution: According to the problem, the Lorentz gamma factor is 75 25 3 = = . So
thespeedcanbeobtainedas
2 8
0.943 2.83 10 m 1 / . s c v c

= = =

9. A certain star is 95.0 lightyears away. How long would it take a spacecraft
traveling0.96ctoreachthatstarfromEarth,asmeasuredbyobserver:(a)onEarth,
(b)onthespacecraft?(c)Whatisthedistancetraveledaccordingtoobserversonthe
spacecraft? (d) What will the spacecraft occupants compute their speed to be from
theresultsof(b)and(c)?
Solution:(a)Inthiscase,thetimerequiredis
1
95 0.96 99.0 . year t L v = = =
(b) In this case, the distance traveled is
p
L L = , and
( )
0.5
2
1 0.96 3.57

= = . So the time
recordedreads ( )
2 1
27.7 yea . r
p
t L v t = = =
(c)Accordingto(b)Thedistanceis 95.0 3.57 lightyea 26.6 light e r . s s y ar
p
L = =
(d)Thespeedcomputedbythespacecraftoccupantsis
2
0.9 . 6 c v L t = =

10. A friend of yours travels by you in her fast sports car at a speed of 0.660c. It is
measured in your frame to be 4.80 m long and 1.25 m high. (a) What will be its
length and height at rest? (b) How many seconds would you say elapsed on your
friends watch when 20.0 s passed on yours? (c) How fast did you appear to be
travelingaccordingtoyourfriend?(d)Howmanysecondswouldshesayelapsedon
yourwatchwhenshesaw20.0spassonhers?

11. How fast must an average pion be moving to travel 15 m before it decays? The
averagelifetime,atrest,is2.610
8
s.
Solution:Assumingthespeedofthepionisv,thenweget
p p
vT L = ,or
p p
v L T = .
Fromthisequation,onecanfigureoutthat
2
8
2 2
0.887 2.66 10 . m/s
p p
p p
L T
v c c
L T c
= = =
+

20. If a particle moves in the xy plane of system S with speed u in a direction that
makesananglewithxaxis,showthatitmakesanangle inSgivenby
( ) ( )
2 2
tan ' sin 1 cos . v c v u u u u =
Proof: The Lorentz gamma factor is
2 2
1 u c = , and the x and y component of the
velocity are
2
'
1
x
x
x
u v
u
u v c

and
2 2
2
1
'
1
y
y
x
u v c
u
u v c

, therefore one gets


( ) ( )
2 2
tan ' ' ' sin 1 cos /
y x y x
u u u u v v c v u u u u = = = , QED.

27. (a) A particle travels at v = 0.10c. By what percentage will a calculation of its
momentumbewrongifyouuseclassicalformula?(b)Repeatforv=0.50c.
Solution:Theclassicalmomentumoftheparticleis
0
p m v = ,andtheLorentzgamma
factor reads
( )
1/2
2 2
1 v c

= . (a) Lorentz gamma factor in this case is 1.005 = , so
the percentage is ( ) 1.005 1 1. . 005 0 5 = %. (b) For this case, 1.1547 = , and the
percentageis ( ) 1.1547 1 1.1 1 4 47 % 5 3. = .

35.Showthatwhenthekineticenergyofaparticleequalsitsrestenergy,thespeed
oftheparticleisabout0.866c.
Proof: According to the problem, the Lorentz gamma factor is 1 1 2 = = . So,
thespeedoftheparticleis
( )
1/2
2
0.866 1 . v c c

= = QED.

43.Twoidenticalparticlesofrestmassmapproacheachotheratequalandopposite
speeds,v.Thecollisioniscompletelyinelasticandresultsinasingleparticleatrest.
Whatistherestmassofthenewparticle?Howmuchenergywaslostinthecollision?
Howmuchkineticenergyislostinthiscollision?
Solution: The kinetic energy loss in this collision is ( )
2
2 1 K mc A = , and the rest
energyoftheresultantparticleis
2
,
2 2
M R
E mc M m = = ,sotherearenoenergy
lossinthecollision.

78.Aslabofglassmovestotherightwithspeedv.Aflashoflightisemittedatpoint
A(Fig.3217)andpassesthroughtheglassarrivingatpointBadistanceLaway.The
glasshasthicknessdinthereferenceframewhereitisatrest,andthespeedoflight
in the glass is c/n. How long does it take the light to go from point A to point B
accordingtoanobserveratrestwithrespecttopointsAandB?Checkyouranswer
forthecasev=0,n=1,andforv=c.
Solution:Thespeedoflightinthemediummeasuredbyanobserveratrestinthemediumis
c n andthespeedoflightinthemediummeasuredbyanobserveratrestwithrespecttothe
pointsAreads
( )
2
1
1 1
c n v c vn c
v
c n vc n v cn

| | + +
= =
|
+ +
\ .
.SothetimerequiredforthelightgofromA
toBis ( )
L d
t d v
c

= + .Forv=0,n=1,onehas t L c = ;andforv=c, t L c = .