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Physics 21

Fall, 2011

Solution to HW-10 27-3

In a 1.35T magnetic ﬁeld directed vertically upward,

a particle having a charge of magnitude 8.90 µC and initially moving northward at 4.72km/s is deﬂected toward the east.

(a) What is the sign of the charge of this particle? (b) Find

the magnetic force on the particle.

The magnetic force on a charged particle moving in a mag- netic ﬁeld is given by the equation

F = qv × B

Since, in this case, F, v, and B are mutually perpendicular, the magnitude of F is simply given by F = qvB, with the direction determined by the right hand rule.

(a) We need to apply the right hand rule to see if the di-

rection of the force is consistent with a positive charge or a negative charge. Imagine you are seated so that north is in front of you. The other directions are then determined: east is to the right, south is behind you, and west is to the left.

So northward velocity means the particle is moving forward. Point the ﬁngers of your right hand straight forward. The magnetic ﬁeld is upward, so curl the ﬁngers of your right hand upward. In order to do this, your palm must be facing upward. Then, the thumb of your right hand is pointing to the right (eastward). Eastward is the direction the particle is deﬂected. Thus, the particle must have a positive charge. Here is a diagram: N
v
B
F
W
E
S

(b) F = qvB = (8.90 µC)(4.72km/s)(1.35T) = 0.0567N 27-4

A particle with mass m = 1.81 × 10 3 kg and a charge

C has, at a given instant, a velocity

of q = 1.22 × 10 8

v = (3.00 × 10 4 m/s) j. (a) What is the magnitude of the

particle’s acceleration produced by a uniform magnetic ﬁeld

ˆ

B = (1.63 T) ˆ i + (0.980 T) j? (b) What is the direction of

the particle’s acceleration?

ˆ

To determine the acceleration of the particle we need to know what force is acting on it. We can assume the only force is due to the magnetic ﬁeld. The force on a charged particle moving in a magnetic ﬁeld is given by:

F = q (v × B)

For the cross product, we notice that many components of v and B are zero:

v = v y ˆ j

and

B = B x ˆ i + B y j.

ˆ

We can evaluate the cross product v × B by using the cross product of each pair of unit vectors:

ˆ

j × ˆ i = k

ˆ

ˆ

j × j = 0

ˆ

Then

F = qv × B = q v y j × B x ˆ i + B y ˆ j = qv y B x k

ˆ

ˆ

Substituting the given quantities we get:

F = (1.22 × 10 8 C)(3.00 × 10 4 m/s)(1.63T)

ˆ

= 5.97 × 10 4 N k

Using Newton’s second law, we can ﬁnd the acceleration of

the particle:

a = F/m = 0.330m/s k.

ˆ September 30, 2011 27-21

A deuteron (the nucleus of an isotope of hydrogen)

has a mass of 3.34 × 10 27 kg and a charge of 1.60 × 10 19 C. The deuteron travels in a circular path with a radius of 6.90mm in a magnetic ﬁeld with a magnitude of 2.60 T. (a) Find the speed of the deuteron. (b) Find the time required

for it to make

tial diﬀerence would the deuteron have to be accelerated to

acquire this speed?

2 1 of a revolution. (c) Through what poten- (a) As is seen in the ﬁgure, the force on a moving charged

particle due to a magnetic ﬁeld causes it to travel in a circular path. We have an equation from the equation sheet that describes this motion.

R = mv qB

Here, the speed is written as v to remind us that only the component of the velocity vector that is perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld direction contributes to the circular motion. In this problem, we are told it is circular motion, so we know that the velocity is purely perpendicular to the magnetic ﬁeld direction. We are given numbers for all of the other quantities in this equation, so simply solve it for v .

v

= RqB = 6.90 × 10 3 m 1.60 × 10 19 C (2.60T)

m

3.34 × 10 27 kg

= 8.594 × 10 5 m/s

(b) For this part, we must recall concepts from Physics 11.

We are looking for the time t to complete half a revolution, or to travel a distance d of half the circumference of the circular

orbit. Since d = πR, and the speed v of the particle in its circular orbit is constant, we have

Then

t

πR = v t =t = πR/v

= πR

= π 6.90 × 10 3 m

v

8.594 × 10 5 m/s

= 2.52 × 10 8 s = 25.2ns

(c) This type of problem can be solved by conservation of

energy. See example 23.7 in the textbook for a reminder. The particle’s gain in kinetic energy is equal to its loss in potential energy. In this case, the particle starts from rest.

Note that Mastering Physics is only asking us to provide |V |, so we don’t have to worry about getting the signs right.

K 0 + U 0 = K 1 + U 1

K 1 K 0 = U 0 U 1

2

1 2 mv = q (V 0 V 1 ) = qV

V = mv

2 = 3.34 × 10 27 kg 8.594 × 10 5 m/s

2q

2(1.60 × 10 19 C)

|V | = 7709V = 7.71kV 27-25

An electron in the beam of a TV picture tube is ac-

celerated by a potential diﬀerence of 1.95 kV. Then it passes through a region of transverse magnetic ﬁeld, where it moves in a circular arc with a radius of 0.179 m. What is the mag- nitude of the ﬁeld?

From problem 27-24, we know that B = mv/(eR), but we have to ﬁnd v for an electron accelerated through a potential diﬀerence of ∆V = 1950 volts. By deﬁnition, the electron gains an energy 1950 eV. Assuming the electron starts from rest, we have

1 2 mv 2 = eV = (1950 eV) × 1.602 × 10 19 J/eV

Solving for v gives v = 2.62 × 10 7 m/s. Then

B = mv eR = 8.32 × 10 4 m.

OH11-05

magnitude 0.3 T at a 45 angle to B. Determine the radius r and pitch p (distance between loops) of the electron’s helical path, assuming its speed is 2 × 10 6 m/s.

An electron enters a uniform magnetic ﬁeld with Since v makes an angle of 45 with B, the components of v parallel and perpendicular to B (v and v ) both have the

value v 0 / 2 (since sin θ = cos θ = 1/ 2 for θ = 45 ), where v 0 is the given speed 2.0 × 10 6 m/s. We get the radius of the

circular motion using

v :

r

= m e v eB

=

(9.11 × 10 31 )(2.0 × 10 6 / 2)

(1.6 × 10 19 )(0.30)

= 26.8 µm

The time to make one loop of circular motion is

t = 2πr

v

= 2πm e v = 2πm e

eBv

eB

.

The pitch is the distance travelled parallel to B (at speed v ) in time ∆t (one loop):

p

= v t = 2πm eB e v

= 1.69 × 10 4 m = 169 µm