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Chapter 15

Rizals Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition of 1889

Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption of the Malays) founded by Rizal in Paris during the Universal Exposition of 1889 mentioned this Secret Society: 1. Rizals Letter to Jose Maria Basa (Paris, September 21, 1889) 2. Rizals Letter to Marcelo H. del Pilar (Paris, November 4, 1889) Dr Leoncio Lopez-Rizal grandnephew of the hero patterned after Freesmasonry Trusted friends of Rizal (some members) Gregorio Aguilera, Jose Ma. Basa, Julio Llorente, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Baldomero Roxas & Father Jose Maria Changco (Filipino priest) AIM: the propagation of all useful knowledge scientific, artistic, literary, etc. in the Philippines & the Redemption of the Malay Race

inspired by a famous book entitled Max Havelaar (1860) written by Multatuli

Dr. Leoncio Lopez-Rizal To have freedom of action to attain the aims of R.D.L.M which means the Redemption of the Malay Race Novemeber 23, 1892 Rizals writing to Blumentritt from Hongkong >>> revealed his intention to be a leader of FREEDOM, if not in the Philippines, then in other lands. Provisions for Bornean colonization: Right of the colonists to buy the lands Free use of the seashores Unusual long term of lease for 999 years a period of time long enough for many generations to form a nation and to consolidate its status Map of BORNEO

Rizals outstanding achievement in Paris (1980) wrote in the British Museum printed by Garnier Freres Professor Blumentritt wrote the Prologue Rizals errors: 1. Rizal commits the error of many historians in appraising the events of the past in the light of present standards 2. Rizals attacks on the church were unfair and unjustified because the abuses of the friars should not be construed to mean that Catholicism is bad. Rizal published Morgas Sucesos = best of the many histories of the Philippines written by the early Spanish writers Dedicated new edition of Morga to the Filipino people >> to know their glorious past : TO THE FILIPINOS (p.159) Proved that Filipinos were already civilized before the advent of Spain

BLUMENTRITT

Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, 1890 title page of Rizals annotated edition of Morga Documentary evidence to show that Rizals edition of Morga must have come off the press in 1889 not 1890. 3 Letters: October 12, 1889 Blumentritt received the edition (Leitmeritz) December 28, 1889 Rizal sent copies to Dr. Baldomero Roxas from Paris to Lipa December 31, 1889 Mariano Ponce received the book Incontrovertible proofs that Morgas Sucesos came off the press in 1889. MARIANO PONCE

Rizals research studies in the British Museum (London) and in the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) enriched his historical knowledge His knowledge of foreign languages enabled Rizal to read historical documents: Pigafettas famous First Voyage Around the World (Italian) Works of Marsden, Raffles, Lord Stanley, and Wallace (English) Writings of Blumentritt, Jagor, and Virchow (German)

Historical Commentaries which qualify Rizal to be a real historian: Ma-yi (December 6, 1888) and Tawalisi of Ibn Batuta (January 7, 1889) (both written in London)

JOSE RIZAL

Article in which he expressed his views on the Spanish colonization in the Philippines Predicted with amazing accuracy the tragic end of Spains sovereignty in Asia Parts: Beginning = glorious past of the Filipino people Middle = economic stagnation and happiness under the harsh Spanish Rule Last = peered into the future and warned Spain of what would happen to her colonial empire in Asia if she would not adopt a more liberal & enlightened policy toward the Philippines

The Indolence of the Filipinos


Essay Defense of the alleged indolence of the Filipinos Critical study of the causes why the Filipinos did not work hard during the Spanish regime Main thesis: the Filipinos are not by nature indolent

The Indolence of the Filipinos


10 Causes of decline in economic life: 1) Native revolts and other internal disorders 2) Wars which the Filipinos fought for Spain (Dutch, Portuguese, English, etc.) 3) Raids on the coastal towns and village by the Muslim pirates of Mindanao and Sulu 4) Forced labor 5) Lack of stimulus to work harder (people could not enjoy the fruits of their labor)

The Indolence of the Filipinos


6) Government neglect and indifference (agriculture, industry, and commerce) 7) Bad example shown by Spaniards = despising manual labor 8) Teaching of Spanish missionaries 9) Gambling 10) System of Spanish education

International Association of Filipinologists


Universal Exposition of 1889 (Paris) Letter to Blumentritt January 14, 1889 Prospectus: aim of the association to study the Philippines from the scientific and historical point of view

International Association of Filipinologists


Officers: President: Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt (Austrian)

Vice-President: Mr. Edmund Plauchut (French) Counsellors: Dr. Reinhold Rost (Anglo-German) Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor (Filipino-Spanish) Secretary: Dr. Jose Rizal (Filipino)

Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt

Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor

International Association of Filipinologists


August 1889 (Paris) scheduled holding of the inaugural convention Renowned scholars in Europe: Dr. Reinhold Rost Sir Henry Yule Dr. Feodor Jagor Dr. A.B. Meyer Dr. H. Kern Dr. Czepelak

Sir Henry Yule

Dr. Reinhold Rost

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Planned by Rizal while still in Paris To establish a modern college in Hong Kong Jose Maria Basa Aim: to train and educate men of good family and financial means in accordance with the demands of modern times and circumstances Mr. Mariano Cunanan (Mexico, Pampanga) 40,000 pesos (initial capital)

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Curriculum (Subjects):
Ethics Religion Natural Law Civil Law Deportment Hygiene Mathematics Physics and Chemistry Natural History Geography

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Curriculum (Subjects):
Political Economy Universal History Philippine History Logic, Rhetoric, and Poetics Spanish English French German Chinese Tagalog

Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong


Curriculum (Subjects):
Gymnastics Equitation Fencing Swimming Music Drawing Dancing

Por Telefono
La Vision del Fray Rodiguez Fray Jose Rodriguez Por Telefono (Barcelona, 1889) Fr. Salvador Font (banning of Noli) Mariano Ponce August 13, 1889 Dimas Alang Telephone conversation between Fr. Font (Madrid) and the father provincial (San Agustin Convent-Manila)

Christmas in Paris
December 25, 1889 Jose Albert Capitan Justo Trinidad Christmas dinner: fried chicken, rice, and vegetables Rizals last Christmas dinner in Paris After New Year brief visit to London (unknown purpose)

Christmas in Paris
2 theoretical reasons: 1)To check up his annotated edition of Morgas Sucesos with the original copy in the British Museum; and 2)To see Gertrude Beckett for the last time Middle of January 1890 back in Paris

Jose Maria Basa

Mariano Ponce

Jose Albert

Chapter 16
In Belgian Brussels (1890)

Chapter 16
On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels, capital of Belgium. Two reasons why Rizal left Paris: The cost of living in Paris was very high The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works

Life in Brussels
Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert They lived in a boarding house in 38 Rue Philippe Champagne, which was run by two Jaceby sisters, Suzanne and Marie. Later Albert left the city and was replaced by Jose Alejandro.
38 Rue Philippe Champagne

Life in Brussels
Rizal was busy writing his second novel which was a continuation of the Noli. He wrote articles for La Solaridaridad and letters to his family and friends. Spent part of his time in the medical clinic. For recreation he had gymnastics, target practice and fencing.