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Best Practice

Best Practice

SABP-A-015

Chemical Injection Systems

1 July 2007

Document Responsibility: Materials and Corrosion Control Standards Committee

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2

2 References

3

3 Definitions and Abbreviations

6

4 Chemical Injection Overview

7

5 Chemical Injection System Design

11

6 Chemical Injection Point Position

23

7 Chemical Injection System Inspection

25

8 Management of Change

25

9 Chemical Injection System Maintenance

26

10 Injection Point Documentation

27

11 Safety

28

12 Refinery Chemicals and Water Wash Injection

29

13 Upstream Facilities and Gas Plants Chemical Injection

47

14 Steam Generator Chemical Injection

51

15 Chemical Dosage Control

52

16 Chemical Injection Effectiveness

53

17 Strategies for Chemical Optimization

55

18 Quality Control of Chemicals

57

Appendix A

58

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Primary contacts: Ahmed M. Al-Zahrani on 874-6132 or Ahmad S. Al-Omari on 874-7431 Copyright©Saudi Aramco 2007. All rights reserved.

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Chemical Injection Systems

1

Introduction

1.1 Purpose

The intent of this best practice is to provide guidelines for the detailed design, materials selection, quality assurance, operations and inspection of chemical injection systems. The content is based on established industry guidelines and field experience with their use in Saudi Aramco facilities.

Corrosion Technology Unit of Consulting Services Department has developed this Best Practice to assist with improving and maintaining the mechanical integrity of Saudi Aramco upstream and downstream facilities through the use of the chemical injection systems.

1.2 Scope

This Best Practice covers chemical injection systems in all refining units, including wash water and chloride injection in reformer units. All upstream oil & gas processing facilities, transmission and producing pipelines and stem generators chemical injection systems have been also covered. The chemical injection system for sea water application is not covered in this document.

1.3 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards

In the event of a conflict between this Best Practice and other Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement, please contact the supervisor of CSD/ME&CCD/Corrosion Technology Unit for resolution.

1.4 Disclaimer

The material in this Best Practice document provides the most correct and accurate design guidelines available to Saudi Aramco which complies with international industry practices. This material is being provided for the general guidance and benefit of the Saudi Aramco engineers and designers. Use of this Best Practice in designing projects for Saudi Aramco, however, does not relieve the designer from his responsibility to verify the accuracy of any information presented or from his contractual liability to provide safe and sound designs that conform to Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirements. Use of the information or material contained herein is no guarantee that the resulting product will satisfy the applicable requirements of any project.

Saudi Aramco assumes no responsibility or liability whatsoever for any reliance on the information presented herein or for designs prepared by Designers in accordance with this Best Practice. Use of this Best Practice by Designers is

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Chemical Injection Systems

intended solely for, and shall be strictly limited to, Saudi Aramco projects. Saudi Aramco® is a registered trademark of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company. Copyright, Saudi Aramco, 2007.

2

References

Unless stated otherwise, all Standards, Specifications and Codes referenced in this Best Practice shall be the latest issued (including revisions, addenda and supplements) and are considered a part of this Best Practice.

2.1 Saudi Aramco References

Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure

SAEP-20

Equipment Inspection Schedule

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards

SAES-A-205

Oilfield Chemicals

SAES-A-208

Water Treatment Chemicals

SAES-A-206

Positive Material Identification

SAES-A-301

Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking

SAES-B-005

Spacing and Diking for Atmospheric and Low - Pressure Tanks

SAES-D-109

Design of Small Tanks

SAES-G-006

Positive Displacement Pumps - Controlled Volume

SAES-J-400

Temperature

SAES-L-105

Piping Material Specifications

SAES-L-110

Limitations on Pipe Joints and Components

SAES-L-132

Material Selection for Piping Systems

SAES-Q-005

Concrete Foundations

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications

31-SAMSS-009

Positive Displacement Pumps - Controlled Volume

32-SAMSS-030

Manufacture of Small Tanks

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Chemical Injection Systems

Saudi Aramco Library Drawings

DA-950035-001

2-inch high Pressure Access System Chemical Injection and Corrosion Monitoring

DB-950175-001

Antifoulant Injection Point Details

DB-950176-001

Water Wash Injection Point Details

DB-950177-001

Caustic Injection Point Details

DB-950178-001

Neutralizing Amine Injection Point Details

DB-950179-001

Filming Amine Injection Point Details

Saudi Aramco Best Practice

SABP-A-016

Crude Unit Corrosion Control

Saudi Aramco Engineering Reports

SAER-2365

Saudi Aramco Mothball Manual

SAER-5941

Final Report and Guidelines on Crude Unit Overhead Corrosion Control

Saudi Aramco Inspection Procedures

00-SAIP-07

Positive Material Identification Requirements

01-SAIP-04

Injection Point Inspection Program

2.2 Industry Codes and Standards

American Petroleum Institute

API RP 570

Piping Inspection Code Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME B31.3

Process Piping

ASME B16.9

Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings

Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc.

MSS SP-97

Integrally Reinforced Forged Branch Outlet Fittings - Socket Welding, Threaded, and Buttwelding Ends

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2.3 Other References

J. G. Willmon and M. A. Edwards, “Precommissioning to Startup: Getting

Chemical Injection Right”, SPE 96144, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9 – 12 October 2005.

J. W. Palmer, W. Hedges and J.L. Dawson, “Use of Corrosion Inhibitors in Oil

and Gas Production: (EFC 39)”, Woodhead Publishing, 2004.

W. C. Fortt, E. S. Berm, R. C. Strong and Ma. Vegesi" Process Design of

Injection Systems" Corrosion 96, NACE International, Paper No. 587, 1996.

R. R. Konet; G.J. Honer and R.M. Thompson, “Implementation Strategies for

API RP 570 Injection Point Inspection Programs”, Corrosion 96, NACE International, Paper No. 588, 1996.

R. C. Quinter, "Performance Verification of Injection Systems", Corrosion 96,

NACE International, paper No. 590, 1996.

J. Gutzeit, "Problems with Injection Facilities for Process Additives or Wash

Water", Corrosion 96, NACE International, paper No. 591, 1996.

P. R. Petersen, “The Use of Corrosion Inhibitors in the Refining Industry”,

Corrosion 96, NACE International, paper No. 594, 1996.

A. Bagdasarian, J. Feather, B. Hull, R. Stephenson and R. Strong, “Crude Unit

Corrosion and Corrosion Control”, Corrosion 96, NACE International, Paper No. 615, 1996.

J. R. Rue and J. G. Edmondson, “Control of Salt-Initiated Corrosion in Crude Unit Overhead Systems”, Corrosion 2001, NACE International, Paper No.

01538, 2001.

D. E. Powell, D. I. Ma’ruf, and I. Y. Rahman, “Field-Testing Corrosion

Inhibitors in Oil and Gas Gathering Systems”, Materials Performance, p. 42-45, August 2002.

D. W. Alley and N. D. Coble, “Corrosion Inhibitors for Crude Distillation

Columns”, Materials Performance, p. 44-49, May 2003.

NACE International Publication # 3410: Refinery Injection and Process Mixing Points (prepared by Task Group 174)

Nalco Best Practices

Chevron Best Practices

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3 Definitions and Abbreviations

Be°: Baumé is a scale used to measure the density of various liquids.

Catalyst: A material that aids or promotes a chemical reaction between other substances but does not react itself. Catalyst increases reaction speed and can provide control by increasing desirable reactions and decreasing undesirable reactions.

CCR: Continuous Catalyst Regeneration

CHB: Chemical Hazard Bulletin. CHB is an internal company document (available in both English & Arabic) developed by Environmental Protection Department to provide a standardized one-page summary of a material’s hazard ratings: health hazards, fire & reactivity, handling, storage & disposal and first aid information for use in the handling of hazardous materials. It is known also as Material Safety Datasheet, MSDS.

CRA: Corrosion Resistant Alloy

ER: Electrical Resistance

Fouling: Accumulation of deposits in condensers, exchangers, etc.

GOSP: Gas Oil Separation Plant

HPPT: High Pressure Production Trap

IPPT: Intermediate Pressure Production Trap

LPPT: Low Pressure Production Trap

LPR: Linear Polarization Resistance

LPI: Liquid Penetrant Inspection

MSDS: Material Safety Datasheet. MSDS is a document containing information on hazardous ingredients, their properties, and precautions for use for a specific chemical substance.

MPI: Magnetic Particle Inspection

NGL: Natural Gas Liquids

OSI: On-Stream Inspection

PMI: Positive Material Identification

PWHT: Post-Weld Heat Treatment

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QA/QC: Quality Assurance/Quality Control

RSS Report: Refinery Shift Superintendent Report

RT: Radiography Test

Stress Corrosion Cracking: (SCC) is the cracking induced from the combined influence of tensile stress and a corrosive environment.

SARCOP: Saudi Aramco Refining Chemical Optimization Program

T&I: Test & Inspection

TDS: Total Dissolved Solids

RVL: Restricted Vendor List, generated by Saudi Aramco

“Typical” or “Target”: indicate desirable but not mandatory items

“Limit,” “Required,” “Shall,” and “Must”: indicate mandatory items

4 Chemical Injection Overview

Chemicals play an important role in the enhancement of oil and gas production and processing. They control corrosion, prevent organic and inorganic deposits, aid in phase separation, control microbial problems, control pH, scavenge oxygen and neutralize chlorides.

Chemical injection philosophy depends primarily on the fluid composition, fluid chemistry, operating pressures and temperatures, and to some extent the flow regime. Depending on fluid characteristics and system materials, a wide range of chemicals maybe injected into vessels and piping system to control corrosion. Chemical injection is considered one of several corrosion mitigation methods such as coating, material selection, cathodic protection, process control, use of CRAs, etc.

Chemical injection systems are an invaluable component of corrosion control systems implemented in a variety of operating units. For example, one of the chemical injections is corrosion inhibitor that is used to form a stable adherent film on the internal surface of a pipe or vessel, which acts as a barrier between the equipment surface and the corrosive media. Also, the injection system could be used to neutralize or dilute the components of the process stream. Inhibitors can be added either as a batch or as a continuous injection.

Chemicals can be applied through a variety of mechanisms. There are three typical configurations of injection systems used in hydrocarbon production and processing:

retrievable (high pressure), retractable (low pressure) and fixed (high or low pressure).

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The retrievable system allows operators to undertake injection, retrieve, inspect and maintain equipment while the system is under full operating conditions. The oil and gas production industry from the wellhead through the GOSP generally employs retrievable injection systems (Figure 1) that operate with high pressure access fittings. The unit assembly consists of an access fitting, a solid plug, an injection nut, and an injection tube (quill, cross head or perpendicular spray nozzle).

tube (quill, cross head or perpendicular spray nozzle). Figure 1 - Retrievable Type Injection System The

Figure 1 - Retrievable Type Injection System

The retractable type injection system (Figure 2) is commonly used in the refining operations. A retractable quill style injector, which has a packing gland design, offers the ability to remove and service the injector system during normal operations. This design can be manually retracted from lines or other equipment operating at low pressure.

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TBD 1 July 2007 SABP-A-015 Chemical Injection Systems Figure 2 - Retractable Type Injection System The

Figure 2 - Retractable Type Injection System

The fixed assembly (Figure 3) is recommended for use in a by-pass loop which can be isolated, or in systems having frequent and regular shut-down, since system depressurization is required during insertion and removal. The unit is ideally suited for use in high pressure and/or hazardous applications where threaded fittings are not recommended to avoid leakage. Process shutdown or process isolation is required for installation and inspection. The unit assembly consists of a flange and an insertion rod with an injection quill.

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TBD 1 July 2007 SABP-A-015 Chemical Injection Systems Figure 3 - Fixed Type Injection System Table-1

Figure 3 - Fixed Type Injection System

Table-1 summarizes the configurations of chemical injection and their applications.

Table 1 - Injection System Styles

Configuration

Pressure Range

Facility

Retractable

Low

Refineries

Retrievable

High

Upstream Facilities

Fixed*

All

All

* While fixed systems could be employed in a wide variety of situations, their limited flexibility with regard to serviceability and maintenance typically restricts their application to more extreme or hazardous services.

The following factors can have significant impact on the safety, maintenance, operation, and service life of the chemical injection system:

Chemical solution being injected

Concentration (both of the chemical being injected and the mixed chemical/process stream, i.e., concentrated sulfuric acid injection into an RO water stream)

Flow rates (both stream receiving the injection and the product injected)

Viscosity

Chemical hazard

Materials of construction

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5 Chemical Injection System Design

A typical chemical injection system (Figure 4) should consist of a chemical supply storage tank from which the chemical solution shall be pumped through piping or tubing, as appropriate, to the point of application. Each chemical feed system shall include controlled volume pumps, tanks, gauges, strainer, filter, pressure relief valves, sight glasses and flow metering/monitoring devices, check valves, hand valves, a power source for the pump and instrumentation to control the injection and to monitor its effectiveness.

The chemical injection system must be well designed to accommodate the chemical types and volumes that are considered necessary for efficient operation throughout the project lifetime. All systems should be appropriately sized to handle the ‘worse-case’ scenarios.

Figure 4 illustrates a diagrammatic view of the main components of the chemical injection skid.

view of the main components of the chemical injection skid. Figure 4 - Chemical Injection System

Figure 4 - Chemical Injection System Simplified Drawing

5.1

Materials

Materials of construction for the chemical injection system components should be carefully selected and shall be compatible with chemical solution and be capable of withstanding maximum pump discharge line pressure and process main pressure. Concentrated chemicals by themselves can be corrosive until properly diluted by the produced fluids.

Chemicals identified as oilfield treatment chemicals, such as biocides, corrosion inhibitors, scale inhibitors, demulsifiers, and boiler treatment chemicals shall use

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316L material as designated in SAES-L-132 for piping, tanks, and injection quills. Other products which do not meet these guidelines, such as strong acids, or inhibitors injected in refinery process systems, etc., shall be assessed on a case by case basis in coordination with ME&CCD. Moreover, specific materials for some applications have been addressed on their relevant sections on this Best Practice. Non-metallic materials may be an acceptable alternative for certain purposes if and only if allowed in specific sections of this document.

When handling chemical solutions where the solvent is water or when injecting water streams, dissimilar metal flanged joints shall use insulation kits.

5.2 Chemical Storage Tank

The chemical storage tanks should be sufficiently sized so that re-filling is not required every day. The size of chemical storage tank depends on their exact application. Chemical storage tanks in offshore upstream operations are normally sized for 3 months use. Chemical storage tanks in refineries are usually sized to provide at least one month’s capacity. Some applications, such as caustic (NaOH) in a refinery, may use local unit tanks that are made up on a batch basis from a bulk supply. Such local unit tanks should have a minimum of one day’s capacity.

The chemical tank shall be equipped with a fill nozzle, vent, discharge, level instrument and drain. The chemical storage tank level should be monitored. Tanks shall be reinforced to withstand all forces when full of liquid. Chemical storage tanks should be flushed and cleaned when replacing chemical type.

Chemical tanks must be properly labeled as to the contents of the tank and its hazards. Tanker connection should be accessible by road and must be clearly identified with connected tank number and product. Unloading connections shall be sealed, in order to prevent cross-contaminating chemical products, with blind flanges or if fitted with quick connect systems, i.e., Kamlock, with plugs or caps. Chemical tanks must be electrically grounded similar to any other tanks in the plant. Also, the chemical tanker must be connected to the ground system before starting chemical filling to the tank.

CHB (it is also known as MSDS) shall be located near the unloading connections, in enclosures protected from direct sun, wind and rain. In general, CHBs must be readily available to the workers who are exposed to the chemical product.

Containment concrete slab and curb must be constructed around the tank to contain its contents in the event of a spill or tank rupture. This concrete slab and curb must be sloped toward a drainage system. It should be noted that, any new chemicals should be included in the plants spill prevention controls. Spacing and

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diking of tanks shall be in accordance with SAES-B-005. Concrete foundations for tanks shall be in accordance with SAES-Q-005.

Design of chemical storage tanks up to 1500 barrels capacity shall be in accordance with SAES-D-109. This standard shall be used only by the design engineer/contractor and shall not be attached to nor made a part of a purchase order. Manufacture of these tanks shall be in accordance with 32-SAMSS-030. This specification may be attached to and form an integral part of a purchase order. Chemical tanks manufacturer shall be selected from Saudi Aramco approved RVL list.

PORTA-FEED ® containers, or similar tanks provided by other vendors, can be used for some applications including temporary chemical applications or limited space for construction a storage tank. Standard units are made of 304L or 316L stainless steel. For products that are corrosive to stainless steel, there are plastic and polyethylene units.

The PORTA-FEED® system contains a shuttle tank and a base tank (Figure 5). The shuttle tank is used for the transportation of the product. The two tanks are connected via the filling hose. Transfer of the product from the shuttle tank is done automatically under the influence of gravity. The supplier fills a shuttle tank with a product and delivers the filled tank to the facility. When the shuttle tank empties it is disconnected and returned to the product supplier for reuse. The supplier replaces the empty tank rather than refilling it on-site.

replaces the empty tank rather than refilling it on-site. Figure 5 - PORTA-FEED ® Base Tank

Figure 5 - PORTA-FEED ® Base Tank (Source: Nalco Company)

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The preferred mode for a PORTA-FEED ® location is to stack one on top of another and drain the new one “shuttle tank” into the permanent site tank “base tank”.

Some chemical tanks require nitrogen purge to exclude oxygen from the feed. Some tanks require mixers, caustic tanks in particular. These mixers should be nitrogen or mechanical. No air blowing is allowed for mixing purpose. Special materials are required for special chemicals such as caustic and sulfuric acid. The materials of construction should be per SAES-L-132.

Non-metallic tanks have been used for more than 25 years successfully in the offshore Berri field. For new applications, seek the approval of CSD/ME&CCD/MEU/ Non-Metallic Group.

5.3 Pump

Positive displacement pumps are frequently used for injection of chemicals into a pressurized system. The positive displacement pump must be a metering type with stroke adjustment to vary the chemical injection rate. It is important to select a pump from Saudi Aramco approved manufacturers that meet the required flow rate and pressure. The chemical injection pump needs only to be slightly higher than the internal process stream pressure. So, the positive displacement pump must be capable of generating sufficient injection line pressure to overcome injection line losses, the process line operating pressure and thus create the required pressure differential across the injection tube.

To ensure online chemical injection reliability and availability, back-up, or secondary pump must be available in the event of pump failure or the need for maintenance. For critical application, the chemical injection pumps shall be provided with appropriate alarms and automated controls to provide immediate switchover from running to standby pump, in case of pump failure. All pumps must meet area classification.

SAES-G-006 and 31-SAMSS-009 defines the minimum mandatory requirements governing the design and installation of positive displacement pumps-controlled volume (chemical injection pumps).

5.4 Quill

Most of the failures that is related to the injection point have occurred immediately downstream of the injection quill. Such failures have been attributed to general corrosion attack of the concentrated product, which attacked the pipe wall prior to the product being diluted by the produced fluids.

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Consequently, the use of internal injection tubes, as quills, atomizing nozzles, etc., which direct the product into the process fluids, is required.

5.4.1 General Quill Design Criteria

The design of an injection quill is very critical. The quill should be designed efficiently to disperse injected chemicals into a process stream without allowing the injected chemicals to build up on the interior walls of the pipe and without clogging the injection quill opening. The injection quill must be sized to inject the desired amount of chemical. The injection quill should be capable of injecting the chemical in such way to effectively and intimately mix the chemical with the process stream. Injection quills should be installed per approved design drawings and inspector has to measure the injection quill insertion lengths prior to the installation.

The quill design should be evaluated for possible stress, fatigue problems and flow induced vibration. For new projects, stress calculations must be performed and provided by the engineering contractor to determine the optimum injection quill insertion length. These calculations should be reviewed and approved by CSD. For any replacement quills, stress calculations must also be performed and provided. Process stream flow rate fluctuations, flow regimes, fluid viscosity and quill natural frequency are essential variables affecting injection quill design. Natural frequency and wake frequency calculations shall be performed on each quill that will be installed in the field. The purpose of these calculations is to prevent the quill from entering a resonant vibration in which fatigue failure can occur. The wake frequency should be less than 80% of the quill's natural frequency to guarantee no resonant harmonic vibration. This can be determined by applying the thermowell calculations in SAES-J-400 Paragraph 5.3.

5.4.2 Angled Face Quill Design

The style of the injection quill with open end shall has a bevel cut angle with 45° as a minimum and 60° as a maximum. Angles less than 45° would limit the influence of the scarf cut. The quill must include a slot through a wall of the quill tip. The slot shall not be longer than the length of the bevel. The slot is rectangular and is opposed to the angled end.

The quill with angled face utilizes the turbulence created by its design, in conjunction with the natural turbulence within the pipe, to accomplish distribution of the injected chemical into the process stream. The disadvantage of the quill with angled open end is that at low process

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stream flow rates there tends to be a concentration of the injected chemical at the pipe wall surface below the injection point.

For liquid-phase stream, the quill should be installed in the pipe so that the angled face of the quill faces the fluid downstream (Figure 6). While for mixed and vapor phase streams, the angled face of the quill should face the fluid upstream as shown in Figure 7.

45 o -60 o
45 o -60 o

Figure 6 - Proper Quill Alignment in a Liquid-Phase Stream

45 o -60 o
45 o -60 o

Figure 7 - Proper Quill Alignment in a Mixed and Vapor Phase Streams

The above mentioned design of quill tip is commonly used in upstream facilities and can be used as an option for neutralizing and filming amine injection system in addition to the side hole opening quill.

5.4.3 Caustic Injection Quill Design

Caustic Injection quill (Figure 8) shall not be fabricated using pipe with welded end plate. Cracking around a circumferential fillet weld can occur due to the difficulty of getting a sound weld in this restricted area. So, caustic injection quill must be fabricated from solid Monel bar. The design, materials, fabrication, examination, and testing of the fabricated

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Monel bar shall meet the requirements of ASME B31.3 “Process Piping”.

Fabricating the caustic injection quill by boring a solid Monel bar is considered as unlisted components in ASME B31.3. The ASME B31.3 Code defines unlisted components as components not in Tables 326.1, A326.1, or K326.1 of the code.

The processes used to fabricate the caustic injection quill must be reviewed for Code compliance. Some fabrication processes can cause gross or local wall thinning. The absolute first stage in the process of fabricating the caustic injection quill is to perform PMI on the bar material to assure that the material is indeed Monel 400. Do not rely on paperwork or bar stamping. The metallurgical condition of the bar should be “annealed” which will give a yield strength in the range 25 to 50 ksi. The machining should be done in more than one pass. First a rough cut is required followed by fine cutting. The objective is to avoid work hardening the surface of the Monel. All machining should be done with adequate lubrication. The quill must be examined in accordance with the ASME B31.3.

Dimensions of the fabricated quill shall conform to those of comparable listed components as practicable as possible (straight pipe). In any case, dimensions shall be such as to provide strength and performance equivalent to standard components except as provided in paragraphs 303 and 304 of ASME B31.3.

The pressure/temperature design of the fabricated caustic quill shall provide the same safety margins as ASME B31.3. The Code states that the pressure design must meet the requirements of paragraph 304.7.2. The fabricated caustic injection quill may be used provided that it conforms to a published specification or standard within the following limitations:

1)

The designer shall be satisfied that composition, mechanical properties, method of manufacture, and quality control are comparable to the corresponding characteristics of listed components.

2)

Pressure design shall be verified in accordance with paragraph 304 of ASME B31.3.

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The pressure design of the fabricated caustic injection quill shall be based on calculations consistent with the design criteria of ASME B31.3. These calculations shall be substantiated by one or more of the means stated below (paragraph 304.7.2 of ASME B31.3) considering applicable dynamic, thermal, and cyclic effects in paragraphs 301.4 through 301.10 of ASME B31.3, as well as thermal shock.

(a)

Extensive, successful service experience under comparable conditions with similarly proportioned components of the same or like material.

(b)

Experimental stress analysis, such as described in the Boiler Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 6.

(c)

Proof test in accordance with either ASME B16.9, MSS SP-97, or Section VIII, Division 1, UG-101.

(d)

Detailed stress analysis (e.g., finite element method) with results evaluated as described in Boiler Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 4, Article 4-1. The basic allowable stress from Table A-1 shall be used in place of Sm in Division 2. At design temperatures in the creep range, additional considerations beyond the scope of Division 2 may be necessary.

(e)

For any of the above, the designer may interpolate between sizes, wall thicknesses, and pressure classes, and may determine analogies among related materials.

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TBD 1 July 2007 SABP-A-015 Chemical Injection Systems Figure 8 - Caustic Injection Quill Simplified Drawing

Figure 8 - Caustic Injection Quill Simplified Drawing

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5.5 Calibration Tube

Accurate calibration of chemical injection rate is essential to provide adequate protection to the piping and equipment and to control the chemical consumption. So, the injection system shall include provisions for pump calibration and flow rate verification down stream of the metering pumps. A vented calibration tube (graduated cylinder) in addition to the inline flow meter shall be installed on each chemical injection pump which will provide an easy way to measure the

rate of flow of the chemical being injected. While the use of inline flow meters

is becoming more common, field installations may inject volumes as low as one

gallon per day. The costs of flow metering equipment in these cases exceed the costs for chemical injection. So, the need for inline flow meter may not be required for low volume injection. Tank consumption tracking or graduated cylinder can provide the injection confirmation required in these situations.

Flow switches can be installed which shut the pump in on low flow and send an alarm indicating low flow. Flow measurement data and alarms shall be sent to the DCS.

A calibration tube is typically a clear tube with markings in milliliters,

gallons/hour (GPH) or gallons/day (GPD) as appropriate and used with a stop watch to measure the flow rate. The tube should be placed on the suction side of the injection pump with the necessary valves and fittings so the injection rate

can be checked any time by the operator. Main line chemical feed and

calibration tube shut off valve shall be ¼ turn ball valves and shall be positioned

so that the operator can easily and simultaneously operate both valves during calibration.

can easily and s imultaneously operate both valves during calibration. Figure 9 - Calibration Tube Drawing

Figure 9 - Calibration Tube Drawing

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Below is a simplified procedure in how to use the calibration tube to measure the chemical flow rate:

1. With valve A open and the pump operating (Figure 9), open valve B slowly until chemical level reaches the 0 mark.

2. Close valve A and begin timing with a stopwatch or wristwatch secondhand.

3. At the one-minute mark, observe the chemical level. This is the actual pump flow rate.

4. The graduated cylinder should be drained when it is not in use by closing valve B and opening valve A.

5.6 Injection Line

Injection lines should be sized to allow for the efficient transfer of chemical and stay within the working pressure of the material. All connections from the chemical pump to the point of injection shall be hard piped. Flexible tubing in certain portions can be used only if pressure and temperature limitations are not exceeded. The distance between the chemical storage tank and the injection point should be minimized as much as possible. All piping to the injection pump and from the pump should be free draining towards the pump to avoid any chemical stagnation.

5.7 Check Valve

Check valves must be installed on all chemical lines at the inlet line to the injector to prevent the process fluid from pushing back into the chemical injection line. Some of the line or fittings have built-in internal check valve. It is recommended to install external ones. The internal check valves are not reliable in case of internal corrosion that will damage the internal threads causing the check valves to be disoriented and becoming useless. Also, the long inspection intervals of these fittings, once a year during the plant PM shutdown, will make them un-reliable.

5.8 Filter

Filters/Y-strainers must be placed between the chemical supply and the injection pump. The size and type of the filter element will depend on the rate and type of fluid that is to be pumped. Two separate filters with individual isolation valves shall be provided where chemical injection can not be stopped for process requirement such as demulsifier.

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5.9

Miscellaneous

Most of the chemical injection lines are small in size (less than 1-inch diameter mostly) and they are not rigid, which can vibrates easily if not properly supported. This continuous vibration, even if it was minor, would result in pending fatigue failure in the chemical lines in the long run. As a result, adequate support to these chemical lines must be provided.

Each injection point shall be installed with an isolation valve in case any repairs are needed to chemical feed system. For retractable system, vent valve must be installed to release pressure and drain any process fluid/gas that accumulates after the quill is retracted from the process and the injection process valve is closed.

A pressure relief valve must be installed on the pump discharge to vent fluid

back into the chemical tank or pump suction line if pressure builds up.

A pressure gauge for each pump discharge line must be installed.

A sight flow indicator is recommended to be provided close to the injection

point location as visual indication of chemical flow.

A pulsation damper, to ensure an even chemical application, shall be provided in

each pump discharge line and shall be sized to provide sufficient degree of damping.

As per SAES-L-110 Section 8, seal welding of threaded joints is required when deemed necessary by the Operating Organization for those locations and services where an uncontrolled leakage would result in serious consequences for the operation or safety of plant and personnel. Seal welding of all threaded joints up to the first block valve is required in the following services and

applications:

All hydrocarbons

Boiler feed water, condensate, and steam systems utilizing ASME Class 300 and higher flange ratings

Toxic materials such as chlorine, phenol, hydrogen sulphide, etc.

Corrosive materials such as acid, caustic, etc.

Oilfield chemicals (e.g., corrosion inhibitors, Demulsifiers, electrolytes, etc.)

Piping which is subject to vibration, whether continuous or intermittent

As per SAES-A-206 Section 5 and 00-SAIP-007, PMI testing shall be performed at a point in time that ensures proper alloy materials have been used

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in the fabrication of an identifiable assembly. Usually, this is done after fabrication and immediately prior to fabrication to ensure completes testing of the injection system components before their installation in the field.

The following information is needed to design an optimum injection system:

System Parameters

Pipe/vessel diameter (also vessel length if applicable)

Line pressure

Fluid viscosity

Fluid density

Mass or volumetric flow rate

Working temperature

Clearance for the retrieval of the quills

Chemical Parameters

Viscosity Density Temperature Anticipated injection pressure Mass or volumetric flow rate Concentration of active ingredient

6 Chemical Injection Point Position

The injection point is installed through an opening in the wall of the pipeline. It should be installed in location which can be accessed by the Operations. Adequate clearance shall be available for insertion and removal of the quill.

The effectiveness of the chemical injection is heavily influenced by the location of the injection point. The quill should be installed in pipe provided, of course, a sufficient flow rate to promote distribution of the chemical solution. The turbulent flow at the injection point should cause mixing of the injected chemical with the process stream. The relative viscosity of injected chemical and the process stream play a major role in mixing.

The injection tube tip shall be inserted within the center 1/3 of the pipe as shown in Figure 10 that illustrates a side view of the chemical injector installed in a pipeline. Generally, the most effective position for chemical injection is at the center of the pipe. Highest fluid velocity is normally at the center of the line, therefore, injection at this point is supposed to prevent concentration of the chemical at the edge where the

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velocity is low due to friction and will ensure efficient distribution of the introduced chemical. It is imperative that any injected chemical is not directed at the equipment wall where it could cause local corrosion attack and wall perforation. In large diameter systems, it may be impossible to find a quill that can be either retractable or retrievable. Therefore, for nominal line sizes of 36 inches and greater, insertion quill length shall provide a tip location not greater than 35% of the nominal diameter measured from the out side wall of the pipe while the minimum insertion must be no less than 6 inches.

If the line pipes are designed for regular scraping operations, protruding injection quill must be removed before scraping begins. Installation of the protruding chemical injection tubes in the scrapable line can be avoided by locating the injection point at other locations such as lateral lines, etc.

See Note
See Note

Injection Tube

Proper insertion depth shall be within center 1/3 of the pipe

Note: the most effective position for chemical injection is at the center of the pipe

Figure 10 - Quill Insertion Limits

The quill opening must be aligned parallel to the process flow with the correct opening orientation, as illustrated in the previous section, when the injection tube assembly is placed in the process pipe. Therefore, the orientation of the quill must be marked to insure proper positioning of the quill opening once the injection tube assembly is installed in the process pipe.

One of the recommended field practices, for high pressure injection system, is to permanently mark, on the solid plug hex nut, the long side of the quill with a straight line using a file, small hacksaw cut or waterproof paint marker. This convention should be maintained if possible whenever the quill is reinstalled. The solid plug should not be loosened in order to achieve orientation, as this may affect the plug seal in the access fitting. This shall be part of an installation checklist signed off by the installer and assigned inspector.

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7 Chemical Injection System Inspection

Monitoring and inspection are key activities in maintaining chemical injection system integrity. Chemical injection systems must be inspected regularly, including the injection point itself, downstream and upstream piping and equipment that may have been affected.

Inspection frequencies should be determined by the type of mechanical/ physical deterioration anticipated. The inspection frequency shall follow SAEP-20, paragraph 5.5.6.3. The NDT inspection shall be performed every three month for the new installed quills and after T&I installation for the first year.

The need for more detailed inspection requirements for chemical injection system was formally addressed industry-wide with the issuance of API RP 570 “Piping Inspection Code Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Rerating of In-Service Piping Systems”. As stated in API RP 570, injection points are sometimes subject to accelerated or localized corrosion from normal or abnormal operating conditions. So, API RP 570 recommends more rigorous inspection of injection points due to the potential susceptibility to accelerated or localized corrosion and these areas need to be inspected thoroughly on a regular schedule. Moreover, inspection requirements can be found in 01-SAIP-04 “Injection Point Inspection Program”. This Saudi Aramco inspection procedure provides guidelines to plant personnel on the injection point's identification, tracking and monitoring. Refer to 01-SAIP-04 for more details.

8 Management of Change

The Management of Change (MOC) process shall be used to identify changes which could impact the inspection plan for a particular injection point circuit. Changes to the composition of the additive, location of the injection, and length of time the additive is injected can occur frequently. This is especially important when a trial program for an additive is initiated. Close communication between Operations, Engineering, and Inspection personnel regarding these types of changes will help prevent the development of problems due to an oversight in the inspection program. In addition, the same type of communication on new installations will help improve the effectiveness and minimize the cost impact of the inspection program by addressing key issues such as materials selection, inspection access, and potential corrosion problems. A detailed review of the methodology involved in performing an effective MOC is beyond the scope of this best practice.

Below are some examples of work/changes requiring MOC approval:

Use of different chemicals

Change of chemical Manufacturer

Process parameters

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Materials of construction

Locations of the injection point

Routing chemicals to any sewer

New chemicals being introduced

Existing chemicals being mixed in different ways

Quill replacement in kind to ensure updated construction drawings.

The success of the program depends on timely communication of changes made to injection systems. Ideally any change in chemical type, injection rate, duration, injection location or concentration should signal a need to analyze potential impact on the inspection program.

9 Chemical Injection System Maintenance

The proper assembly and care of a chemical injection system is extremely important. Establishing and following a thorough maintenance routine will aid in preventing any problems. To ensure maximum performance, periodic checks and cleaning are necessary for the injection quill. This cleaning practice can be done during the plant shutdown.

All tubing connections, fittings, tanks, and pumps should be checked by the plant operators on a daily basis. The injection fittings must be examined regularly for leaks and thread damage. Injection fittings should be thoroughly cleaned at least once a year. Installed filters should be disassembled, cleaned, and inspected on a regular basis for contamination and damage. The frequency of inspection is dependent upon the fluid injection rates; the higher the rates, the shorter the time between inspections. Filter elements should be replaced if there are any signs of plugging or contamination. The filter element can be flushed from the inside out with solvent. If any significant debris is noted at any one time, the source must be identified and eliminated. The check valve should be checked regularly to confirm that its seat is clean and seated correctly to stop any back flow.

If a chemical injection system appears to be plugged or the flow restricted, stop injecting immediately. Pull and inspect the filters for debris. If the injection system does not respond to this treatment, stop pumping. Troubleshoot the chemical injection system to identify the location of plugging and clean it. Continued pumping may only increase the severity of the problem and possibly damage the system.

If any piping or equipment shuts down or is taken down for inspection or maintenance, the chemical injection system related to this piping or equipment shall be stopped. This will avoid concentration of the injected chemical at the injection site which can lead to corrosion for the pumps, valves and piping system.

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If the chemical pump is to be stopped for an extended period in excess of 2 months, it is recommended that the original chemical be displaced from the injection system by flushing with an appropriate solvent. Stagnant chemical lying in the injection system could cause plugging, and corrosion. Selection of solvent will be determined on a case by case basis. Contact CSD/ME&CCD Corrosion Technology Unit for further guidance. Proper mothballing of the chemical system including tanks and pumps shall be considered based on the downtime period defined in Saudi Aramco Mothball Manual (SAER-2365). This manual provides basic guidelines and recommendations for the preparation of detailed procedures for mothballing piping and equipment.

If polymerization of a chemical is a problem when the system is suspended, then the line shall be provided with drainage capability and the line drained immediately following suspension of service. This shall be clearly stated in the OIM for the system.

The injection point isolation valve must not be closed without stopping the pumps, because injection against a closed injection location valve will cause continual operation of the PZV.

Records of maintenance activities, repairs and downtime for the chemical injection system should be documented to develop appropriate maintenance strategies.

10 Injection Point Documentation

The injection system details shall be documented, including:

Process operating window

Anticipated conditions

Equipment design

Materials of construction

Monitoring requirements

Inspection requirements

Appendix A contains a sample form that can be used for documenting plant injection point details. This form should be carefully filled out completely with as much detailed information as possible for each injection point in the plant. It will help concerned engineers/inspectors to make sure that all injection points are included in the inspection program. This form will assist plant inspector to select the proper inspection techniques and to optimize the inspection interval.

For caustic, neutralizing and filming amine injection points, all PMI performed must be documented and logged in inspection files. Proved quill tip location and orientation after installation and before startup by radiography shall be also retained by the plant inspection. It is recommended that a digital photograph before installation to be taken

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for the quill tube inserted in the pipe so that the conditions and details of the quill can be noted. This photograph should be documented in inspection files.

11

Safety

The purpose of warnings and cautions highlighted below is to call the operator’s attention to possible danger of injury to personnel and/or damage to equipment, and deserve careful attention and understanding. Safety precautions must be established throughout any activities related to the chemical injection system operations including, but not limited to the following:

Safe operation for the retrieval equipment requires a minimum of two (2) trained operators.

The retrieval equipment shall not be used unless the crew performing the work has been trained in its safe operation.

All plant safety requirements and environmental regulations shall be followed.

The media type, its pressure and temperature for the attended job shall be identified before commencing the job.

All the required personal protective equipment shall be provided and used when checking the injector, i.e. hard hat, safety glasses, protective clothing, face shield, safety gloves, breathing apparatus, etc.

Any actions which could vary system pressure such as surges caused by opening and closing of valves and chokes should be delayed until completion of the attended job related to the chemical injection system operations.

Enough clearance for safe operation around the attended location should be established.

Wind direction prior to starting operations involving hazardous products should be noticed.

Up-to-date CHBs shall be posted near all chemical storage tanks and unloading sites.

Ensure safe release of chemical to the environment by proper installation of equipment, provision of ventilation and personnel protection.

Every chemical injection skid shall be equipped with eye washes and showers side to be used in case of any emergencies situation.

Waste chemical shall be disposed in a safe place.

For the retractable injector, be careful when breaking connections. Release the pressure on the chemical line using the drain valve on the pump discharge. Be sure to close the isolating valve on the process before inspecting the retractable injector. Break the connection between the retractable injector and the isolating valve slowly

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and carefully to release any pressure. Verify that the valve is completely shut and holding before removing the retractable injector. Never operate the retractable injector without the external support frame.

The operator should always position himself to the side when working on the injector location.

The following sections (12, 13 and 14) describe the details of chemical and water wash injection requirements in Saudi Aramco facilities with respect to design basis, injection locations, and material of construction.

12 Refinery Chemicals and Water Wash Injection

Many different types of process additives are used to maintain reliability and optimal performance of refinery operations. The types of injection chemicals used in refineries are as varied as the intent and purpose of the programs they service. An additive can be either a commodity chemical such as acid, caustic, methanol; or a proprietary chemical such as neutralizing amine, filming amine, antifoulant and chloride. The additive can be as simple as a water stream injected to dissolve salt deposits or to dilute corrosive process components. Some of the major types of additives used in refineries are:

12.1 Caustic Addition in Crude Units

Caustic (NaOH) injection is used to reduce crude column overhead acid corrosion, caused by hydrogen chloride (HCl). Caustic is injected at one or two points in a Crude Unit. Caustic may be injected upstream of the desalters but it is not recommended. It should be noted that, pH above 7.0 leads to tighter emulsions and poor performance of the desalters while pH below 7 is better for the desalter performance. Additionally, it is injected at a location between the desalter and the fired heaters. The location of this second injection point varies from refinery to refinery in Saudi Aramco’s operations. It may be injected immediately downstream of the desalter or immediately upstream of the heaters.

12.1.1 Design Basis

The design is based on injecting up to 5 lb of NaOH (100%) per 1000 bbl of crude in the form of a 3 wt % aqueous caustic solution mixed with sufficient bypassed crude to maintain an injection velocity of 30 ft/sec, as a minimum for good mixing, into the main crude stream. The following minimum velocities should be considered when a caustic injection system is designed:

Caustic Injection Orifice Velocity, ft/sec

20

Slipstream Injection Orifice Velocity, ft/sec

20

Crude Velocity in Main Stream, ft/sec

7

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12.1.2 Injection Locations

Downstream of the Desalter

Caustic injection downstream of the desalter is an effective method

to reduce overhead corrosion. Caustic injected at this location

must be thoroughly mixed with the crude stream. This is best achieved by use of a crude slip stream and static mixer. The crude slip stream should preferably be obtained from a location after the desalter to eliminate undesalted crude from being reinjected into

the stream. In some cases, injection into the crude pump suction has had an equally effective mixing role as using a slip stream. Inadequate mixing can result in excessive fouling of heat exchanger trains.

Caustic is usually injected at a low concentration, on the order of 1

to 5 weight percent (2 to 7 o Baume). This low concentration

requires a greater volume and aids in effective mixing with the crude stream. The injection of a low concentration also reduces the risk of caustic corrosion and caustic stress corrosion cracking. In order to minimize fouling of the heat exchangers, it is critical that caustic quality be strictly controlled. At refineries where there are large fluctuations in caustic quality, heat exchanger fouling and caustic stress corrosion cracking have occurred.

Piping and equipment downstream of the injection location must be post weld heat treated (PWHT) to minimize the risk of caustic stress corrosion cracking. However, even PWHT pipework is not immune from cracking in high concentration caustic streams.

A Monel 400 quill is required for caustic injection at this location.

Such quills have an expected service life well in excess of ten

years.

The measured chloride content in the overhead accumulator water controls caustic addition downstream of the desalters. The target range is 10-30 ppm Cl - in the accumulator water. Currently, at most Saudi Aramco refineries, operators adjust the caustic rate when a chloride reading is out of specified limits. However, the injection rate is usually limited to a maximum of 2 PTB (pounds per thousand barrels) to prevent downstream fouling.

Upstream of the Heater

Caustic injection upstream of crude heater is an alternative if and only if heat exchangers downstream of the desalter experience

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severe fouling. However, there are increased risks from caustic injection at these higher temperatures. For contrast, Shell’s Best Practice specifically requires caustic injection at temperatures less than 350°F. Nalco’s Best Practice limits caustic injection to a temperature of less than 300°F. Caustic at elevated temperatures is extremely corrosive and can corrode the injection quill or the pipe wall itself if the quill is incorrectly positioned. Further, caustic may cause caustic stress corrosion cracking of non-stress relieved pipework and heater tubes. Injection of caustic at this location requires precision engineering and operation. Caustic of consistent strength and quality must be thoroughly pre-mixed with a slip stream of crude, ensuring thorough mixing with the use of a static mixer. Injection is achieved via Monel 400 pipework, valves, and quill. The crude slipstream must be carefully monitored to ensure that the caustic stream is not injected un-mixed into the main crude line. The Monel 400 quill will experience some minor sulfidation on the process side at these temperatures, in the region of very approximately, 500°F.

12.1.3 Crude Bypass Stream

The most important consideration in the design of the crude bypass stream is to establish a controlled flow which will maintain an injection velocity of 30 ft/sec into the main crude stream. [It is assumed that the velocity of the main crude stream at the point of injection will normally be greater than 7 ft/sec].

In order to meet this objective, while at the same time limiting the bypassed crude rate to less than 1% of the maximum expected crude rate, three differently sized injection sections, as shown in Table 2, are recommended to cover the range of crude unit capacities:

Table 2 - Crude Unit Charge Rate vs. the Slipstream Rate

Maximum Expected Crude Rate at 600°F, BPD

Bypass Rate at 300°F, BPD (GPM)

Over 100,000

940

(27)

60,000-l00,000

580

(17)

Under 60,000

300 (9)

It is obviously important to stop injecting caustic during crude flow interruptions to avoid formation of a pool of concentrated caustic in the carbon steel system. It is, therefore, strongly recommended that a low

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flow shutdown be installed to stop the caustic pump when the bypassed crude rate decreases to less, than 85% of its design rate.

12.1.4 Requirements for Caustic Injection System

The detailed design of the caustic injection system is shown in the Library Drawing # DB-950177. Table-3 summarizes the caustic injection requirements. Refinery must have current as-built quill detailed design drawings which also specify the quill materials of construction. These drawings should be up-to-date and signed-off.

Table 3 - Caustic Injection Requirements

Variable/Location

Target or Limit

Comment

Source

Fresh caustic only

Spent caustic results in tramp compounds entering the system and causing corrosion, fouling, emulsions, and foaming.

Caustic concentration

1 to 5 wt % (2 to 7 o Baume)

Typical values. Dilute caustic aids mixing. Identical concentration must be provided. Variation in caustic strength injected to process stream is a major cause of preheater fouling.

Measurement

Each batch

Essential. Measure the concentration of each and every batch of caustic to be used in the plant prior to use. Data must be stored in a permanent record. Injection of off- specification caustic at one plant caused stress corrosion cracking and an economic loss of over $1 million. Injection of off-specification caustic at another plant caused excess fouling.

Dilution water O 2

< 20 ppb

Stripped sour water is a good source.

Dilution water Cl-

Zero

Target.

Storage tank

 

Target. The larger the better to minimize batch make-up operation and variation. Nitrogen blanket to exclude oxygen.

Mechanical mixers.

Caustic delivery to unit

Dedicated line

Strongly preferred. A dedicated line from the bulk caustic tank to the unit day tank facilitates the correct dilution of caustic. At least two plants that use a complex caustic header system have experienced major problems with cross contamination and delivery of out-of-specification caustic that resulted in major operational problems.

Injection location

 

NACE recommends and 80% of the industry injects caustic downstream of the desalter. The suction of the crude booster pump is the normal location and assists efficient caustic mixing. In cases where preheater fouling is an issue, then caustic injection upstream of the heater is allowable. Ras Tanura Plant 15 has had good long term success with this latter methodology.

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Variable/Location

Target or Limit

Comment

Injection temperature

Maximum 350°F

Best practice of the majority of the industry. Shell restricts caustic injection temperature to 350°F. Nalco’s Best Practice restricts caustic injection to 300°F. Higher temperatures can be used but only if fouling of preheat exchangers or some other site specific need makes it essential. Fouling can be readily detected by measurement of pressure drop across the preheater. Higher temperature injection requires careful and continuing attention to every detail as failures at higher temperatures can be catastrophic.

 

Salt < 2 PTB, add 1 PTB NaOH

Caustic injection rates are fine tuned based on overhead chloride levels. Initial rates for a new unit follow the rules of thumb provided. The maximum amount injected is limited to less than 2 PTB NaOH. Amounts injected may be limited further due to effects on downstream process such Visbreakers, FCCUs, and hydrocrackers.

Quantity injected

Salt 2-5 PTB, add 1.5 - 2 PTB NaOH

Maximum 2 PTB

Injection quill material

Monel 400

Saudi Aramco experience has demonstrated that this material serves well whether the injection point is located downstream of the desalter or upstream of the heater.

 

Only when the unit is down

The caustic injection quill can be removed only when the unit is down. The quill must be inspected at every T&I.

PMI

Positive Material Identification of the injection quill must be performed on site on all quill fittings to verify metallurgy upon the removal. This must be documented and logged in inspection files.

Injection quill removal

NDT

Visual inspection supplemented by Magnetic particle testing or penetrant testing should be conducted by the plant inspection to determine the need for replacement. Ultrasonic Thickness measurement should be taken on all quill fittings. The retirement thickness (T min ) of the quill should be calculated by the Inspection Department in cooperation with the refinery Corrosion Engineer.

Injection quill length

Injection quill must be the correct length

Field verification of pipe diameter and quill length to be confirmed before installation by operations, process engineer, inspection and maintenance.

Injection slip stream

Dilute caustic mixed 1:100 with crude slip stream

Use of a slip stream aids dispersion of the caustic and helps to minimize caustic-caused corrosion problems. The slip stream is effectively mixed prior to injection using a Monel 400 static mixer. All caustic pipe and fittings shall be Monel 400.

Installation of a flowmeter

The slip stream line should be fitted with a flowmeter for positive flow indication and appropriate restriction orifice.

In-line Mixer

Static mixer

Static mixer shall be used to ensure a homogenous mixture.

Monel 400

Use Monel 400 only.

Injection orientation

Co-current with crude flow

The quill should be installed in the pipe so that the hole of the quill faces the fluid downstream (Figure 8).

Quill construction

PMI

Shop QA/QC inspector must identify all materials to be Monel 400 during fabrication. The PMI Results must be documented and compared to the approved site drawings.

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Variable/Location

Target or Limit

Comment

 

Welding procedure

A special welding procedure should be verified by CSD welding engineers.

Quill installation

PMI

Positive Materials Identification of the injection quill and all slip stream pipe and fittings must be performed on site to verify metallurgy. Material other than Monel 400 shall not be fitted.

Radiography

Location of quill tip shall be proved after installation and before startup by radiography. A permanent record of the radiograph shall be retained by the refinery.

 

Non-retractable with match-mark indicator

Correct positioning of the quill is critical. Therefore, a non- retractable design shall be used. A match-mark indicator is used to show the orientation of the quill opening.

Quill design

Minimum schedule 80

The quill must be schedule 80 and/or thicker.

Latest revision available

Drawings update / redlined and approved by CSD should be archived and new drawings communicated to all affected refinery personnel.

Crude pipework upstream of the injection point

PWHT for minimum of 3 diameters upstream

Required that the pipework, fittings, etc., be post weld heat treated to prevent caustic stress corrosion cracking. Failures due to Caustic SCC have occurred in Saudi Aramco plants.

Crude pipework downstream of the injection point

PWHT all piping systems and equipment.

Required that the pipework, fittings, etc., be post weld heat treated to prevent caustic stress corrosion cracking. Failures due to Caustic SCC have occurred in Saudi Aramco plants.

Crude pipework

 

The pipework upstream and downstream of the injection location must be inspected as per API RP 570 and 01- SAIP-04 for injection point. The frequency of NDT inspection shall be increased to every three months for newly installed quills for the first year of operation.

inspection

NDT

Operating procedures

Caustic injection rate

As communicated by the operation engineer on a daily basis and any deviations reported in RSS report.

12.2 Neutralizing Amine in Crude Units

Neutralizing amine is introduced into the crude unit overhead lines from the atmospheric columns and vacuum columns to neutralize the acids that cause very low pH and high corrosion rates at the water dew point. The objective of injecting neutralizing amine is to control the pH in the overhead receiver water at a pH of 5.5 to 6.5 which is the range commonly used in the industry. However, some companies have adopted different ranges. Chevron uses a target range of 7.5-8.0. This higher pH is achievable in systems using ammonia for neutralization but is not cost effective in Saudi Aramco systems where a neutralizing amine is used.

12.2.1 Design Basis

The neutralizing amine should be injected through an injection quill

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with steam to distribute and atomize the neutralizing chemical. This method will fully disperse the neutralizer into the vapor stream and will prevent neat chemical injection which could lead to under-deposit and severe localized corrosion.

In order to have a good neutralizing amine injection the following items shall be consider in the system design:

All process-wetted parts, including the injector pipe with a quill tip or nozzle, are constructed of Hastelloy C2000, B-2 or Inconel 625.

The steam pressure should be in the range of 50 to 150 PSI.

The steam should be trapped and filtered close to the injection point.

The steam injector equipment, valves and check valves in steam side service should be rated for this service with steam.

The neutralizer mixing tee should be as close to the injector as possible.

The mixing tee should be horizontal to or above the top of the injection pipe to insure free uniform flow of the neutralizer.

The neutralizer mixing tee and the chemical and steam lines should be supported on adjacent structures to avoid placing excessive strain on the chemical injector pipe and packing gland.

Both the steam line and the neutralizer line shall have a check valve to insure proper flow.

Both the steam line and the neutralizer line should have a filter (Y-strainer – 100 mesh) located near the steam injector to prevent mill scale or other solid contaminates from fouling the injector pipe or nozzle.

The steam injector should be installed in the top or side of the horizontal section of overhead vapor line, not the bottom.

Using 316 stainless steel materials or better for the steam and neutralizer line to the steam injector is recommended.

12.2.2 Injection Locations

The neutralizer should be injected into of the crude column overhead vapor line before any salts can form, and before any water can condense. The neutralizing amine injection point should be located near the top of the crude unit overhead line after the first elbow.

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Chemical Injection Systems

12.2.3 Requirements for Neutralizing Amine Injection System

The detailed design of neutralizing amine injection system is shown in the Library Drawing # DB-950178. Table-4 summarizes the neutralizing amine injection requirements. Refinery must have current as-built quill detailed design drawings which also specify the quill materials of construction. These drawings should be up-to-date and signed-off.

Table 4 - Neutralizing Amine Injection Requirements

Variable /Location

Target or Limit

Comment

Filter

Y-Strainer

Preferred. 100 mesh typical. The Y-Strainer should be installed in both the steam line and neutralizer line immediately before mixing, but at a location that can easily be serviced (easily accessible from an existing platform). This will reduce the problem with quill blockage by preventing mill scale or other solid contaminates from fouling the injector pipe or nozzle.

Treatment rate

Enough to maintain pH in the Overhead receiver from 5.5 to 6.5

Treatment rate is adjusted to give the required overhead receiver pH. The Nalco Strong Acid Test provides a method to calculate the target injection rate that will assure neutralization of the first drops of condensing acid.

Injection location

After 1 st elbow

Neutralizer must be injected into the overhead system. Injection into the reflux is bad practice. For crude unit, preferred location is immediately downstream of the first elbow if the outlet pipe is installed at the top of the crude column.

 

> 5 pipe diameters from downstream elbow.

Strongly preferred to achieve proper mixing and to avoid erosion-corrosion on downstream elbow.

 

Co-injection with wash water

Neutralizer co-injection with the wash water without steam (downstream of the 2 nd elbow) can be considered as an alternative on a case by case basis with approval of CSD.

Injection orientation

Injection point with steam to be top side of line if entering on a horizontal portion of line.

 
 

Co-current with the process stream flow.

The quill should be installed in the pipe so that the hole of the quill faces the fluid downstream.

Mixing Tee

The mixing tee should be as close to the injector as possible.

Mixing Tee should be located at an elevation above the injection point. The mixing tee should be horizontal to or above the top of the injection pipe to insure free uniform flow of the neutralizer.

Steam co-injection

The steam used should be from 50 psi to 150 psi.

Required. Use steam co-injection to ensure neutralizer is vaporized and adequately dispersed. Use lowest pressure steam that meets design need. Inject into the overhead at no more than 5 psi over stream pressure. The steam should be trapped and filtered close to the injection point.

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Variable /Location

Target or Limit

Comment

 

Installation of a flowmeter

The slip stream line should be fitted with a flowmeter for positive flow indication and appropriate restriction orifice.

 

Steam injector equipment, valves and check valves in steam side service

Should be rated for this service with steam.

Steam and neutralizer lines and fittings metallurgy

Piping from and including the mix point with steam shall be a compatible material.

Using 316L stainless steel or better tubing material is recommended. This tubing is clean and more resistant to corrosion than mild steel that is commonly used. Monel shall not be used for inhibitor service.

Steam trap

Should be installed on steam line close to the mixing point

 

Quill design

Retractable

Mandatory. Allows maintenance on-stream.

 

12 o’clock

Normal orientation.

 

Inject in center 1/3 of the stream

Preferred to inject in the center of the stream to ensure even distribution away from pipe walls. In large systems it may be impossible to obtain a quill that can be retractable, i.e., removed on-line and meet this criteria. In this case, the minimum insertion into the pipe flow must be no less than 6 inches.

 

Injection quill length

Injection quills must be the correct length. Field verification of pipe diameter and quill length to be confirmed before installation by operations, process engineer, inspection and maintenance.

Quill metallurgy

Hastelloy C-2000, B-2 or Inconel 625.

Nalco provide Hastelloy C-2000 quills. Hastelloy B-2 that was supplied previously is also a good choice. Monel shall not be used for inhibitor service. Any existing stainless steel quills should be replaced at the next T&I.

Quill installation

PMI

Positive Materials Identification of the injection quill must be performed on site to verify metallurgy.

 

Central with the pipework

Location of quill tip shall be proved after installation and before startup by radiography. A permanent record of the radiograph shall be retained by the plant.

12.3 Filming Amine (Corrosion Inhibitor) (Crude Unit, Fractionation Columns at Rheniformers and Visbreaker; and Debutanizer at Hydrocracker)

Filming amine is added to provide a protective film, or barrier, between the metal surface and the corrosive liquids in the overhead system.

Injection rates are typically set to add the filmer at 3-5 ppm based on total overhead naphtha rate. Filming amine should normally not be injected in concentrated form. The product is injected into the overhead line through a quill with a naphtha slipstream with a dilution between 50 and 100 naphtha to 1 inhibitor. Typically, naphtha dilution is provided to help the dispersion, at the

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Chemical Injection Systems

injection point, and to dilute the concentrated filming amine that may be corrosive to injection equipment.

12.3.1 Design Basis

The filming amine shall be injected through an injection quill with naphtha to distribute the filming chemical. This method will fully disperse the filming amine into the overhead stream and will prevent neat chemical injection which can be corrosive at elevated temperature.

In order to have a good filming amine injection the following items shall be consider in the system design:

All process-wetted parts, including the injector pipe with a quill tip or nozzle, are constructed of Hastelloy C2000, B-2 or Inconel 625.

The filming amine mixing tee should be as close to the injector as possible.

The mixing tee should be horizontal to or above the top of the injection pipe to insure free uniform flow of the filming amine.

The filming amine mixing tee and the chemical and naphtha lines should be supported on adjacent structures to avoid placing excessive strain on the chemical injector pipe and packing gland.

Both the naphtha line and the filming amine line shall have a check valve to insure proper flow.

The Y-Strainer must be installed in the naphtha slip stream line and it is preferred for the filming amine line. The Y-Strainer shall be located near the injector to prevent mill scale or other solid contaminates from fouling the injector pipe or nozzle.

The injector should be installed in the top or side of the horizontal section of overhead line, not the bottom.

Using 316 stainless steel materials or better for the naphtha and filming amine line to the injector is recommended.

12.3.2 Injection Locations

The filming amine will typically be injected at several other locations in addition to the crude unit over head including but not limited to:

Fractionation Columns at Rheniformers

Fractionation Columns at Visbreaker

Debutanizer at Hydrocracker

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For crude units, the filming amine is typically injected immediately downstream of the neutralizer separated by minimum space of 5D if possible. However, Ras Tanura Refinery injects filming amine upstream of fin fans.

12.3.3 Requirements for Filming Amine Injection System

The detailed design of filming amine injection system is shown in the Library Drawing # DB-950179. Table-5 summarizes the filming amine injection requirements. Refinery must have current as-built quill detailed design drawings which also specify the quill materials of construction. These drawings should be up-to-date and signed-off.

Table 5 - Corrosion Inhibitor Injection Requirements for Crude Unit Atmospheric Tower Overhead

Variable /Location

Target or Limit

Comment

Filter

Y-Strainer

The Y-Strainer must be installed in the naphtha slip stream line and it is preferred for the filming amine line. The Y-Strainer should be installed immediately before mixing, but at a location that it can easily be serviced, that is, easily accessible from an existing platform. This will reduce the problem with quill blockage by preventing mill scale or other solid contaminates from fouling the injector pipe or nozzle.

Corrosion Inhibitor Type

Oil dispersible film former

Typical. Presently used in all Saudi Aramco crude unites. An option is to evaluate water soluble products co-injected with the water wash with the approval of CSD and SARCOP.

Injection rate

3 to 5 ppmv of total naphtha product and naphtha reflux.

Typical for normal operations. Depends on product used.

Injection location

After 1st elbow

Typical. Most Saudi Aramco crude units inject corrosion inhibitor downstream of the 1st elbow, if the outlet pipe is installed at the top of the crude column, and downstream of the neutralizing amine injection point. Ras Tanura primary injection point is at the fin fans. Secondary injection at the fin fans may be appropriate for refineries with flow distribution problems.

5 pipe diameters from neutralizer injection

>

Rule-of-thumb (if possible).

5 pipe diameters from downstream elbow.

>

Strongly preferred to achieve proper mixing and to avoid erosion-corrosion on downstream elbow (if possible).

Slip stream

100 naphtha to 1 inhibitor

Dilute inhibitor in naphtha stream. Flow measurement on inhibitor and naphtha streams essential. 100 mesh screen required. The naphtha stream can be taken from the reflux or other similar source.

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Variable /Location

Target or Limit

Comment

 

Installation of a flowmeter

The slip stream line should be fitted with a flowmeter for positive flow indication and appropriate restriction orifice.

Injection orientation

Injection point with naphtha to be top side of line if entering on a horizontal portion of line.

 

Co-current with the process stream flow

The quill should be installed in the pipe so that the hole of the quill faces the fluid downstream.

Mixing Tee

The mixing tee should be as close to the injector as possible.

Mixing Tee should be located at an elevation above the injection point. The mixing tee should be horizontal to or above the top of the injection pipe to insure free uniform flow of the neutralizer.

Naphtha and filming amine lines and fittings metallurgy

Piping from and including the mix point with naphtha shall be a compatible material

Using 316L stainless steel or better tubing material is recommended. This tubing is clean and more resistant to corrosion than mild steel that is commonly used. Monel shall not be used for inhibitor service.

 

Retractable

Mandatory. Allows maintenance on-stream.

12 o’clock

Normal orientation.

Quill design

Inject in center 1/3 of the stream

Preferred to inject in the center of the stream to ensure even distribution away from pipe walls. In large systems it may be impossible to obtain a quill that can be retractable, i.e., removed on-line and meet this criteria. In this case, the minimum insertion into the pipe flow must be no less than 6 inches.

Injection quill length

Injection quills must be the correct length. Field verification of pipe diameter and quill length to be confirmed before installation by operations, process engineer, inspection and maintenance.

Quill metallurgy

Hastelloy C-2000, B-2 or Inconel 625.

Nalco provide Hastelloy C-2000 quills. Hastelloy B-2 that was supplied previously is also a good choice. Monel shall not be used for inhibitor service. Any existing stainless steel quills should be replaced at the next T&I.

 

PMI

Positive Materials Identification of the injection quill must be performed on site to verify metallurgy.

Quill installation

Central with the pipework

Location of quill tip shall be proved after installation and before startup by radiography. A permanent record of the radiograph will be retained by the refinery.

12.4 Water Wash in Refining Units

Water washing has been practiced in many refinery process units as a means of preventing formation or removing fouling salt deposits and to dilute corrosives, often in column overhead systems, hydrotreater reactor effluent systems, and in the overhead of some fractionators.

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12.4.1 Design Basis for Water Wash Rates

Most water washes have been continuous. Intermittent washing has been used in some applications for periodic removal of salt deposits. Low water wash rates can be more harmful than beneficial. The water rate must be high enough so that the bulk of the water does not flash at system conditions when injected. Because many of the salt deposits encountered in refining processes are hygroscopic, inadequate water washing can lead to severe localized corrosion in certain circumstances. The water wash rate must be sufficient to maintain at least 25% of the total water injected as liquid water. Typically, for a crude unit overhead, a wash water rate of 4 to 6% of total naphtha stream volume is needed to meet this 25% liquid water requirement.

12.4.2 Injection Locations

Many refinery process unites have used water wash as a corrosion control method. The following are list of the water wash injection locations which are:

Crude unit atmospheric column overhead piping system

Water is usually injected in the overhead piping to help quench and scrub the overhead vapors, dilute acids formed, and keep any salts or acids from accumulating in the system.

Hydroprocessing unit reactor effluent cooling trains

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gases, generated during hydrotreating, combine to form ammonium bisulfide salts as the reactor effluent stream cools down. To prevent plugging of exchanger tubes, water is injected upstream of the salt formation temperature (upstream of the effluent coolers) to remove ammonium chloride or ammonium bisulfide deposits and to dilute aqueous condensates containing these salts.

Catalytic reforming unit

The typical injection point has been located upstream from the point in the pretreater reactor feed/effluent exchangers where the temperature allows deposition of ammonium chloride. Water is injected on a continuous or intermittent basis to remove accumulations of ammonium chloride salts.

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Fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) light ends recovery unit

Water wash is typically injected upstream of the fractionators overhead condenser and upstream of interstage cooler to reduce corrosion by dilution of the contaminants, such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and cyanide. Conditions in FCCU light ends recovery units have been conducive to hydrogen blistering, hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) and stress-oriented hydrogen induced cracking (SOHIC) problems due to the hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and cyanide formed by the catalytic cracking reaction.

12.4.3 Requirements for Water Wash Injection System

The detailed design of the water wash injection system is shown in the Library Drawing # DB-950176. Table-6 summarizes the water wash injection requirements. Refinery must have current as-built quill detailed design drawings which also specify the quill materials of construction. These drawings should be up-to-date and signed-off.

Table 6 - Water Wash Injection Requirements for Crude Unit Atmospheric Tower Overhead

Variable/Location

Target or Limit

Comment

Source

Overhead receiver.

Recycle water from the overhead receiver is the most common source.

 

O2 <20 ppb

Required. Oxygen in wash water results in major corrosion damage.

TDS

Total dissolve solids (TDS) typically are in the region of 160 ppm in Saudi Aramco operations. Low figures are preferable but not controllable.

Quality

Tramp amines

Avoid the presence of tramp neutralizing amines if at all possible. Neutralizers introduced with the wash water help to control overhead receiver pH but do not help control pH in the first condensing drops of acid in the overhead, if condensation occurs upstream of the water wash.

Injection location

Should be based on dew point location/deposit forming location

For Crude unit: Preferred location is immediately downstream of the second elbow after the crude column if the outlet pipe is installed at the top of the crude column.

Injection rate

5 % volume of overhead naphtha

Target is to maintain at least 25% of the injected water in the liquid phase after injection, so that solids may be washed through the system and the condensing hydrochloric acid diluted. This water wash rate may not be achievable with undersized or poorly designed overhead receivers.

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Variable/Location

Target or Limit

 

Comment

   

Accurate measurement and control of wash water flow

Measurement and

is

essential especially in locations where on water feed

control

is

used to supply different parts of the system, such as

the overhead and the fin fans.

Nozzle design

 

Spraying Systems Company, Wheaton, Illinois, (www.spray.com) “Whirljet-CX” design, standard hollow cone nozzle has been used in some Aramco refineries.

Nozzle orientation

Co-current with the process stream flow.

Orient spray nozzle to spray downward along center line of vapor line

   

Corrosion resistant alloys such as Hastelloy C-276 or

Hastelloy C-276, Inconel

Inconel 625 are the materials of choice for this service but only available in batches of 25 or more from the

Nozzle metallurgy

625

manufacturer. SS 316L and 316F have been used as

less desirable alternative in crude unit overhead systems. Rabigh Refinery uses alloy 600.

a

12.5 Chloride Injection

There are differences in operation between semi-regenerative and continuous catalytic reformers. The differences are related to the amount of chloride injected, to replace chloride lost from the catalyst during the run and maintain catalyst activity, and whether the chloride is injected continuously.

Old reformer units use fixed bed reactors in series. Typically, four reactor beds are used in a cascade arrangement. These units are referred to as semi- regenerative catalytic reformers. Removing one bed at a time from service and physically opening the reactor and removing and replacing the catalyst achieve regeneration of this type of process.

Continuous Catalyst Regeneration (CCR) platforming is another catalytic reforming process which is operated fairly dry to minimize stripping chlorides from the catalyst and forming hydrochloric acid that is very corrosive. In CCR, the catalyst is continuously withdrawn from the reactor then regenerated, activated and fed back to the stacked reactor bed.

The chloride content of the catalyst must be kept in the range that is provided by the catalyst supplier to maintain good catalyst activity and selectivity. To maintain chloride on the catalyst at an optimum level as per catalyst supplier recommendations (determined by catalyst sampling), and a moisture level in the recycle gas (determined by on line recycle gas moisture analyzers), it is necessary to continuously inject a solution of chloride, methanol, and reformate as a dilution agent. The injection rate of each chemical required is expressed as ppm wt% of material active ingredient based on the unit feed rate.

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12.5.1 Design Basis

The injection quill and as much of the related piping and valves as possible have often been fabricated from Inconel 600 (UNS N06600), which has sufficient nickel content to make it immune to chloride stress corrosion cracking.

12.5.2 Injection locations

Fixed Bed Naphtha Reforming Units (Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Reformers)

In Semi-Regenerative Catalytic Reformers, solution of chloride is injected continuously ahead of the reactors to replace chloride lost from the catalyst during the run and maintain catalyst activity. Sometimes methanol is added to maintain minimum water in the recycle gas. Catalyst life is improved if a small amount of water is present but not enough water to wash chlorides off the catalyst.

Continuous Catalyst Regeneration (CCR) Platformer

In the CCR Platformer, solution of chloride is injected in the platformer feed line. Chloride is also injected to CCR regenerator in chlorination zone to keep the proper activity of the platformer catalyst base function. The injection of chloride, from the chloride storage tank, serves both platformer startup and CCR normal operation.

12.5.3 Requirements for Chloride Injection System

Table-7 summarizes the chloride injection requirements. Refinery must have current as-built quill detailed design drawings which also specify the quill materials of construction. These drawings should be up-to-date and signed-off.

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Table 7 - Chloride Injection Requirements

Variable /Location

Target or Limit

Comment

 

Ahead of the reactors in semi- regenerative catalytic reformers

The chloride is continuously injected

In the platformer feed line of the first heater

The chloride is continuously injected

Injection location

Downstream from the heaters

The chloride is continuously injected to avoid any possible buildup of chloride in the heater tubes

In the chlorination zone of CCR regeneration tower

The chloride is continuously injected to keep the proper activity of the platformer catalyst base function

Between the CCR Combined Feed Exchangers

The chloride is intermittently injected during start-up.

Nozzle insertion

Inject centerline of the pipe

The injection nozzle for chloride solution should be extended to the centerline of the pipe to assure proper mixing and to protect against localized corrosion.

Nozzle metallurgy

Alloy 600 (Inconel 600)

Stainless Steel 316L shall not be used for this service since this alloy has been very susceptible to chloride stress corrosion cracking. Alloy 600 (Inconel 600) has sufficient nickel content to make it immune to chloride stress corrosion cracking.

12.6 Antifoulant Injection

Fouling deposits can degrade the operation of refinery process units in several ways: restricting fluid flow, reducing heat transfer rates, shortening service life, and compromising product quality. While fouling can be found throughout the refinery, the most common problem area includes Condensate Fractionation Unit.

Fouling deposits can consist of inorganic materials, such as iron sulfide corrosion by-products, and organic materials, such as agglomerated asphaltenes, thermally degraded polymer, and coke. Deposits often contain a complex mixture of organic and inorganic materials.

An antifoulant is a chemical additive which may be injected into a process stream at low concentration to prevent the buildup of deposits on downstream tube/shell exchangers. Because of the variety of complex mechanisms which contribute to an overall fouling problem, no single balanced formulation is effective for all fouling cases. Consequently, each fouling problem is highly individual and dependent on many variables such as experience on similar operating units, unit history, stream characterization, deposit analysis, and/or laboratory screening. The use of antifoulants is often a matter of experimentation to establish which compound is most effective. Then, the success of an antifoulant application depends largely upon properly selecting the

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right antifoulant for the fouling problem at hand and determining what dosage level is required to maintain fouling control.

12.6.1 Design Basis

The injection quill should be made out of 316L stainless pipe.

12.6.2 Injection Locations

Common applications of antifoulants have included preheat exchangers and furnaces in desalted crude, atmospheric bottoms, coker feed, or hydroprocessing unit services. Treatment of FCCU slurry circuits, fuel gas lines, pyrolysis gasoline, coker and FCCU light ends, and lube extraction solvents has sometimes been performed depending on plant operations.

12.6.3 Requirements for Antifoulant Injection System

The detailed design of the antifoulant injection system is shown in the Library Drawing # DB-950175. Table-8 summarizes the antifoulant injection requirements. Refinery must have current as-built quill detailed design drawings which also specify the quill materials of construction. These drawings should be up-to-date and signed-off.

Table 8 - Antifoulants Injection Requirements

Variable /Location

Target or Limit

Comment

 

Initial feed rate should be determined by experience with similar situations or laboratory testing.

 

Injection rate

Ongoing feed rates and performance verification should be determined by monitoring heat transfer coefficients or fouling factors across critical heat transfer equipment.

For example: 10 ppm of Nalco Thermogain EC3019A chemical (Heavy aromatic Naphtha, Naphthalene) was found to be optimum injection rate for Condensate Fractionation Unit.

Injection location

Preheat exchangers and furnaces in desalted crude, atmospheric bottoms, coker feed, hydroprocessing unit services.

For example: downstream of condensate preflash drum at condensate fractionation unit at Ras Tanura Refinery.

Fouling measurement and control

 

Overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop can be used as values in quantitative evaluation of heat exchanger fouling.

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Variable /Location

Target or Limit

Comment

 

Retractable

Mandatory. Allows maintenance on-stream.

12 o’clock

Normal orientation.

Quill design

Inject in center 1/3 of the stream

Preferred to inject in the center of the stream to ensure even distribution away from pipe walls. In large systems it may be impossible to obtain a quill that can be retractable, i.e., removed on-line and meet this criteria. In this case, the minimum insertion into the pipe flow must be no less than 6 inches.

Injection quill length

Injection quills must be the correct length. Field verification of pipe diameter and quill length to be confirmed before installation by operations, process engineer, inspection and maintenance.

Quill orientation

Co-current with the process stream flow

The quill shall be installed in the pipe so that the hole of the quill faces the fluid downstream.

Quill metallurgy

the injection nozzle should be made out of 316L stainless pipe

 

13 Upstream Facilities and Gas Plants Chemical Injection

Management of corrosion, scale formation, oxygen content and microbial populations, are essential in oil and gas production and processing systems. In addition, demulsifier chemical is used in the GOSPs to assist in water-oil emulsion breaking/separation. The injection of the inhibitor is a standard practice to control internal corrosion and scale build-up in carbon steel equipment and piping. This strategy has been shown to be very successful and cost effective.

13.1 Design Basis

Standard two-inch high pressure access fittings and injection quills are commonly used in GOSPs, oil & gas processing facility and gas plants for injecting typical oilfield treatment chemicals. High pressure access fittings are designed to permit safe, relatively easy insertion and retrieval of injection quills as well as other devices (such as coupons or monitoring equipment) while under full operating pressure.

This type of injection quill can be removed for cleaning while system is under pressure. The injection components, other than the access fitting body, shall be made out of 316L stainless steel or better and shall be suitable for sour service and meet the requirement of SAES-A-301, if injection is required into a sour service process.

Access fittings for injection must be installed in straight run pipe. The fitting must not be installed closer than a minimum of two pipe diameters downstream of a bend, valve or reducer and there must be a minimum run of 5D of straight