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1 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Evolution of computer aided designs:-

VHDL is a hardware description language intended for documenting and modeling digital System ranging from a small chip to a large system. It can be used to model a digital system at Any level of abstraction ranging from the architectural level down to the gate level.

The language was initially developed specially for department of defense VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) contractors. However, due to an overwhelming need in the industry For a standard hardware description language, the VHSIC hardware description language (VHDL) was selected and later approved to become an IEEE standard called the IEEE std 1076-1987. The language was updated again in 1993 to include a number of clarifications in addition to a number of new features like report statement and pulse rejection limit.

Digital circuit design has evolved rapidly over the last 25 years. The earliest digital circuits were designed with vacuum tubes and transistors. Integrated circuits were then invented where logic gates were placed on a single chip. The first integrated circuit (IC) chips were SSI (small scale integration) chips

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2 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM where the gate count was very small. As technologies became sophisticate, designers were able to lace circuits with hundreds of gates on a single chip. The traditional design methods are convenient as long as the system is simple and gates involved in final implementation are limited for larger systems, inputs and outputs are more and obtaining the truth table or table can be difficult if not impossible and the processes started getting very complicated and designers felt the need to automate these processes. Computer aided design (cad) techniques began to evolve. Chip designers began to use the circuit and logic simulation techniques to verify the functionality of building blocks of the order of about 100 transistors. The circuits were still tested on the board, and the layout was done on paper or by hand on graphic computer terminal.

With the advent of VLSI (very large scale integration) technology, designers could design single chips with more than 1,00,000 transistors. Because of complexity of these circuits, it was not possible to verify these circuits on a breadboard. Computer aided techniques became critical for verification and design of VLSI digital circuits.

Computer programs to do automatic placement and routing for circuit layouts also became popular. The designers were now building gate level digital circuits manually on graphic terminals. They would build small building blocks and then derive higher- level blocks from them. This process would continue until

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3 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM they had built the top-level block. Logic simulators came into existence to verify the functionality of these circuits before they were fabricated on chip.

As designs got larger and more complex, logic simulation assumed an important role in the design process. Designers could iron out functional bugs in the architecture using simulation, before chop was designed further.

1.2 Emergence of HDLs:-

For longtime, programming languages such as FORTRAN, PASCAL and C were being used to describe computer programming that were sequential in nature. Similar in the digital field, designers felt the need for a standard language to describe digital circuits. Thus, hardware description languages (HDLs) came into the existence. HDL allowed the designers to model concurrency of processes found in hardware elements. Hardware description languages such as verilog HDL and VHDL became popular. Verilog HDL originating in 1983 at gateway design automation. Later, VHDL was developed under contract from DARPA. Both verilog and VHDL Simulators to simulate large digital circuits quickly gained acceptance from designers.

Even though DHLS were popular for large verification, designers had to manually translate the HDL based design into a schematic circuit with

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4 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM interconnections between gates. The advent of logic synthesis in the late 1980s changed the design methodology radically. Digital circuits could be described at a register transfer level (RTL) by use of a HDL. Thus, the designers had to specify how the data flows between registers and how the design processed the data. Logic synthesis tools from the RTL description automatically extracted the details of gates and their interconnections to implement the circuit. Thus, logic synthesis pushed the HDLs into forefront of digital design. Designers no longer had to manually place gates to build logic circuits. They could describe complex circuits at an abstract level in terms of functionality and data flow by designing those circuits in HDLs. Logic synthesis tools would implement the specified functionality in terms of gate interconnections.

HDLs also began to be used for system-level design. HDLs were used for simulation of system boards, inter connect buses, FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) and PALs (Programmable Array Logic). A common approach is to design each IC chip using an HDL, and then verify system functionality via simulation.

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1.3 TYPICAL DESIGN FLOW:-

Typical design flow for designing VLSI IC circuits is shown in figure

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

BEHAVIORAL DESCRIPTION

RTL DESCRIPTION

FUNCTIONAL VERIFICATION & TESTING

LOGIC SYNTHESIS

GATE LEVEL NETLIST

LOGICAL VERIFICATION & TESTING

FLOOR PLANNING

PHYSICAL LAYOUT

LAYOUT VERIFICATION

IMPLIMENTATION fig 1.1 Typical design flow for designing VLSI IC circuits

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1.4 IMPROTANCE OF HDLs:-

HDLs have many advantages compared to traditional schematic-based design:

Design can be described at a very abstract level be use of HDLs. Designers can write their RTL description without choosing a specific fabrication technology. Logic synthesis tools can automatically convert the design to any fabrication technology. If a new technology emerges Designers dont need to redesign their circuit. They simply input the RTL description to the logic synthesis tools and crate a new gate-level net list. Using the new fabrication technology. The logic synthesis tools will optimize the circuit in area and timing for the new technology. By describing designs in HDLs, functional verification of the design can be done early in the design cycle. Since designers work at the RTL level, they can optimize and modify the RTL description until it meets the desired functionality. Most design bugs are eliminated at this point. This cuts down design cycle time significantly because the probability of hitting a functional bug a later time in the gatelevel net list of physical layout is minimized. Designing with HDLs is analogous to computer programming. A textual description with comments is an easier way to develop a circuit.

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7 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM This also provides a concise representation of the design, compared to gate-level schematics. Gate-level schematics are almost in comprehensible for very complex design.

HDLs are almost certainly a trend of the future. With rapidly increasing complexities of digital circuits and increasingly sophisticated CAD tools, HDLs will probably be the only method for large digital designs. No digital circuit designer can afford to ignore HDL-based design.

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CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION TO VHDL

2.1 Use of VHDL tools in VLSI design:IC designers are always looking for a ways to increase their productivity without degrading the quality of their designs. Therefore, it is no wonder that they have embraced logic synthesis tools. In the last few years, these tools have grown to be capable for producing designs as good as a human designer. Now logic synthesis is helping to bring about a switch to design using a hardware description language (HDL) to describe the structure and behavior of circuits, as evidenced by the recent availability of logic synthesis tools using the very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language(VHDL).

Now logic synthesis tools can automatically produce a gate level net list, allowing designers to formulate their design in a high level description such as VHDL.Logic synthesis provided two fundamental capabilities. Automatic translation of high-level descriptions into logic designs, and optimization to decrease the circuits area and increase its speed. Many designs created manually, in terms of chip area occupied and ic signal speed, but are much faster to do.

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9 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM The ability to translate a high level description into a net list automatically can improve design efficiency markedly. It quickly gives designers an accurate estimate of their logic potential speed and chip real estate needs. In addition, designers can quickly implement a verify of architectural choices and compare area and speed characteristics. In a design methodology based on synthesis, the designer begins by describing a designs behavior in high level code, capturing its intended functionality rather than its implementation. Once the functionality has been thoroughly verified through simulation, the designer reformulates the design in terms of large structural blocks such as registers, arithmetic units, storage registers, and combinational logic typically constitutes only about 20% of a chips area, creating it can easily absorb 80% of the gate level design time. The resulting description is called register transfer level(RTL) since the equation describes how data is transferred from one register to another.

In logic synthesis process, the tools first step is to minimize the logical equations complexity and hence size by finding common terms that can be used repeatedly. In a translation step called technology mapping, the minimized equations are mapped into a set of gates the non-synthesized portions of the logic are also mapped into a technology specific integrated circuit (ASIC) vendor library in which to implement the chi, so that the logic synthesis tool may efficiently apply the gates available in that library.

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10 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM The primary consideration in the entire synthesis process is the quality of the resulting circuit. Quality in logic synthesis is measured by how close the circuit comes to meeting the designer speed, chip area and power goals. These goals can apply to the entire IC or the portions of the logic. Logic synthesis has achieved its greatest success of synchronous designs that have significant amounts of combinational logic. Asynchronous designs require that designers formulate timing constraints explicitly. Unlike the behavior of synchronous designs is not affected by events such as the arrival of signals.

By devising a set of constraints that the synthesis tools have to meet, the designer directs the process towards the most desirable solution. Although it might be desirable to build a give circuit that is both small and fast, area typically trades off with speed. Thus, designers must choose the trade off point that is best for a specific.

The ability to steer the synthesis process towards various solutions allows designers to implement rapidly many versions of a circuit and choose the solution best suited for their specific situation. Designers can therefore explore their options in a way that has not been practical before. The ability of synthesis tools to synthesize sequential logic and optimize it in any chosen technology makes designs quickly as improved technologies become available and to try out a circuit in several technologies and then choose the best one. Furthermore,

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11 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM modifying logic manually is tedious and takes a great deal of time, so those human designers do as little of it as possible. Syntheses tools, on others hand make many process overall the possible logic combinations of a circuit. Tight integration of timing analysis with in the optimization algorithms enables some synthesis system to quickly find circuit critical paths the path determines the overall clock rate and re-optimize when necessary. Thus in a fraction of time it would take a designer to do one manual version, the tools iterate through many solutions to determine the best one. When a designer starts a synthesis process by translating an RTL description into a netlist, the synthesis tools must first be able to understand the RTL description. A number of languages known as the hardware description languages (HDLs) have been developed for this purpose. HDL Statements can be describing circuits in terms of the structure of he structures or behavior or both. One reason HDLs are so powerful, in fact is that they support both a variety of design description. A HDL simulator handles all those descriptions, applying the same simulation and test vectors from the design behavioral level all the way down to the gate level. This integrated approach reduces the problems that can result from different descriptions of the same design. As logic synthesis matures, it will allow designers to concentrate less on the details of the circuit and more on its actual function and behavior. Logic synthesis tools are becoming capable of more behavioral- level tasks, such as synthesizing sequential logic and deciding if and where the storage elements are needed in a design. Existing logic synthesis tools are moving up the designer

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12 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM ladder, while behavioral research is extending down to the RTL level. Eventually they will merge, given designers a complete set of tools to automate designs from concept to layout.

2.2 Scope of VHDL:-

VHDL satisfies all the requirements for the hierarchical description of electronic circuits from system level down to switch level. It can support all levels of timing specification and constraints and is capable of detecting and signaling timing violations. The language models the reality of concurrency present in digital system and supports the recursively of finite state machines. The concept of packages and configurations allow the creation of design libraries for the reuse of previously designed parts.

2.3 WHY VHDL?


A design engineer in electronic industry used hardware description language to keep pace with the productivity of the competitors. With VHDL we can quickly describe the capability described as follows:

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13 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 2.3.1 Power and flexibility:-

VHDL has powerful language constructs with which to write succinct code descriptions of complex control logic. It also has multiple levels of design description for controlling design implementation. It supports design libraries and creation of reusable language for design and simulation.

2.3.2 Devices- independent design:-

VHDL permits to create a design with out to first choose a device implementation. With one design description, we can target many device architectures. Without being familiar with it, we can optimize our design for resource utilization performance. It permits multiple style of design description.

2.3.3 Portability:-

VHDL portability permits to simulate the same design description that we have synthesized. Simulating a large description before synthesizing can save considerable time. As VHDL is a standard, design description can be taken from one simulator to another, one synthesis tool to another, and one platform to another means design description can be used in multiple projects.

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14 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 2.3.4 Benchmarking capabilities:-

Device independent design and portability allows benchmarking a design using different device architectures and different synthesis tools. We can take a completed design description and synthesize it, create logic for it, evaluate the results and finally choose the device-a CLD or an FPGA that best fits our design requirements.

2.3.5 ASIC Migration:-

The efficiency that VHDL generated, allows our product to hit the market quickly if it has been synthesized on a CPLD or FPGA. When production volume reaches appropriate levels, VHDL facilitates the development of application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Sometimes, the exact code used with the PLD can be used with the ASIC and because VHDL is a well defined language, we can be assured that out ASIC vendor will deliver a device with expected functionality.

2.3.6 Quick Time-to-Market and low cost:-

VHDL and programmable logic pair will together facilitate a speedy design process. VHDL permits to be described quickly. Programmable logic

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15 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM eliminates NRE expenses and facilitates quick design iterations. Synthesis makes it all possible. VHDL and programmable logic as powerful vehicle to bring the products in market record time.

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CHAPTER 3 DESIGN SYNTHESIS

The design process can be explained in six steps:

1. Define the design requirements.

2. Describe the design in VHDL (formulate and code the design).

3. Simulate the source code.

4. Synthesis, optimize and fit the design on to a suitable device.

5. Simulate the post-layout design model.

6. Progress the device.

3.1 Define the design requirements

Before launching into writing code for our design, we must have a clear idea of design objective and requirements. That is, the function of the design required setup and clock-to-output times, maximum frequency of operation and critical paths.

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3.2 Describe the design in VHDL

Formulate the design: having and idea of design requirements, we have to write an efficient code that is realized, through synthesis, to the logic implementation we intended. Code the design: after deciding upon a design methodology, we should code the design referring to the block, dataflow, and state diagrams such that the code is syntactically and semantically correct.

3.3 Stimulate the source code

With source code simulation, flaws can be detected early in the design cycle, allowing us to make corrections with the least possible impact o the schedule. This is more efficient for larger designs, for which synthesis and lace and route can take a couple of hours.

3.4 Synthesis, Optimize, and Fit the design


3.4.1 Synthesis: It is a process by which net lists or equations are created from design descriptions, which many be abstracted. VHDL synthesis software tools convert VHDL descriptions to technology specific net lists or set of equations.

3.4.2 Optimization:

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The optimization process depends on three things: the form of the Boolean expression, the type of resources available and automatic or used applied synthesis directives (sometimes called constraints). Optimization for CPLDs involves reducing the logic to minimal sum-of- products, which is then further optimized for a minimal literal count. This reduces the product-term utilization and number of logic block inputs required for any given expression.

3.4.3 Fitting:

Fitting is process of taking the logic produced by the synthesis and optimization process, and placing it into a logic device, transforming the logic (if necessary) to obtain the best fit. It is a term typically used to describe the process of allocating resources for CPLD-type architectures.

3.5 Simulate the Post-layout design model

A post layout simulation will enable us to verify, not only the functionality of our design, but also timing, such as setup, clock-to-output, and register-toregister times. If we are unable to meet our design objectives, then we need to either resynthesize, and/or fit our design to a new logic device.

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CHAPTER 4 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC PRIMERS

In this chapter, we introduce the defining features of programmable logic design architectures and of many popular devices, as well as the decisions that go into selecting on appropriate device for an application.

4.1 Complex Programmable Logic devices (CPLD)

CPLDs extend the concept of the PLD to higher level of integration to improve system performance; they also use less board space, improve reliability and reduce cost. Instead of making the PLD larger with more inputs, product terms and macro cells. A CPLDs contains multiple logic blocks, each similar to a small PLD like the 22V10. The logic blocks communicate with one another using signals routed via a programmable interconnects. This architectural arrangement makes more efficient use of the available silicon die area, leading to better performance and reduced cost.

4.1.1 Programmable interconnects The programmable interconnect (PI) routes signals from i/os to logic block inputs, or from block outputs(macro cell outputs) to the inputs of he it or other

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20 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM logic blocks. Some logic blocks have local feedback so that macro cell outputs used in the same logic block do not route through the global programmable interconnect.

Most CPLDs use one of the two implementations for the programmable interconnect: Array based interconnects or multiplexer based interconnect. Array based interconnect allows any signal in the PI to route to any logic block. Each term in the pi is represented by a vertical wire and is assigned as an input (through a sense amplifier) to a given logic block, so there is one PI term for each input to a logic block. An output from a logic block can connect to PI terms through a memory element (such as an EPROM cell). Device inputs can connect to PI terms as well. This interconnect scheme implement a full cross-point switch, that is, it is fully routable. Any input to the programmable interconnect can be routed into any logic block, provide that not all of the inputs to a logic block are already being used. With multiplexer based interconnect; there is one multiplexer for each input to a logic block. Signals in the PI are connected to the inputs of a number of multiplexer are programmed to allow one input for each multiplexer to propagate into a logic block. Using wider multiplexer, allowing each signal the PI to connect to the input, increases routability in the PI to connect to the input of several multiplexer for each logic block.

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21 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 4.1.2 Logic blocks Each logic block has product term array, a product term distribution scheme and macro cells. The size of a block is a measure of its capacity; it is typically expressed in the terms of macro cells. Also important are the number of inputs to the logic block the number of terms and the product terms and the product term distribution scheme. A logic block usually ranges in size from 4 to 20 macro cells. Sixteen or more macro cells logic block enough inputs from PI to the logic block exists.

4.1.3 Produt-term arrays

The size of the array identifies the average number of the product terms per macro cell and maximum number of product terms per logic block. Each CPLD will have a specific product term array.

4.1.4 Product-term distribution.

Cypress and MAX family allocated four product terms per macro cell while allowing expander product-terms, to allocate individually t any micro cell or macro cell. With expander product-terms, the additional products-terms are allocated only to those macro cells that can make use of them. Concept that a particular macro cell can use a product-term is term and product-term steering and

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22 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM the concept that the multiple macro cells may use same product- term is termed product-term sharing.

4.1.5 Macro cells

CPLDs include macro cells that provide flip-flops and polarity control. Polarity control enables the implementation of either the true or the complement of an expression. CPLDs have i/o macro cells, input macro cells and buried macro cells. An input macro cell is associated with pin. Buried macro cell is similar to i/o macro cell expect that its output can propagate directly to an i/o, rather its output its output is fed back to PI.

4.1.6 I/O Cells

I/O cells are used to drive a signal off the device, depending on the state of output enable and to provide a data for incoming signals. I/o cells contains switch matrix or output routing pools in which a one-to-one connection is made between an i/o macro cell output and an i/o, advantage of this scheme is flexibility in determining where logic can be placed in a logic block in relation to where the i/o cell is located.

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CHAPTER 5 FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAY


5.1 Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)

A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by the customer or designer after manufacturinghence "fieldprogrammable". The FPGA configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to that used for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) (circuit diagrams were previously used to specify the configuration, as they were for ASICs, but this is increasingly rare). FPGAs can be used to implement any logical function that an ASIC could perform. The ability to update the functionality after shipping, partial re-configuration of a portion of the design and the low non-recurring engineering costs relative to an ASIC design (notwithstanding the generally higher unit cost), offer advantages for many applications. FPGAs contain programmable logic components called "logic blocks", and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired together"somewhat like many (changeable) logic gates that can be inter-wired in (many) different configurations. Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinational functions, or merely simple logic

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24 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM gates like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, the logic blocks also include memory elements, which may be simple flip-flops or more complete blocks of memory.

In addition to digital functions, some FPGAs have analog features. The most common analog feature is programmable slew rate and drive strength on each output pin, allowing the engineer to set slow rates on lightly loaded pins that would otherwise ring unacceptably, and to set stronger, faster rates on heavily loaded pins on high-speed channels that would otherwise run too slow. Another relatively common analog feature is differential comparators on input pins designed to be connected to differential signaling channels.

A few "mixed signal FPGAs" have integrated peripheral Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs) with analog signal conditioning blocks allowing them to operate as a system-on-a-chip. Such devices blur the line between an FPGA, which carries digital ones and zeros on its internal programmable interconnect fabric, and field-programmable analog array (FPAA), which carries analog values on its internal programmable interconnect fabric.

FPGA architecture is an array of logic cells that communicate with i/o via wires routing channels. In a FPGA, existing wire resources that run in horizontal and vertical columns (routing channels) are connected via programmable elements. These routing wires also connect logic to i/0s. Logic cells have less

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25 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM functionality than the combined product terms and macro cells of CPLDs, but large functions can be created cascading logic cells.

1. Performance- the ability for real system design to operate at increasingly higher frequencies.

2. Density and capacity- the ability to increase integration, to place more and more in a chip (system in a chip), and use all available gates with in the FPGA, theyre by providing a cost effective solution.

3. Ease of use the ability for system designers to bring their products to market quickly, leveraging the availability of easy-to-use software tools for logic synthesis as well as lace and route, in addition to architectures that enables late design that effect logic, routing, and i/o resources without a significantly adverse effect on timing.

4. In- system programmability and in circuit re-programmability the ability to program or reprogram a device while it is in-system, mainstreaming, and inverters as well as allowing for field upgrades and user configurability.

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26 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 5.1 History

The FPGA industry sprouted from programmable read-only memory (PROM) and programmable logic devices (PLDs). PROMs and PLDs both had the option of being programmed in batches in a factory or in the field (field programmable), however programmable logic was hard-wired between logic gates.In the late 1980s the Naval Surface Warfare Department funded an experiment proposed by Steve Casselman to develop a computer that would implement 600,000 reprogrammable gates. Casselman was successful and a patent related to the system was issued in 1992. Some of the industrys foundational concepts and technologies for programmable logic arrays, gates, and logic blocks are founded in patents awarded to David W. Page and LuVerne R. Peterson in 1985. Xilinx Co-Founders, Ross Freeman and Bernard Vonderschmitt, invented the first commercially viable field programmable gate array in 1985 the XC2064. The XC2064 had programmable gates and programmable interconnects between gates, the beginnings of a new technology and market. The XC2064 boasted a mere 64 configurable logic blocks (CLBs), with two 3-input lookup tables (LUTs). More than 20 years later, Freeman was entered into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his invention.

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27 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Xilinx continued unchallenged and quickly growing from 1985 to the mid1990s, when competitors sprouted up, eroding significant market-share. By 1993, Actel was serving about 18 percent of the market. The 1990s were an explosive period of time for FPGAs, both in sophistication and the volume of production. In the early 1990s, FPGAs were primarily used in telecommunications and networking. By the end of the decade, FPGAs found their way into consumer, automotive, and industrial applications. FPGAs got a glimpse of fame in 1997, when Adrian Thompson, a researcher working at the University of Sussex, merged genetic algorithm technology and FPGAs to create a sound recognition device.

Thomsons algorithm configured an array of 10 x 10 cells in a Xilinx FPGA chip to discriminate between two tones, utilising analogue features of the digital chip. The application of genetic algorithms to the configuration of devices like FPGAs is now referred to as Evolvable hardware.

5.2 FPGA design and programming

To define the behavior of the FPGA, the user provides a hardware description language (HDL) or a schematic design. The HDL form is more suited to work with large structures because it's possible to just specify them numerically rather than having to draw every piece by hand. However, schematic entry can allow for easier visualisation of a design.

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28 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Then, using an electronic design automation tool, a technology-mapped netlist is generated. The netlist can then be fitted to the actual FPGA architecture using a process called place-and-route, usually performed by the FPGA company's proprietary place-and-route software. The user will validate the map, place and route results via timing analysis, simulation, and other verification methodologies. Once the design and validation process is complete, the binary file generated (also using the FPGA company's proprietary software) is used to (re)configure the FPGA. This file is transferred to the FPGA/CPLD via a serial interface (JTAG) or to an external memory device like an EEPROM. The most common HDLs are VHDL and Verilog, although in an attempt to reduce the complexity of designing in HDLs, which have been compared to the equivalent of assembly languages, there are moves to raise the abstraction level through the introduction of alternative languages. National

Instrument's LabVIEW graphical programming language (sometimes referred to as "G") has an FPGA add-in module available to target and program FPGA hardware. To simplify the design of complex systems in FPGAs, there exist libraries of predefined complex functions and circuits that have been tested and optimized to speed up the design process. These predefined circuits are commonly called ip cores and are available from FPGA vendors and third-party IP suppliers (rarely free, and typically released under proprietary licenses). Other predefined circuits are available from developer communities such as OpenCores (typically released

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29 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM under free and open source licenses such as the GPL, BSD or similar license), and other sources. In a typical design flow, an FPGA application developer will simulate the design at multiple stages throughout the design process. Initially the RTL description in VHDL or Verilog is simulated by creating test benches to simulate the system and observe results. Then, after the synthesis engine has mapped the design to a netlist, the netlist is translated to a gate level description where simulation is repeated to confirm the synthesis proceeded without errors. Finally the design is laid out in the FPGA at which point propagation delays can be added and the simulation run again with these values back-annotated onto the netlist.

5.3 Spartan-3E FPGA:


5.31Features
Low-cost, high-performance logic solution for high-volume, consumeroriented applications. SelectIO interface signaling. - 622+ Mb/s data transfer rate per I/O - 18 single-ended signal standards - 8 differential I/O standards including LVDS, RSDS

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30 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM - Termination by Digitally Controlled Impedance - Signal swing ranging from 1.14V to 3.465V - Double Data Rate (DDR) support - DDR, DDR2 SDRAM support up to 333 Mbps Logic resources - Abundant logic cells with shift register capability - Wide, fast multiplexers - Fast look-ahead carry logic - Dedicated 18 x 18 multipliers - JTAG logic compatible with IEEE 1149.1/1532 SelectRAM hierarchical memory - Up to 1,872 Kbits of total block RAM - Up to 520 Kbits of total distributed RAM Digital Clock Manager (up to four DCMs) - Clock skew elimination - Frequency synthesis - High resolution phase shifting Eight global clock lines and abundant routing

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31 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Fully supported by Xilinx ISE MicroBlaze and PicoBlaze process Pb-free packaging options Automotive Spartan-3 XA Family variant.

5.4 Spartan-3E FPGA Compatibility


Within the Spartan-3 family, all devices are pin-compatible by package. When the need for future logic resources outgrows the capacity of the Spartan-3 device in current use, a larger device in the same package can serve as a direct replacement. Larger devices may add extra VREF and VCCO lines to support a greater number o I/Os. In the larger device, more pins can convert from user I/Os to VREF lines. Also, additional VCCO lines are bonded out to pins that were not connected in the smaller device. Thus, it is important to plan for future upgrades at the time of the boards initial design by laying out connections to the extra pins.

The Spartan-3 family is not pin-compatible with any previous Xilinx FPGA family or with other platforms among the Spartan-3 Generation FPGAs. Rules Concerning Banks When assigning I/Os to banks, it is important to follow the following VCCO rules:

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32 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Leave no VCCO pins unconnected on the FPGA. Set all VCCO lines associated with the (interconnected) bank to the same voltage level. The VCCO levels used by all standards assigned to the I/Os of the (interconnected) bank(s) must agree. TheXilinx development software checks for this. Only one of the following standards is allowed onoutputs per bank: LVDS, LDT, LVDS_EXT, or RSDS. This restriction is for the eight banks in each device, even if the VCCO levels are shared across banks, as in the CP132 and TQ144 packages. If none of the standards assigned to the I/Os of the (interconnected) bank(s) uses VCCO, tie all associatedVCCO lines to 2.5V.In general, apply 2.5V to VCCO Bank 4 from power-on to the end of configuration. Apply the same voltage to VCCO Bank 5 during parallel configuration or a Readback operation. For information on how to program the FPGA using 3.3V signals and power, see the 3.3V-Tolerant Configuration Interface section.

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33 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 6 INTRODUCTION TO TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER


6.1 INTRODUCTION
Traffic lights are integral part of modern life. Their proper operation can spell the difference between smooth flowing traffic and four-lane gridlock. Proper operation entails precise timing, cycling through the states correctly, and responding to outside inputs. The traffic light controller is designed to meet a complex specification. That specification documents the requirements that a successful traffic light controller must meet. It consists of an operation specification that describes the different functions the controller must perform, a user interface description specifying what kind of interface the system must present to users, and a detailed protocol for running the traffic lights. Each of these requirements sets imposed new constraints on the design and introduced new problems to solve. The controller to be designed controls the traffic lights of a busy highway (HWY) intersecting a side road (SRD) that has relatively lighter traffic load. Figure 1.1 shows the location of the traffic lights. Sensors at the intersection detect the presence of cars on the highway and side road.

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34 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

Fig 6.1. Crossover between side road and highway The heart of the system is a finite state machine (FSM) that directs the unit to light the main and side street lights at appropriate times for the specified time intervals. This unit depends on several inputs which are generated outside the system. In order to safely process these external inputs, we can design an input handler that synchronizes asynchronous inputs to the system clock. The input handler also latches some input signals and guarantees that other input signals will be single pulses, regardless of their duration. This pulsification greatly simplifies the design by ensuring that most external inputs are high for one and only one clock cycle. In addition to the FSM and input handler, the design also includes a slow clock generator. Because the specification requires that timing parameters are specified in seconds, the controller needs to be informed every second that a second of real time has elapsed. The slow clock solves

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35 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM this problem by generating a slow clock pulse that is high for one cycle on the system clock during every second of real time. In addition to generating a once per second pulse, we need to be able to count down from a specified number of seconds. The timer subsystem does that job. When given a particular number of seconds to count down from, it informs the FSM controller after exactly that number of seconds has elapsed. Finally, we have storage and output components. In order to store the users timing parameters, we use a static RAM whose address and control lines are supplied by the FSM. The RAM data lines are on a tristate bus which is shared by the timer unit and a tristate enabled version of the data value signals. This same bus can drive the HEX-LED display, which comprises the output subsystem along with the actual traffic light LEDs. The heart of the controller is the FSM. This FSM controls the loading of static RAM locations with timing parameters, displaying these parameters by reading the RAM locations, and the control of the actual traffic lights. The timer and the divider control various timing issues in the system. The timer is a counter unit that counts for a number of one second intervals that are specified by data stored in the static RAM. The divider provides a one-second clock that is used by the timer as a count interval. Lastly, the synchronizers ensure that all inputs to the FSM are synchronized to the system clock.

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36 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

6.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications for traffic signals including communications systems, adaptive control systems, traffic responsive, real-time data collection and analysis, and maintenance management systems enable signal control systems to operate with greater efficiency. Sharing traffic signal and operations data with other systems will improve overall transportation system performance in freeway management, incident and special event management, and

maintenance/failure response times. Some examples of the benefits of using ITS applications for traffic signal control include: Updated traffic signal control equipment used in conjunction with signal timing optimization can reduce congestion. The Texas Traffic Light

Synchronization program reduced delays by 23 percent by updating traffic signal control equipment and optimizing signal timing. Coordinated signal systems improve operational efficiency. Adaptive signal systems improve the responsiveness of signal timing in rapidly changing traffic conditions. Various adaptive signal systems have demonstrated network performance enhancement from 5 percent to over 30 percent. Traffic light controller communication and sensor networks are the enabling technologies that allow adaptive signal control to be deployed. Incorporating Traffic light controller into the planning, design, and operation of traffic signal control

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37 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM systems will provide motorists with recognizable improvements in travel time, lower vehicle operating costs, and reduced vehicle emissions. There are more than 330,000 traffic signals in the United States, and, according to U.S. Department of Transportation estimates, as many as 75 percent could be made to operate more efficiently by adjusting their timing plans, coordinating adjacent signals, or updating equipment. In fact, optimizing signal timing is considered a low-cost approach to reducing congestion, costing from $2,500 to $3,100 per signal per update. ITS technology enables the process of traffic signal timing to be performed more efficiently by enhancing data collection and system monitoring capabilities and, in some applications, automating the process entirely. ITS tools such as automated traffic data collection, centrally controlled or monitored traffic signal systems, closed loop signal systems,

interconnected traffic signals, and traffic adaptive signal control help make the traffic signal timing process efficient and cost effective. municipalities have worked to synchronize, Several

optimize, or otherwise

upgrade their traffic signal systems in recent years. Below is an example of the benefits some have realized: The Traffic Light Synchronization program in Texas shows a benefit-cost ratio of 62:1, with reductions of 24.6 percent in delay, 9.1 percent in fuel consumption, and 14.2 percent in stops. The Fuel Efficient Traffic Signal Management program in California showed a benefit-cost

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38 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM ratio of 17:1, with reductions of 14 percent in delay, 8 percent in fuel consumption, 13 percent in stops, and 8 percent in travel time. Improvements to an 11-intersection arterial in St. Augustine, Florida, showed reductions of 36 percent in arterial delay, 49 percent in arterial stops, and 10 percent in travel time, resulting in an annual fuel savings of 26,000 gallons and a cost savings of $1.1 million. Although communications networks allow almost instantaneous notification of equipment failure, without which some failures may go unnoticed for months, there must be staff available to respond

6.3 PROTOCOL
The protocol or the design rules we incorporated in designing a traffic light controller are laid down: We too have the same three standard signals of a traffic light

controller that is RED, GREEN, and YELLOW which carry their usual meanings that of stop go and wait respectively. We have two roads the highway road and the side road or

country road with the highway road having the higher priority of the two that is it is given more time for motion which implies that the green signal remains for a longer time along the highway side rather than on the country side. We have decided on having a green signal or motion signal

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39 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM on the highway side for a period of 80 seconds and that on the country road of 40 seconds and the yellow signal for a time length of 20 seconds.

We can have provisions for two exceptions along the roads one

along the highway and the other along the country side which interrupt the general cycle whenever a exceptions like an emergency vehicle or any such kind of exceptions which have to be addressed quickly. When these interrupts occur the normal sequence is disturbed and the cycle goes into different states depending on its present state and the interrupt occurrs. We have taken into consideration a two way traffic that is the

opposite directions along the highway side will be having the same signals that is the movements along the both direction on a single road will be same at any instant of time. This ensures no jamming of traffic and any accidents at the turnings.

6.4 THE OBJECTIVES


The following line up as the main objectives of the project. 1. Transform the word description of the protocol into a finite state

machine transition diagram. 2. 3. 4. Implement a simple finite state machine using VHDL. Simulate the operation of the finite state machine. Implement the design onto a FPGA.

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40 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 7 THE STATE MACHINE


7.1 THE FINITE STATE MACHINE
The FSM-FINITE STATE MACHINE is the heart of traffic light controller. It responds to the input signals processed by the input handling module and provides the output and control signals needed to make the system function. This design uses a standard two process finite state machine where one process is used to change states on every clock cycle while the other process is used to combinatorically calculate what the next state should be based on the current inputs and the current state. That combinatorial process also sets the outputs for the next clock cycle. The FSM has four main groups of states corresponding to the four modes in which the traffic light controller can operate. The read function causes the controller to enter the memory read state. Once in that state, the system remains there until reset, using whatever value is on the timing parameter selection switches for the RAM address. The memory read state also ensures that write enable for the RAM is disabled since the system is only trying to read previously stored values in RAM. The second major state group corresponds to the memory write function. In this mode, the FSM transitions to the memory write state and then returns to the start state. When in the memory write state, the system uses the value of the

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41 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM timing parameter selection switches for the RAM address lines as in the memory read state, but asserts the memory write enable control signal. This ensures that the new value is actually written to RAM. One crucial feature of this design is that the system is only in the memory write state for one cycle; thus the RAM write enable is never high for more than a single clock cycle. That ensures that we never write to the RAM while either data or address values are changing.

7.1.1 DEFINITION OF THE FSM A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automation , or simply a state machine, is a mathematical abstraction sometimes used to design digital logic or computer programs. It is a behavior model composed of a finite number of states, transitions between those states, and actions, similar to a flow graph in which one can inspect the way logic runs when certain conditions are met. It has finite internal memory, an input feature that reads symbols in a sequence, one at a time without going backward; and an output feature, which may be in the form of a user interface, once the model is implemented. The operation of an FSM begins from one of the states (called a start state), goes through transitions depending on input to different states and can end in any of those available, however only a certain set of states mark a successful flow of operation (called accept states).

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42 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

7.1.2 Notion of States in Sequential Machines


A state machine is a type of sequential circuit structure which can allow you to create more elaborate types of digital systems. A state machine consists of:

1) memory elements (e.g. D flip-flops) to store the current state 2) combinational logic to compute the next state 3) combinational logic to compute the output

7.1.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF AN FSM Finite state machines consist of 4 main elements- states which define behavior and may produce actions. - state transitions which are movement from one state to another. - rules or conditions which must be met to allow a state transition. - input events which are either externally or internally generated, which may possibly trigger rules and lead to state transitions. A current state is determined by past states of the system. As such, it can be said to record information about the past, i.e., it reflects the input changes from the system start to the present moment. The number and

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43 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM names of the states typically depend on the different possible states of the memory, e.g. if the memory is three bits long, there are 8 possible states. A transition indicates a state change and is described by a condition that would need to be fulfilled to enable the transition. An action is a description of an activity that is to be performed at a given moment. There are several action types: Entry action which is performed when entering the state Exit action which is performed when exiting the state Input action which is performed depending on present state and input conditions Transition action which is performed when performing a certain transition.

7.1.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF A FSM State Variable: The variable held in the SM (FF) that determines its present state. A basic FSM has a memory section that holds the present state of the machine (stored in FF) and a control section that controls the next state of the machine (by clocks, inputs, and present state).The outputs and

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44 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM internal flip flops (FF) progress through a predictable sequence of states in response to a clock and other control inputs. A finite state machine must have an initial state which provides a starting point, and a current state which remembers the product of the last state transition. Received input events act as triggers, which cause an evaluation of some kind of the rules that govern the transitions from the current state to other states. The best way to visualize a FSM is to think of it as a flow chart or a directed graph of states, though as will be shown; there are more accurate abstract modeling techniques that can be used.

Fig 7.1 A POSSIBLE FINITE STATE MACHINE

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45 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 7.1.4 ADVANTAGES OF FSM

- Their simplicity make it easy for inexperienced developers to implement with little to no extra knowledge (low entry level) - Predictability (in deterministic FSM), given a set of inputs and a known current state, the state transition can be predicted, allowing for easy testing - Due to their simplicity, FSMs are quick to design, quick to implement and quick in execution FSM is an old knowledge representation and system modeling

technique, and its been around for a long time, as such it is well proven even as an artificial intelligence technique, with lots of examples to learn from - FSMs are relatively flexible. There are a number of ways to implement a FSM based system in terms of topology, and it is easy to incorporate many other techniques - Easy to transfer from a meaningful abstract representation to a coded implementation - Low processor overhead; well suited to domains where execution time is shared between modules or subsystems. Only the code for the current state need be executed, and perhaps a small amount of logic to determine the current state.

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46 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM - Easy determination of reachability of a state, when represented in an abstract form, it is immediately obvious whether a state is achievable from another state, and what is required to achieve the state.

7.2 TYPES OF STATE MACHINES


There are two basic ways to design clocked sequential circuits ,i.e., the state machines.

7.2.1

MEALY MACHINE In the theory of computation, a Mealy machine is a finite-

state machine whose output values are determined both by its current state and by the values of its inputs. The state diagram for a Mealy machine associates an output value with each transition edge (in contrast to the state diagram for a Moore machine, which associates an output value with each state). In a Mealy machine, the outputs are a function of the present state and the value of the inputs. Accordingly, the outputs may change asynchronously in response to any change in the inputs. A

combinational logic block maps the inputs and the current state into the necessary flip-flop inputs to store the appropriate next state just like Mealy machine. However, the outputs are computed by a combinational logic block whose inputs are only the flip-flops state outputs.

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47 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

fjig

7.2.2 MOORE MACHINE

A Moore machine is a finite-state machine whose output values are etermined solely by its current state. (This is in contrast to a Mealy machine, whose output values are determined both by its current state and by the values of its inputs.) The state diagram for a Moore machine associates an output value with each state (in contrast to the state diagram for a Mealy machine, which associates an output value with each transition edge).

A combinational logic block maps the inputs and the current state into the necessary flip-flop inputs to store the appropriate next state just like Mealy machine. However, the outputs are computed by a

combinational logic block whose inputs are only the flip-flops state outputs. The outputs change synchronously with the state transition triggered by the active clock edge.

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48 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

fhdhhj

7.2.3 MECHANISM

Most digital electronic systems are designed as clocked sequential systems. Clocked sequential systems are a restricted form of Moore machine where the state changes only when the global clock signal changes. Typically the current state is stored in flip-flops, and a global clock signal is connected to the "clock" input of the flip-flops. A typical electronic Moore machine includes a combinational logic chain to decode the current state into the outputs (lambda). The instant the current state changes, those changes ripple through that chain, and almost instantaneously the outputs change (or don't change). There are design

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49 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM techniques to ensure that no glitches occur on the outputs during that brief period while those changes are rippling through the chain, but most systems are designed so that glitches during that brief transition time are ignored or are irrelevant. The outputs then stay the same indefinitely (LEDs stay bright, power stays connected to the motors, solenoids stay energized, etc.), until the Moore machine changes state again.

7.2.4 FSM DESIGN TECHNIQUES FSMs can be designed in two appropriate ways.

Classical Design: Makes use of state tables, FF excitation tables, and Karnaugh Mapping to find FF input control logic.

VHDL Design: Uses case statements or IF THEN ELSE statements to set the design and the logic synthesis tools to define equation.

7.2.5 CLASSICAL DESIGN APPROACH

1. Define the actual problem. 2. Draw a state diagram (bubble) to implement the problem. 3. Make a state table. Define all present states and inputs in a binary sequence. 4. Then define the next states and outputs from the state diagram.

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50 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 5. Use FF excitation tables to determine in what states the FF inputs must be to cause a present state to next state transition. 6. Find the output values for each present state/input combination. 7. Simplify Boolean logic for each FF input and output equations and design logic.

7.2.6 VHDL FSM DESIGN APPROACH

Uses an enumerated type to declare state variables. Enumerated Type: A user-defined type in which all possible values of a named identifier are listed in a type definition.

An FSM uses a CASE statement on the enumerated type state variable.

Without any doubt, we proceed with the VHDL design approach for implementation of our design .

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51 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM STATE DIAGRAM FOR TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER

Fig 7.1 State diagram for Traffic light controller

We consider 2 roads opposite to each other with 5 possible states from 1 to 5. We initially reset them, so that State S0 shows red on both signals. After a certain time period, moving to state 1, signal on 1 side goes read and other goes green. And again upto a certain time count, the changes to red and yellow and then moves to state 3 where the lights change to red both. A Similar process takes place for the remaining states

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52 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 8 XILINX
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Xilinx leads one of the fastest growing segments of the semiconductor industry programmable logic devices.

8.1.1 Xilinx FPGAs

The Xilinx FPGA Spartan3e series has redefined programmable logic by expanding the traditional capabilities of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with new levels of integration and features that address high performance system design issues. In a single, off-the-shelf programmable Xilinx device, systems architects can take advantage of microprocessors, the highest density of on-chip memory, multi-gigabit serial transceivers, digital clock managers, on-chip termination and more. The result is that Xilinx FPGAs helps designers to simplify board layout, reduce bill of materials, and get products to market faster than ever before.

Xilinx FPGA Spartan3e FPGAs are available with up to four immersed IBM PowerPC 405 processors and up to 16 high-speed transceivers that operate at 3.125 gigabits per second. Xilinx Rocket I/O transceivers offer a complete

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53 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM serial interface solution, supporting 10 Gigabit Ethernet with XAUI, PCI Express and SerialATA. Each IBM PowerPC in Xilinx FPGA Spartan3e FPGAs run at 300-plus MHz, delivering 450 Dhrystone MIPS, and is supported by IBM CoreConnect bus technology. With Xilinx FPGA Spartan3e FPGAs, systems designers can for the first time partition and repartition their systems between hardware and software at any time during the development cycle, even after the product has shipped, and debug hardware and software simultaneously at speed. Xilinx FPGA Spartan3e devices range in density from 3,168 to 50,832 logic cells.

8.2. Overview of ISE and Synthesis Tools


Overview of ISE

ISE controls all aspects of the design flow. Through the Project Navigator interface, you can access all of the various design entry and design implementation tools. You can also access the files and documents associated with your project. Project Navigator maintains a flat directory structure; therefore, you can maintain revision control through the use of snapshots.

Project Navigator Interface The Project Navigator Interface is divided into four main sub windows, as seen in Figure 1-1. On the top left is the Sources in Project window which hierarchically

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54 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM displays the elements included in the project. Beneath the Sources in Project window is the Processes for Current Source window which displays available processes. The third window at the bottom of the Project Navigator is the Console window which displays status messages, errors, and warnings, and which is updated during all project actions. The fourth window to the right is a multidocument Interface (MDI) window for viewing ASCII text files and HDL Bencher Waveforms. Each window may be resized, undocked from Project Navigator or moved to a new location within the main Project Navigator window. Selecting View Restore. Default Layout can always restore the default layout. These windows are discussed in more detail in the following sections.

Figure 1-1: Project Navigator

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Sources in Project Window

This window consists of three tabs, which provide information for the user. Each tab is discussed in further detail below.

Module View

The Module View tab displays the project name, any user documents, the specified part type and design flow/synthesis tool, and design source files. Each file in the Module View has an associated icon. The icon indicates the file type (HDL file, schematic, core, or text file, for example). For a complete list of possible source types and their associated icons, seethe Project Navigator online help. Select Help_ISE Help Contents, select the Index tab and click Source / file types. If a file contains lower levels of hierarchy, the icon has a + to the left of the name. HDL files have this + to show the entities (VHDL) or modules (Verilog) within the file. You can expand the hierarchy by clicking the +. You can open a file for editing by double-clicking on the filename.

Snapshot View

The Snapshot View tab displays all snapshots associated with the project currently open in Project Navigator. A snapshot is a copy of the project including

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56 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM all files in the working directory, and synthesis and simulation subdirectories. A snapshot is stored with the project for which is taken, and can be viewed in the Snapshot View. You can view the reports, user documents, and source files for all snapshots. All information displayed in the Snapshot View is read-only. Using snapshots provides an excellent version control system, enabling sub teams to do simultaneous development on the same design.

Library View

The Library View tab displays all libraries associated with the project open in Project Navigator.

Processes for Current Source Window

This window contains the Process View tab.

Process View The Process View tab is context sensitive and changes based upon the source type selected in the Sources for Project window. From the Process View tab, you can run the functions necessary to define, run and view your design. The Process Window provides access to the following functions

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57 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

Design Entry Utilities

Provides access to symbol generation, instantiation templates, HDL Converter, View Command Line Log File, Launch MTI, and simulation library compilation.

User Constraints Provides access to editing location and timing constraints.

Synthesis Provides access to Check Syntax, synthesis, View RTL Schematic, and synthesis reports. This varies depending on the synthesis tools you use.

Implement Design Provides access to implementation tools, design flow reports, and point tools.

Generate Programming File Provides access to the configuration tools and bit stream generation. The Processes for Current Source window incorporates auto make technology. This enables the user to select any process in the flow and the software automatically runs the processes necessary to get to the desired step. For example, when you run

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58 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM the Implementation process, Project Navigator also runs the synthesis process because implementation is dependent on up-to-date synthesis results. Note: To view a running log of command line arguments in the Console window, expand Design Entry Utilities and select View Command Line Log File.

Console Window

The Console window displays errors, warnings, and informational messages. Errors are signified by a red box next to the message, while warnings have a yellow box. Warning and Error messages may also be viewed separately from other console text messages by selecting either the Warnings or Errors tab at the bottom of the console window.

Error Navigation to Source

You can navigate from a synthesis error or warning message in the Console window to the location of the error in a source HDL file. To do so, select the error or warning message, right-click the mouse, and from the menu select Go to Source. The HDL source file opens and the cursor moves to the line with the error.

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Error Navigation to Solution Record

You can navigate from an error or warning message in the Console window to the relevant solution records on the support.xilinx.com website. These type of errors or warnings can be identified by the web icon to the left of the error. To navigate to the solution record, select the error or warning message, right-click the mouse, and from the menu select go to Solution Record. The default web browser opens and displays all solution records applicable to this message.

Synthesizing the Design

So far you have used XST for verifying syntax. Next, you will synthesize the design. The synthesis tool uses the designs HDL code and generates a supported netlist type (EDIF or NGC for the Xilinx implementation tools). The synthesis tools perform three general steps (although all synthesis tools further breakdown these general steps) to create the netlist:

Analyze / Check Syntax Checks the syntax of the source code.

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60 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Compile Translates and optimizes the HDL code into a set of components that the synthesis tool can recognize.

Map Translates the components from the compile stage into the target technologys The RTL Viewer XST can generate a schematic representation of the HDL code that you have entered. A schematic view of the code is helpful for analyzing your design to see a graphical connection between the various components that XST has inferred. To view a schematic representation of your RTL code: 1. In Project Navigator, click + next to Synthesize to expand the process hierarchy. 2. Double-click View RTL Schematic.

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61 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM FIGGGGGGGG Entering Synthesis Options through ISE

Synthesis options enable you to modify the behavior of the synthesis tool to optimize according to the needs of the design. One option is to control synthesis by optimizing based on area or speed. Other options include controlling the maximum fan out of a signal from a flip-flop or setting the desired frequency of the design.

For this tutorial, set the global synthesis options:

1. Select stopwatch.vhd (or stopwatch.v). 2. Right-click the Synthesis process. 3. From the menu, select Properties. 4. Click the Synthesis Options tab, and set the Default Frequency to 50MHz. 5. Click the Netlist Options tab, and ensure that the Do Not Write NCF box is unchecked. 6. Click the Constraint File Options tab, and select the stopwatch.ctr file created in LeonardoSpectrum, in the Modifying Constraints section above. 7. Click OK to accept these values.

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62 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 8. Select stopwatch.vhd (or stopwatch.v) and double-click the Synthesize process in theProcesses for Source window The RTL/Technology Viewer

LeonardoSpectrum can generate a schematic representation of the HDL code that you have entered. A schematic view of the code is helpful for analyzing your design to see a graphical connection between the various components that LeonardoSpectrum has inferred.

To launch the design in LeonardoSpectrums RTL viewer, double-click the View RTL Schematic process. The following figure displays the design in an RTL view. LeonardoSpectrum Synthesis Processes

Overview of Behavioral Simulation Flow

Behavioral simulation is done before the design is synthesized to verify that the logic you have created is correct. This allows a designer to find and fix any bugs in the design before spending time with Synthesis or Implementation.

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63 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Xilinx ISE provides an integrated flow with the ModelTech ModelSim simulator that allows simulations to be run from the Xilinx Project Navigator graphical user interface (GUI). The examples in this tutorial show how to use this integrated flow. For additional information about simulation and for a list of the other supported simulators, refer to Chapter 6 of Synthesis and Verification Guide. This Guide is available with the collection of software manual and is accessible from ISE by selecting Help___Online Documentation,or from the web at

http://support.xilinx.com/support/sw_manuals/xilinx6/.

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CHAPTER 9 SOURCE CODE AND SIMULATION RESULTS

9.1 Source code:


library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity tlc is port(clk,sa,sb:in std_logic; ra,rb,ga,gb,ya,yb:buffer std_logic); end tlc; architecture beh of tlc is signal state, nextstate : integer range 0 to 12; type light is(r,y,g); signal lighta,lightb:light; begin process(state,sa,sb) begin ra<='0';rb<='0';ga<='0';gb<='0'; ya<='0';yb<='0'; case state is

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65 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM when 0 to 4 => ga<='1';rb<='1'; nextstate<=state+1; when 5=>ga<='1';rb<='1'; if sb='1' then nextstate<=6; end if; when 6=>ya<='1';rb<='1'; nextstate<=7; when 7 to 10=>ra<='1';gb<='1'; nextstate<=state+1; when 11=>ra<='1';gb<='1'; if(sa='1' or sb='0')then nextstate<=12; end if; when 12=> ra<='1';yb<='1'; nextstate<=0; end case; end process; process(clk) begin if clk='1' then state<=nextstate; end if; end process;

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66 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM lighta<=r when ra='1' else y when ya='1'else g when ga='1'; lightb<=r when rb='1' else y when yb='1'else g when gb='1'; end beh;

9.2 Simulation Result:

simulation output waveform for traffic light controller

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67 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 10 SYNTHESIS REPORT


Release 10.1 - xst K.31 (nt) Copyright (c) 1995-2008 Xilinx, Inc. All rights reserved. --> Parameter TMPDIR set to D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/xst/projnav.tmp

Total REAL time to Xst completion: 0.00 secs Total CPU time to Xst completion: 0.33 secs

--> Parameter xsthdpdir set to D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/xst

Total REAL time to Xst completion: 0.00 secs Total CPU time to Xst completion: 0.33 secs

--> Reading design: tlc.prj

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1) Synthesis Options Summary 2) HDL Compilation

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68 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM 3) Design Hierarchy Analysis 4) HDL Analysis 5) HDL Synthesis 5.1) HDL Synthesis Report 6) Advanced HDL Synthesis 6.1) Advanced HDL Synthesis Report 7) Low Level Synthesis 8) Partition Report 9) Final Report 9.1) Device utilization summary 9.2) Partition Resource Summary 9.3) TIMING REPORT

========================================================== =============== * Synthesis Options Summary *

========================================================== =============== ---- Source Parameters Input File Name Input Format : "tlc.prj" : mixed

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69 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Ignore Synthesis Constraint File : NO

---- Target Parameters Output File Name Output Format Target Device : "tlc" : NGC : xc3s500e-4-fg320

---- Source Options Top Module Name Automatic FSM Extraction FSM Encoding Algorithm Safe Implementation FSM Style RAM Extraction RAM Style ROM Extraction Mux Style Decoder Extraction Priority Encoder Extraction Shift Register Extraction Logical Shifter Extraction XOR Collapsing : tlc : YES : Auto : No : lut : Yes : Auto : Yes : Auto : YES : YES : YES : YES : YES

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70 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM ROM Style Mux Extraction Resource Sharing : Auto : YES : YES : NO

Asynchronous To Synchronous Multiplier Style : auto

Automatic Register Balancing

: No

---- Target Options Add IO Buffers Global Maximum Fanout : YES : 500 : 24

Add Generic Clock Buffer(BUFG) Register Duplication Slice Packing : YES : YES

Optimize Instantiated Primitives : NO Use Clock Enable Use Synchronous Set Use Synchronous Reset Pack IO Registers into IOBs Equivalent register Removal : Yes : Yes : Yes : auto : YES

---- General Options Optimization Goal : Speed

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71 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Optimization Effort Library Search Order Keep Hierarchy Netlist Hierarchy RTL Output Global Optimization Read Cores Write Timing Constraints Cross Clock Analysis Hierarchy Separator Bus Delimiter Case Specifier Slice Utilization Ratio BRAM Utilization Ratio Verilog 2001 Auto BRAM Packing Slice Utilization Ratio Delta :1 : tlc.lso : NO : as_optimized : Yes : AllClockNets : YES : NO : NO :/ : <> : maintain : 100 : 100 : YES : NO :5

========================================================== =============== * HDL Compilation *

========================================================== ===============

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72 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM WARNING:HDLParsers:3607 - Unit work/tlc is now defined in a different file. It was defined in "D:/vhdl/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd", and is now defined in "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd". WARNING:HDLParsers:3607 - Unit work/tlc/beh is now defined in a different file. It was defined in "D:/vhdl/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd", and is now defined in

"D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd". Compiling vhdl file "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" in Library work. Architecture beh of Entity tlc is up to date.

========================================================== =============== * Design Hierarchy Analysis *

========================================================== =============== Analyzing hierarchy for entity <tlc> in library <work> (architecture <beh>).

========================================================== * HDL Analysis *

==========================================================

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73 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Analyzing Entity <tlc> in library <work> (Architecture <beh>). INFO:Xst:1739 HDL ADVISOR "D:/New Folder

(2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" line 5: declaration of a buffer port will make it difficult for you to validate this design by simulation. It is preferable to declare it as output. INFO:Xst:1739 - HDL ADVISOR - "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" line 5: declaration of a buffer port will make it difficult for you to validate this design by simulation. It is preferable to declare it as output. INFO:Xst:1739 -HDL ADVISOR - "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" line 5: declaration of a buffer port will make it difficult for you to validate this design by simulation. It is preferable to declare it as output. INFO:Xst:1739 - HDL ADVISOR - "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" line 5: declaration of a buffer port will make it difficult for you to validate this design by simulation. It is preferable to declare it as output. INFO:Xst:1739 - HDL ADVISOR - "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" line 5: declaration of a buffer port will make it difficult for you to validate this design by simulation. It is preferable to declare it as output.

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74 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM INFO:Xst:1739 -HDL ADVISOR - "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" line 5: declaration of a buffer port will make it difficult for you to validate this design by simulation. It is preferable to declare it as output. WARNING:Xst:819 - "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd" line 33: One or more signals are missing in the process sensitivity list. To enable synthesis of FPGA/CPLD hardware, XST will assume that all necessary signals are present in the sensitivity list. Please note that the result of the synthesis may differ from the initial design specification. The missing signals are: <nextstate> Entity <tlc> analyzed. Unit <tlc> generated.

========================================================== =============== * HDL Synthesis *

========================================================== ===============

Performing bidirectional port resolution...

Synthesizing Unit <tlc>. Related source file is "D:/New Folder (2)/traffic/traffic/aaaaaaa.vhd".

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75 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM WARNING:Xst:646 - Signal <lightb> is assigned but never used. This unconnected signal will be trimmed during the optimization process. WARNING:Xst:646 - Signal <lighta> is assigned but never used. This unconnected signal will be trimmed during the optimization process. WARNING:Xst:737 - Found 4-bit latch for signal <state>. Latches may be generated from incomplete case or if statements. We do not recommend the use of latches in FPGA/CPLD designs, as they may lead to timing problems. WARNING:Xst:737 - Found 4-bit latch for signal <nextstate>. Latches may be generated from incomplete case or if statements. We do not recommend the use of latches in FPGA/CPLD designs, as they may lead to timing problems. INFO:Xst:2371 - HDL ADVISOR - Logic functions respectively driving the data and gate enable inputs of this latch share common terms. This situation will potentially lead to setup/hold violations and, as a result, to simulation problems. This situation may come from an incomplete case statement (all selector values are not covered). You should carefully review if it was in your intentions to describe such a latch. Found 4-bit adder for signal <nextstate$addsub0000>. Found 4-bit 13-to-1 multiplexer for signal <nextstate$mux0000>. Summary: inferred 1 Adder/Subtractor(s). inferred 4 Multiplexer(s). Unit <tlc> synthesized.

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76 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM INFO:Xst:1767 - HDL ADVISOR - Resource sharing has identified that some arithmetic operations in this design can share the same physical resources for reduced device utilization. For improved clock frequency you may try to disable resource sharing.

========================================================== =============== HDL Synthesis Report

Macro Statistics # Adders/Subtractors 4-bit adder # Latches 4-bit latch # Multiplexers 4-bit 13-to-1 multiplexer :1 :2 :2 :1 :1 :1

========================================================== =============== * Advanced HDL Synthesis *

========================================================== ===============

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77 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Loading device for application Rf_Device from file '3s500e.nph' in environment C:\Xilinx\10.1\ISE.

========================================================== =============== Advanced HDL Synthesis Report

Macro Statistics # Adders/Subtractors 4-bit adder # Latches 4-bit latch # Multiplexers 4-bit 13-to-1 multiplexer :1 :2 :2 :1 :1 :1

========================================================== ===============

Low Level Synthesis

========================================================== ===============

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78 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Optimizing unit <tlc> ...

Mapping all equations... Building and optimizing final netlist ... Found area constraint ratio of 100 (+ 5) on block tlc, actual ratio is 0.

Final Macro Processing ...

========================================================== =============== Final Register Report

Found no macro ========================================================== ===============

========================================================== =============== * Partition Report *

========================================================== ===============

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79 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Partition Implementation Status -------------------------------

No Partitions were found in this design.

-------------------------------

========================================================== =============== * Final Report *

========================================================== =============== Final Results RTL Top Level Output File Name Top Level Output File Name Output Format Optimization Goal Keep Hierarchy : tlc.ngr : tlc

: NGC : Speed : NO

Design Statistics # IOs :9

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80 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Cell Usage : # BELS # # LUT3 LUT4 : 12 :2 : 10 :8 :8 :1 :1 :8 :2 :6

# FlipFlops/Latches # LD

# Clock Buffers # BUFGP

# IO Buffers # # IBUF OBUF

========================================================== ===============

Device utilization summary: ---------------------------

Selected Device : 3s500efg320-4

Number of Slices: Number of Slice Flip Flops: Number of 4 input LUTs:

7 out of 4656

0% 0% 0%

8 out of 9312 12 out of 9312

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81 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Number of IOs: Number of bonded IOBs: Number of GCLKs: 9 9 out of 1 out of 232 24 3% 4%

--------------------------Partition Resource Summary: --------------------------No Partitions were found in this design.

---------------------------

========================================================== =============== TIMING REPORT

NOTE: THESE TIMING NUMBERS ARE ONLY A SYNTHESIS ESTIMATE. FOR ACCURATE TIMING INFORMATION PLEASE REFER TO THE TRACE REPORT GENERATED AFTER PLACE-and-ROUTE.

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82 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Clock Information: -------------------------------------------------------+------------------------+-------+ Clock Signal | Clock buffer(FF name) | Load |

--------------------------------------+------------------------+-------+ nextstate_not0001(nextstate_not0001:O)| NONE(*)(nextstate_0) | 4 clk | BUFGP |4 | |

--------------------------------------+------------------------+-------+ (*) This 1 clock signal(s) are generated by combinatorial logic, and XST is not able to identify which are the primary clock signals. Please use the CLOCK_SIGNAL constraint to specify the clock signal(s) generated by combinatorial logic. INFO:Xst:2169 - HDL ADVISOR - Some clock signals were not automatically buffered by XST with BUFG/BUFR resources. Please use the buffer_type constraint in order to insert these buffers to the clock signals to help prevent skew problems.

Asynchronous Control Signals Information: ---------------------------------------No asynchronous control signals found in this design

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83 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Timing Summary: --------------Speed Grade: -4

Minimum period: No path found Minimum input arrival time before clock: No path found Maximum output required time after clock: 6.207ns Maximum combinational path delay: No path found

Timing Detail: -------------All values displayed in nanoseconds (ns)

========================================================== =============== Timing constraint: Default OFFSET OUT AFTER for Clock 'clk' Total number of paths / destination ports: 23 / 6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------Offset: Source: Destination: Source Clock: 6.207ns (Levels of Logic = 2) state_2 (LATCH) gb (PAD) clk falling

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84 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Data Path: state_2 to gb Gate Net fanout Delay Delay Logical Name (Net Name)

Cell:in->out

---------------------------------------- -----------LD:G->Q LUT4:I0->O OBUF:I->O 11 0.676 1.108 state_2 (state_2) 2 0.704 0.447 gb1 (gb_OBUF) 3.272 gb_OBUF (gb)

---------------------------------------Total 6.207ns (4.652ns logic, 1.555ns route)

(74.9% logic, 25.1% route)

========================================================== ===============

Total REAL time to Xst completion: 4.00 secs Total CPU time to Xst completion: 4.41 secs

-->

Total memory usage is 158008 kilobytes

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85 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM Number of errors : Number of warnings : Number of infos : 0 ( 0 filtered) 7 ( 0 filtered) 9 ( 0 filtered)

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86 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 11
RTL Schematics:

RTL Schematics:

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87 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CHAPTER 12

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88 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

CONCLUSION
The Project mainly deals with the chip level modeling, taking designing of AES . During the course of the project we have realized and experienced the definite advantages that a hardware description language offers over the conventional method of designing. VHDL coupled with simulation tools provides the designers with option of modeling in parts and the advantages of checking the correctness of the design as it evolves. There is a great scope for development in the project .we are successful in bringing the AES in our design implementation using VHDL.In our project, we also learned about the AES that are in market today. Thus there is scope for both quantitative, qualitative and total security improvement of this pro

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89 FPGA-BASED ADVANCED REAL TIME TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER SYSTEM

BIBLOGRAPHY

BOOKS:

1.BHASKAR.J 2.DOUGLAS L.PERRY 3.STEPHEN BROWN AND ZVONKO VRANESIC 4.DOUGLAS V.HALL

VHDL PRIMER VHDL FUNDEMENTAS OF DIGITAL LOGIC WITH VHDL DESIGN MICROPROCESSORS AND INTERFACING

WEB SITES: http://support.xilinx.com/support/sw_manuals/xilinx6/. www.xilinx.com/itp/xilinx10/books/docs/qst/qst.pdf www.xess.com/appnotes/ise-10.pdf www.digilentinc.com/.../Tutorials/.

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