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INTELLIGENT AMBULANCE FOR TRAFFIC CITY AND CONTROL TRAFFIC BASED ON ITS DENSITY

Faculty of Electronics & Communication Engineering

B.TECH (Electronics & Communication Engineering)

PRIST UNIVERSITY
THANJAVUR

COORDINATOR

DEAN

INTELLIGENT AMBULANCE FOR TRAFFIC CITY AND CONTROL TRAFFIC BASED ON ITS DENSITY
Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Submitted By Abhishek Kunal 21082210041 Ravi Kumar 20182210231 Pravin Kumar 21082210200 Nawjeet Kumar 21082210171

Under the Guidance of R.Ramya Devi M.Tech

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMINICATION ENGINEERING PRIST UNIVERSITY THANJAVUR - 613 403. March 2012

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PRIST UNIVERSITY THANJAVUR - 613 403.

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project titled INTELLIGENT

AMBULANCE FOR

TRAFFIC CITY AND CONTROL TRAFFIC BASED ON ITS DENSITY

is a bonafide

record of work done by Abhishek Kunal 21082210041, Ravi Kumar 21082210231 , Pravin Kumar 21082210200 , Nawjeet Kumar

21082210171 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering of PRIST University, Thanjavur.

Internal Guide

Head of the Department

Submitted for the University Viva-Voce examination held on -------------

External Examiner

Internal Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The joy and sense of fulfilment that comes along with the successful completion of any task is complete with the thanking of all those people who made it possible with their guidance and constant word of encouragement. We thank our God Almighty for giving us such a excellent facilities and support through the way of PRIST UNIVERSITY and its Chief Administrator our beloved Founder & Honorable Chancellor Mr.P.MURUGESAN, for giving us the opportunity and facilities for completion of this project. We thank our Vice Chancellor Prof.Dr.N.Ethirajalu, who has always served as a inspiration for us to perform our institutes name and recognition. We would like to express our faithful thanks to our Pro Chancellor Prof. Dr.P.S.M Kannan and Dean Prof. Dr.Willson H.Vincent for having extended all the department facilities without hesitation. We would like to express our heart-felt gratitude to Associate Dean. Prof.G.kannan and Head of the Department Prof.A.Rijuvana Begum for the interest shown by him in this project and for having extended his impartial suggestions We thank specially MS. R.Ramya Devi, our Internal Guide for giving extremely valuable guidance and supported us throughout the course of project. We also thank all the staff members of Electronics and Communication Engineering Department for their kind cooperation and timely help.

SYNOPSIS

Day by day increasing population increases traffic and vehicles also which causes problems in transportation and management of traffic. Mainly traffic controls at the crossings required smart traffic signalling system which have high degree of flexibility according to the flow of traffic in auxiliary roads, on the crossing some roads have a high density of traffic required rapid release of traffic to maintain the smooth flow of traffic on busy roads.

In this project we develop a system which sense the traffic density on the particular road and change the red signal duration accordingly. Here we use IR/Ultrasonic sensors fitted along the road side to detect the presence of vehicles and change the value of resistance to change the frequency of the oscillator built around the timer IC which feed to the Johnson counter and change the cycle rate to control the red/green signals according to the traffic density. This a simple and effective solution for traffic busy crossings to control automatically the flow of traffic without disturbing the auxiliary roads.

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE

NAME

PAGE NO.

1.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 10.1 10.2

Traffic light Pin Diagram LCD Timming Diagram of LCD Character Display in LCD Package Dimension Of LED LED Micro Vision D Scope Model Of Traffic junction Time Based Sensor Based Traffic Control Unit Microcontroller Driver Circuit LCD LED Traffic Control Unit Ambulance Section

1 15 19 21 22 23 29 33 34 35 36 37 41 43 44 45 46 58 59

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE

PAGE NO

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT SYNOPSIS LIST OF FIGURES

i ii iii

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview of traffic light system

1
1

1.2 History 1.3 Standard 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 European Standard British Standard North American Standard Asian Standard

2 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6

1.4 Technology 1.4.1 Optical and Lightning 1.4.2 Programmable Visibility Signals

CHAPTER 2: EXISTING SYSTEM 2.1 Pre-Timed Controllers 2.2 Traffic Acutated

7 7 8

CHAPTER 3: PROPOSED SYSTEM 3.1 Traffic Control Based on Density 3.2 Intelligent Ambulance

10 10 11

CHAPTER 4: SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 4.1 Hardware 4.1.1 Microcontroller AT89S52 4.1.1.1 4.1.1.2 4.1.1.3 4.1.1.4 4.1.1.5 4.1.1.6 Architecture Instruction Type 8-Bit Controller Features Pin Diagram Advantages

12 12 12 12 13 13 14 15 18

4.1.2 Liquid Crystal Display 4.1.2.1 4.1.2.2 Circuit Diagram Circuit Description

19 19 20

4.1.3

IR Transmitter 4.1.3.1 4.1.3.2 Output Graphs Features

23 24 27

4.1.4

IR Receiver 4.1.4.1 4.1.4.2 Diagram Features

27 27 28

4.1.5

Light Emitting Diode 4.1.5.1 Diagram 4.1.5.2 Features

29 29 30

4.1.6

RF Transmitter & Receiver 4.1.6.1 RF Transmitter Receiver 4.1.6.2 Special Properties of RF Electrical Signals

31 31 31

4.2

Software 4.2.1 Keil Cross Compiler 4.2.1.1 Features 4.2.2 D Scope

32 32 32 33

CHAPTER 5: DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 5.1 Traffic Junction Situation 5.2 State of Traffic Light 5.2.1 Time Based 5.2.2 Sensor Based 5.3 Traffic Light Simulation Model 5.3.1 Time Based 5.3.2 Sensor Based

35 35 36 36 37 38 38 39

CHAPTER 6: MODULES DESCRIPTION 6.1 Traffic Control Unit 6.1.1 IR Transmitter 6.1.2 IR Receiver 6.1.3 Microcontroller 6.1.4 Driver Circuit 6.1.5 Signal Conditioning Unit 6.1.6 LCD 6.1.7 LED 6.2 Ambulance Section 6.2.1 Keypad 6.2.2 Encoder 6.2.3 Transmitter

41 41 41 42 42 44 45 45 46 47 48 48 49

CHAPTER 7: IMPLEMENTATION RESULT

50

CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION

52

CHAPTER 9: FUTURE ENHANCEMENT 9.1 Implementation of GSM 9.1.1 GSM 9.1.2 Heart Rate Sensor 9.1.3 Temperature Sensor 9.1.3.1 Feature

53 53 54 54 56 56

CHAPTER 10: OUTPUT SCREENSHOT 10.1 Traffic Light Control 10.2 Ambulance Section

58 58 59

CHAPTER 12: REFERENCES

60

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW OF TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM


Ever since Roman times, society has tried to control traffic. Even the fabled Roman road system created a conflict between pedestrian and equine travellers. However, a practical solution was not developed until the mid-nineteenth century, when J. P. Knight, a railway signalling engineer, created the first traffic signal, which was installed near Westminster Abbey in London, England in 1868. Unfortunately, the device exploded, killing a police officer, and its use was discontinued after being in operation for only a short time.

The modern traffic light was invented in America. New York had a three colour system in 1918 that was operated manually from a tower in the middle of the street. Other cities soon adopted the idea of having someone on the scene to control the lights. Garrett Morgan, inventor of the gas mask, also developed traffic signalling devices. Having witnessed an accident between a car and a carriage, Morgan felt compelled to devise a system to prevent such collisions at street intersections. In 1923 he patented an electric traffic light system using a pole with a cross section on which the words STOP and GO were illuminated.

These basic designs were soon improved. In 1926 the first automatic signals were installed in London; they depended on a timer to activate them. In the 1930s vehicle-activated lights were created in which cars rolled over half-buried rubber tubes. Air in the tubes was displaced by the weight of the car rolling over them, and the increased pressure operated an electric contact, activating the lights. But these tubes wore out quickly. A better idea was the inductive-loop device: a loop of wire was imbedded in the road itself and connected to a box controlling the lights; a current of electricity passed through the loop, and when the steel body of a car passed overhead, it produced a signal that activated the light. 1

Today, traffic is automatically routed onto limited access highways courtesy of a computer activated guidance system that determines traffic volume on the highway. Global positioning satellite systems (GPS) are installed in many cars. These systems connect with a satellite and inform drivers where they are and possible routes to their destination. Such systems will eventually enable a drive to determine the best route to a destination given prevailing traffic conditions.

FIGURE 1.1 Traffic Light

1.2 HISTORY
On December 10, 1868, the first traffic lights were installed outside the British Houses of Parliament in London, by the railway engineer J. P. Knight. They resembled railway signals of the time, with semaphore arms and red and green gas lamps for night use. The gas lantern was turned with a lever at its base so that the appropriate light faced traffic. It exploded on 2 January 1869, injuring or killing the policeman who was operating it. The modern electric traffic light is an American invention. As early as 1912 in Salt Lake City, Utah, policeman Lester Wire invented the first red-green electric traffic lights. On August 5, 1914, the American Traffic Signal Company installed a traffic signal system on the corner of East 105th Street and Euclid Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. It had two colours, red and green, and a buzzer, based on the design of James Hoge, to provide a warning for colour changes. The designed by James Hoge allowed police and fire stations to control the signals in case of emergency.

The first four-way, three-colour traffic light was created by police officer William Potts in Detroit, Michigan in 1920. In 1922, T.E. Hayes patented his "Combination traffic guide and traffic regulating signal" (Patent # 1447659). Ashville, Ohio claims to be the location of the oldest working traffic light in the United States, used at an intersection of public roads until 1982 when it was moved to a local museum.

The first interconnected traffic signal system was installed in Salt Lake City in 1917 with six connected intersections controlled simultaneously from a manual switch. Automatic control of interconnected traffic lights was introduced March 1922 in Houston, Texas. The first automatic experimental traffic lights in England were deployed in Wolverhampton in 1927. In 1923, Garrett Morgan patented his own version. The Morgan traffic signal was a T-shaped pole unit that featured three hand-cranked positions: Stop, go, and an all directional stop position. This third position halted traffic in all directions to give drivers more time to stop before opposing traffic started. Its one "advantage" over others of its type was the ability to operate it from a distance using a mechanical linkage. Toronto was the first city to computerize its entire traffic signal system, which it accomplished in 1963. The colour of the traffic lights representing stop and go might be derived from those used to identify port (red) and starboard (green) in maritime rules governing right of way, where the vessel on the left must stop for the one crossing on the right. Countdown timers on traffic lights were introduced in the 1990s. Though uncommon in most American urban areas, timers are used in some other Western Hemisphere countries. Timers are useful for drivers/pedestrians to plan if there is enough time to attempt to cross the intersection before the light turns red and conversely, the amount of time before the light turns green. 3

1.3 STANDARDS

1.3.1 EUROPEAN STANDARD


The European approach to a signalized crossing is use dual or more rarely, a triple aspect. with a blackened out lens of a Pictogram pedestrian. For cyclist, the same approach is used with the lens blackened out for a bicycle frame. It is not uncommon to see lenses with both symbols on them. Green: Cross Yellow: Continue to cross only if unable to stop safely Flashing Yellow: Cross with caution, usually used when lights are out of order or shut down for the night, for low traffic Red: Do not cross

1.3.2 BRITISH STANDARD


In the United Kingdom, British crown dependencies and dependent territories, and former possessions like Hong Kong, the light sequence is as follows:

Green: Cross. Flashing green: Continue to cross only if unable to stop safely. Red: Do not cross.

The light is blackened out with a pedestrian pictogram. The same system is used also in Macau, a former Portuguese overseas province near Hong Kong.

1.3.3 NORTH AMERICAN STANDARD


In North America, the most common aspects found are text-only lenses (WALK/DON'T WALK), the pictogram stop hand (in red/orange) and a walking person (in green or white). Increasingly for retrofits of dual aspects and newer installations, the lower aspect formerly used for the "walk" signal (walking person) is being replaced with a timer countdown. Light sequence: Green or White (Walking Human or WALK) Flashing Red/Orange (Stop hand or DON'T WALK) Red/Orange; Do not cross

1.3.4 ASIAN STANDARD


Green: Cross Amber: Cross if already in intersection, otherwise do not (however by law, you are allowed to cross) Red: Do not cross

1.4 TECHNOLOGY 1.4.1 OPTICS AND LIGHTING


Traditionally, incandescent and halogen bulbs were used. Because of the low efficiency of light output and a single point of failure (filament burnout) municipalities are increasingly retrofitting traffic signals with LED arrays that consume less power, have increased light output, last significantly longer, and in the event of an individual LED failure, still operate albeit with a reduced light output. With the use of optics, the light pattern of an LED array can be comparable to the pattern of an incandescent or halogen bulb. 5

Due to the low energy usage aspects of LED lights, these lights can pose a driving risk in some areas during winter. Incandescent and halogen bulbs are generally warm enough to melt away snow that cover individual lights but as LED lights use a fraction of the energy as a result they are not warm enough to melt snow that may overlay the lights during winter.

1.4.2 PROGRAMMABLE VISIBILITY SIGNALS

Signals such as the 3M High Visibility Signal and McCain Programmable Visibility signal utilize light-diffusing optics and a powerful fresnel lens to create the signal indication. Lit via a powerful 150W PAR46 sealed-beam lamp, the light from the lamp in these "programmable visibility" signals passes through a set of two glass lenses at the back of the signal. The first lens, a frosted glass diffusing lens, diffuses the light into a uniform ball of light around five inches in diameter. The light then passes through a nearly identical lens known as an optical limiter (3M's definition of the lens itself), also known as a "programming lens", also five inches in diameter.

2. EXISTING SYSTEM

Traffic signals alternately assign the right of way to different traffic movements at an intersection. Vehicular traffic is permitted to flow in a strictly controlled manner. A controller is used to switch the signal displays. The signal sequence at intersections is red, green, yellow, and red. The standard period during which a yellow signal is displayed is fixed at three seconds. The duration of the green signal will depend on the method of control. It is not recommended the signal sequence cycle be in excess of 120 seconds. Two basic kinds of controllers are used: Pre-timed and Traffic actuated.

2.1 PRE-TIMED CONTROLLERS


Pre-timed controllers represent traffic control in its most basic form. They operate on a predetermined, regularly repeated sequence of signal indications. For example, in one complete phase of the cycle, one street-the primary street-may be assigned 40 seconds of green time, and the other street may be assigned 15 seconds of green time. Several seconds per minute are assigned to the yellow, or clearance, interval. The signal rotates through this defined cycle in a constant fashion, as determined by the controllers settings. Pre-timed controllers are best suited for intersections where traffic volumes are predictable, stable, and fairly constant. They may also be preferable where pedestrian volumes are large and fairly constant. Depending on the equipment, several timing sequences may be preset to accommodate variations in traffic volume during the day. The timing of pre-timed signals is typically determined from visual observations and traffic counts. Once the timing programs are set, they remain fixed until they are changed manually, in the field. Generally, pre-timed controllers are cheaper to purchase, install, and maintain than trafficactuated controllers.

Their repetitive nature facilitates coordination with adjacent signals, and they are useful where progression is desired. Progression refers to the nonstop movement of vehicles along a signalized street system. Properly timed signal systems facilitate progression.

2.2 TRAFFIC ACCUTATED


Traffic-actuated controllers differ from pre-timed controllers in that their signal indications are not of fixed length, but rather change in response to variations in the level and speed of traffic. Traffic-actuated controllers are typically used where traffic volumes fluctuate irregularly or where it is desirable to minimize interruptions to traffic flow on the street carrying the greater volume of traffic. A simple traffic-actuated signal installation consists of four basic components: detectors, the controller unit, signal heads (the traffic lights), and connecting cables. The detectors are usually placed in the pavement, but they are sometimes positioned on signal poles. Commonly used types include the inductive loop detector, magnetic detector, magnetometer, and microwave detector. The inductive loop detector is by far the most common. A loop of metal wire is embedded in a saw-cut slot in the pavement and then covered with a protective epoxy sealant. As a vehicle travels over the detector, its metallic mass changes the inductance of the loop. The detector processes this change and notifies the controller unit of the presence of a vehicle. There are three basic types of traffic actuated controllers: Semi-actuated controllers, fully actuated controllers, and volume-density controllers.

Semi-actuated controllers assign a continuous green indication to the major street except when a detector signals that a vehicle on the minor street is waiting to enter the intersection. Traffic detectors are thus only needed on the minor street approaches. If a vehicle is detected on the minor street, a demand for a green is registered and stored in the controller unit. Once a green signal is displayed on the minor street, the duration may be extended by vehicles detected moving towards the signal to a preset maximum period after the demand has been received.

On expiry of the last extension and with no more vehicles detected, the minor street lights transition from green to yellow to red, allowing the major street lights to return to green. Even if vehicles are waiting to cross the major street, the major street should remain green for a preset minimum period after returning to green. Fully actuated controllers require detectors on all lanes approaching an intersection. They are most useful when vehicle volumes vary over the course of the day, making frequent timing changes necessary. Fully actuated controllers are often preferred because of their responsiveness to actual traffic conditions.

Volume-density controllers are a more advanced type of fully actuated controllers. They record and retain actual traffic information, such as volumes. Using the recorded information, they can calculate-and recalculate as necessary-the duration of the minimum green time based on actual traffic demand. The efficiency of a traffic-actuated signal installation depends on the programming of the unit and the location of the detectors.

Another type of actuated control uses a computer to control, operate, and supervise a traffic control signal system. Computer-controlled systems basically consist of a central computer, communication media (cable, telephone, radio, etc.), and field equipment (local controllers, detectors, etc.). Both pre-timed control and actuated control have application today. In Howard County, Maryland, for example, pre-timed controllers are used to coordinate the flow of traffic on main streets during the day, with semi-actuated control on minor streets. At night, when traffic volumes drop, fully actuated control is used on all streets. Timing adjustments should be made by trained technicians and should be based on the traffic periods. When adjusting a controller, the technician should observe the effect on traffic and then fine-tune the settings as necessary. Intersections should be periodically monitored to ensure the signals are operating efficiently. As traffic volumes and other conditions change, the controller settings will need to be changed accordingly.

3 PROPOSED SYSTEM
3.1 TRAFFIC CONTROL BASED ON DENSITY
In this system IR sensors are used to measure the density of the vehicles which are fixed with in a fixed distance. All the sensors are interfaced with the microcontroller which in turn controls the traffic signal system according to density by the sensor.

If the traffic density is high in particular side more priority is given for that side. The sensor continuously keeps sensing density on all sides and the green signal is given to the side in priority basis, where the sensor detects high density. The side with next priority level follows the first priority level.

By using this system traffic can cleared without irregularities and time delays even though there is no traffic on the other side can be avoided.

3.1.1 DESCRIPTION
We have three pairs of sensors across the roads marking as low, medium and high density zones respectively. There will be a infrared transmitter and infrared receiver opposite to each other . We will place sensors at some distance apart from another pair. When vehicles are filled and cross the first pair of sensors , then there will be an obstacle between transmitter and receiver and this lead to a digital signal (low or high) and the microcontroller assumes that there is low density traffic When the vehicle crosses second sensor ten it assumes medium density and for third sensor pair high density traffic respectively. Depending on the above process a digital data is sent to microcontroller whether its low or high and the microcontroller will allot the time for the traffic to pass on.

10

For high density traffic there will be more allotment of the time and for low density low time respectively. Program written to the microcontroller will make it to do the operation.

So the microcontroller will send its timing signal output by comparing with the adjacent roads traffic.

3.2 INTELLIGENT AMBULANCE Most of the time the traffic will be at least for 100meters .In this distance the traffics police cant hear the siren form the ambulance. Then the ambulance has to wait till the traffic is cleared. Some times to free the traffic it takes at least 30 minutes .So by this time anything can happen to the patient .So this project avoid these disadvantages. The second feature is the information system in the Ambulance. The system will inform the status of the patient to the hospital as the command giving to the system in the ambulance. According to this project if any ambulance at emergency comes to any traffic post the traffic signals automatically stop the signals and give green signal for this ambulance. Normally, we will have the traffic signal lights programmed for a particular time intervals. But, here we will generate the traffic light signals based on the traffic, on the particular time.

3.2.1 DESCRIPTION
When the ambulance at emergency comes to any traffic post the traffic signals automatically stop the signals and give green signal for this ambulance.

The ambulance carries an IR transmitter and IR receiver will be there at few meters at the signal. The receiver will receive the signal and the module will send the command to turn on green through the RF and every traffic post will have an RF receiver. So whenever the ambulance comes near the traffic, the ambulance will transmit a code say emergency the receiver will receive this signal .Then it immediately switch off the other signals i.e. it make all the signals red and later make way for ambulance by signalling green. So by doing this the ambulance can go without any problem. 11

SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENT

4.1 HARDWARE

4.1.1 MICROCONTROLLER AT89S52


A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part of an embedded system. The microcontroller includes a CPU, RAM, ROM,I/O ports, and timers like a standard computer, but because they are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system ,they are much smaller and simplified.

4.1.1.1 ARCHITECTURE
Architecture of Microcontroller is classified into two types: Data Flow and Instruction. Data Flow There are two types of architecture in data flow. They are : Von Neumann Architecture Harvard Architecture One shared memory is only available for instructions (program) and data instructions and data have to be fetched in sequential order in case of Von Neumann architecture. The Harvard architecture on the other hand uses physically separate memories for their instructions and data, requiring dedicated buses for each of them. Instructions and Operands can therefore be fetched simultaneously.

12

4.1.1.2 INSTRUCTION TYPE


There are two types of architecture in instruction type. They are CISC RISC

CISC CISC architecture supports as many as 200 instructions. A CISC microprocessor contains a more complex set of instructions that it responds to and some of these instructions cannot be completed in one machine cycle RISC This is a type of architecture that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions. Until the mid-1980s, the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had ever-larger sets of instructions . At that time, however, a number of computer manufacturers decided to reverse this trend by building CPUs capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions. One advantage of reduced instruction set computers is that they can execute their instructions very fast because the instructions are so simple.

4.1.1.3 8 BIT- CONTROLLER


Application volumes for the 8-bit microcontrollers may be as high as the 4-bit models, or they may be very low. Application sophistication can also range from simple application control to high-speed machine control and data collection. For these reasons, the microcontroller vendors have established extensive families of similar models. 13

All features a common language, but differ in the amount of internal ROM, RAM, and other cost-sensitive features. Often the memory can be expanded to include off-chip ROM and RAM; in some cases, the microcontroller has no on-board ROM at all, or the ROM is an electrically reprogrammable read only memory (EPROM). Manufacture: Intel 8051 Pins/I/O Counter RAM ROM : : : : 40/32 2 256bytes 8K

4.1.1.4 FEATURES OF AT89S52


8 bit Microcontroller 8K bytes of Flash Programmable and Erasable ROM Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz 256* 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Six Interrupt Sources Two 16 bit Timer/Counters Programmable Serial Channel Low Power Idle and Power-down modes Three level Program Memory Lock

14

4.1.1.5 PIN DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION PIN DIAGRAM

FIGURE-4.1 Pin Diagram

PIN DESCRIPTION
VCC: Supply Voltage (Pin 40) GND: Ground (Pin 20)

Port 0: It occupies a total of 8 pins (32-39) which can be used as both input and output. To use the pins of port 0 as both input and output ports, each pin must be connected externally to a 10K pull-up resistor .

15

This is due to the fact that P0 is an open drain, unlike P1,P2,P3. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, they can be used as high impedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be a multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. It receives code bytes during flash programming.

Port 1: It occupies a total of 8 pins(1-8). It is bidirectional port with internal pull ups. When 1s are written to port 1, they can be used as inputs. It receives low order address bytes during flash programming and verification.

Port 2: It occupies a total of 8 pins (21-28). It is a bidirectional port with internal pull ups. When 1s are written to port 1, they can be used as inputs. It emits higher order address bytes during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16 bit address. It receives higher order address bits and control signals during flash programming and verification.

Port 3: It occupies a total of 8 pins (10-17). It is a bidirectional port with internal pull ups.When 1s are written to port 3, they are used as inputs. It also receives control signals during flash programming and verification. Port 3 has the additional function of providing some extremely important signals such as interrupts. P3.0 and P3.1 are used for RxD and TxD serial communication signals. Bits 3.2 and 3.3 are set for external interrupts. Bits 3.3 and 3.4 are used for timers 0 and 1. Pins 3.6 and 3.7 are used to provide the read and write signals( active- low) of external memories. 16

TABLE-1- Pin details of Port 3

RST : Reset Input (Pin 9). A high on this pin (normally low) for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This is often referred to as Power-On reset. Activating a power-on reset will cause all values in the registers to be lost. It will set Program Counter to all 0s. XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. (Pin 19)

17

XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier (Pin 20).

ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse (Pin 30) for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during flash programming. PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory (Pin 29). EA/VPP: External Access Enable (Pin 31). EA must be strapped to ground in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. It also receives the 12V programming enable voltage during flash programming.

4.1.1.6 ADVANTAGES OF AT89S52


Cost effective Low Power Highly flexible High performance

18

4.1.2 LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)


A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is utilized in batterypowered electronic devices as it uses very small amounts of electric power. LCDs with a small number of segments, such as those used in digital watches and pocket calculators have individual electrical contacts for each segment. An external dedicated circuit supplies an electric charge to control each segment.

FIGURE 4.2 LCD

4.1.2.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Figure 4.3

A 16 Character x 2 Line LCD Module 19

4.1.2.2 CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION


The LCD panel's Enable and Register Select is connected to the Control Port. The Control Port is an open collector / open drain output. By incorporating two 10K external pull up resistors, the circuit is made portable for a wider range of computers. The R/W line of the LCD panel is hard-wired into the write mode which will not cause any bus conflicts on the data lines. Hence the LCD's internal Busy Flag cannot tell if the LCD has accepted and finished processing the last instruction or not. The 10k Potentiometer controls the contrast of the LCD panel

GND 1 2 3 VCC VEE

Ground

Supply Voltage +5V Contrast adjustment Register select :0->Control input,

RS 1-> Data input

5 6 7 to 14 15 16

R/W E D0 to D7 VB1 VB0

Read/ Write Enable I/O Data pins Backlight +5V Backlight ground

20

Table 2 Pin Details of LCD

Figure 4.3 Timing diagram of LCD

This waveform will write an ASCII Byte out to the LCD's screen. The ASCII code to be displayed is eight bits long and is sent to the LCD either four or eight bits at a time. If four bit mode is used, two "nibbles" of data (Sent high four bits and then low four bits with an "E" Clock pulse with each nibble) are sent to make up a full eight bit transfer. The "E" Clock is used to initiate the data transfer within the LCD. The "R/S" bit is used to select whether data or an instruction is being transferred between the microcontroller and the LCD. If the Bit is set, then the byte at the current LCD "Cursor" Position can be read or written. When the Bit is reset, either an instruction is being sent to the LCD or the execution status of the last instruction is read back Reading Data back is used in applications which requires data to be moved back and forth on the LCD . The "Busy Flag" can be polled to determine when the last instruction that has been sent has completed processing. The "R/W" line is tied to ground if read back is not required. This simplifies the application because when data is read back, the microcontroller I/O pins have to be alternated between input and output modes. The "Clear Display" and "Return Cursor and LCD to Home Position" instructions are used to reset the Cursor's position to the top right character on the display. 21

Figure 4.4 Character display in LCD

Eight programmable characters are available and use codes 0x000 to 0x007. They are programmed by pointing the LCD's "Cursor" to the Character Generator RAM ("CGRAM") Area at eight times the character address. The next eight characters written to the RAM are each line of the programmable character, starting at the top. Each LCD character is actually eight pixels high, with the bottom row normally used for the underscore cursor. The bottom row can be used for graphic characters. The user defined character line information is saved in the LCD's "CGRAM" area. This sixty four bytes of memory is accessed using the "Move Cursor into CGRAM" instruction. A potentiometer wired as a voltage divider is used as a contrast voltage to the Display. This will provide an easily variable voltage between Ground and Vcc, which will be used to specify the contrast (or "darkness") of the characters on the LCD screen. Different LCDs work differently with lower voltages providing darker characters in some and higher voltages do the same thing in others. There are a variety of different ways of wiring up an LCD. To simplify the demands in microcontrollers, a shift register is often used to reduce the number of I/O pins to three. 22

4.1.3 IR TRANSMITTER
A IR TRANSMITTER device consists of a timer circuit connected to an infrared LED array. The timer causes the infrared LEDs to strobe at specific frequencies, such as 10Hz for low priority (buses) or 14 Hz for high priority (emergency vehicles). Low Priority transmitters will control the intersection to perform a normal light change, while High Priority transmitters will change an entire intersection immediately

Figure 4.5 Package Dimension 23

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (TA = 25C unless otherwise specified) Parameter Operating Temperature Storage Temperature Soldering Temperature (Iron) Soldering Temperature (Flow) Continuous Forward Current Reverse Voltage Power Dissipation (1) Peak Forward Current (5) Symbol TOPR TSTG TSOL-I TSO IFL-F VR PD IF(Peak) Rating -40 to +100 -40 to +100 240 for 5 sec 260 for 10 sec 100 5 200 1.5 Unit C C C C m A V m W A

4.1.3.1 OUTPUT GRAPHS:

1. Normalized Radiant Intensity vs. Input Current

24

2 Forward Voltage vs. Temperature

Normalized Radiant Intensity vs. Wavelength

25

Forward Current vs. Forward Voltage

Radiation Pattern

26

4.1.3.2 FEATURES
Wavelength= 880 nm Chip material = AlGaAs Package type: T-1 3/4 (5mm lens diameter) Matched Photo sensor: QSD122/123/124 Medium Wide Emission Angle, 40 High Output Power Package material and color: Clear, purple tinted, plastic

4.1.4 IR RECEIVER

4.1.4.1 DIAGRAM

Narrow response range (660 nm peak),single heterostructure on the substrate


Spectral range Type Technology Case

Visible-red

EPD-660-5

AlGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs

5 mm plastic lens

27

Maximum Ratings
Parameter Value - 40...+90 -40...+85 240 Unit C C C

Storage Temperature Operating Temperature Soldering Temperature

Table

Optical and Electrical Characteristics (Tamb = 25C, unless otherwise specified)


Parameter Test conditions Symbol A
Smax

Min 620

Typ 0.13 660 25 40 0.42 0.85 40 10 40 15 30

Max 700

Unit mm2 nm nm deg. A/W A

Active area Peak sensitivity Spectral bandwidth at 50% Acceptance angle at 50% S Responsivity at 660 nm Short-circuit current* Dark current Reverse voltage Junction capacitance Rise time Fall time VR = 0 V VR = 0, Ee=1 mW/cm VR = 5 V, Ee=0 IR = 10 A VR = 0, Ee=0 RL = 50 , VR = 5 V

0,5

S ISC ID VR tr tf

200

pA V pF ns

Table-

4.1.4.2 FEATURES
Photo detector and preamplifier in one package Internal filter for PCM frequency Improved shielding against electrical field disturbance TTL and CMOS compatibility Output active low Low power consumption High immunity against ambient light 28

4.1.5 LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE)


A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the colour of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.

FIGURE 4.6 LED

29

FEATURES

Efficiency: LEDs emit more light per watt than incandescent light bulbs. Their efficiency is not affected by shape and size, unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes.

Colour: LEDs can emit light of an intended colour without using any colour filters as traditional lighting methods need. This is more efficient and can lower initial costs.

Size: LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm) and are easily populated onto printed circuit boards.

On/Off time: LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in under a microsecond LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster response times.

Cycling: LEDs are ideal for uses subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps that fail faster when cycled often, or HID lamps that require a long time before restarting.

Dimming: LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse-width modulation or lowering the forward current.

Cool light: In contrast to most light sources, LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is dispersed as heat through the base of the LED.

Slow failure: LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time, rather than the abrupt failure of incandescent bulbs.

Lifetime: LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer. Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 10,000 to 15,000 hours, depending partly on the conditions of use, and incandescent light bulbs at 1,0002,000 hours.

Shock resistance: LEDs, being solid state components, are difficult to damage with external shock, unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs, which are fragile.

Focus: The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable manner

30

4.1.6 RF TRANSMITTER RECEIVER


Radio frequency (RF) radiation is a subset of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of 100km to 1mm, which is a frequency of 3 KHz to 300 GHz,[1] respectively. This range of electromagnetic radiation constitutes the radio spectrum and corresponds to the frequency of alternating current electrical signals used to produce and detect radio waves. RF can refer to electromagnetic oscillations in either electrical circuits or radiation through air and space. Like other subsets of electromagnetic radiation, RF travels at the speed of light.

4.1.6.1 Radio communication


In order to receive radio signals, for instance from AM/FM radio stations, a radio antenna must be used. However, since the antenna will pick up thousands of radio signals at a time, a radio tuner is necessary to tune in to a particular frequency (or frequency range).[2] This is typically done via a resonator (in its simplest form, a circuit with a capacitor and an inductor). The resonator is configured to resonate at a particular frequency (or frequency band), thus amplifying sine waves at that radio frequency, while ignoring other sine waves. Usually, either the inductor or the capacitor of the resonator is adjustable, allowing the user to change the frequency at which it resonates.

4.1.6.2 Special properties of RF electrical signals


Electrical currents that oscillate at RF have special properties not shared by direct current signals. One such property is the ease with which they can ionize air to create a conductive path through air. This property is exploited by 'high frequency' units used in electric arc welding, although strictly speaking these machines do not typically employ frequencies within the HF band. Another special property is an electromagnetic force that drives the RF current to the surface of conductors, known as the skin effect.

31

4.2 SOFTWARE 4.2.1 KEIL CROSS COMPILER


A KEIL cross compiler is a software, which compiles a source code of one environment as an object file to be executed in different environment. It is broadly classified into development and simulation.Development of programs are handled by Micro vision software and the simulation is handled by D Scope. The Keil C51 C Compiler for the 8051 microcontroller is the most popular 8051 C compiler in the world. It provides more features than any other 8051 C compiler available today. The C51 Compiler allows you to write 8051 microcontroller applications in C that, once compiled, have the efficiency and speed of assembly language. Language extensions in the C51 Compiler give you full access to all resources of the 8051. The C51 Compiler translates C source files into relocatable object modules which contain full symbolic information for debugging with the Vision Debugger or an in-circuit emulator. In addition to the object file, the compiler generates a listing file which may optionally include symbol table and cross reference information.

4.2.1.1-FEATURE
To help expedite the software development process, Vision offers numerous features like:

A pull down menu system, Multiple file editing capability, Full function editor with colour syntax highlighting, user definable key sequences, and editor functions, Application manager for accessing external programs, Project manager and automated make facility for building target files, 32

The programs are typed in Vision and compiled here. The below is the screen of Vision with a sample program.

Figure 4.7 - MICRO VISION

4.2.2 D SCOPE
DScope is a software debugger which simulates the hardware of the MCS 51, MCS 251 and 80C166 microcontroller family and can execute all machine instructions. Simulation of the integrated peripherals is implemented by means of loadable drivers. This makes DScope fully capable of simulating the integrated hardware of the various derivatives of the microcontrollers. A corresponding driver exists for each controller type supported. The software test is executed optionally either at the source level, assembler level, or a combination of both.

33

All the actions that are performed by the program can be simulated here. The values can be assigned to any of the ports and the output can be viewed. And any peripherals that have to be used can be selected from the menu. In the picture below the debugging window and the windows corresponding to the input/output ports are displayed.

Figure 4.8- D SCOPE

34

DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

5.1 TRAFFIC JUNCTION SITUATION

Figure 5.1 Model of the traffic junction situation

DESCRIPTION

There were two sets of data that has been analyzed: data from time-based system and the sensor-based system. These data obtained from the reports generated by Arena after the entire simulation full. They were analyzed to see if the improvement in waiting time of vehicle is succeeded or not. The data is compared by using the paired T -test, a way to compare two sets of data to see if significant improvement has been made or not. 35

The paired T-test of the data acquired from the simulation is done in two tests: the paired T-test of the data from the simulation in normal traffic condition and the paired T -test of the data from the simulation of busy traffic condition. As the simulation generates vehicles in random arrival time based on exponential distribution, average waiting time is different in different simulation run.

5.2 STATE OF TRAFFIC LIGHT

5.2.1 TIME BASED

Figure 5.2 Time Based

36

5.2.2 SENSOR BASED

Figure 13

5.3 TRAFFIC LIGHT SIMULATION MODEL 5.3.1 TIME BASED

37

5.3.1

SENSOR BASED

DESCRIPTION
The above Data Flow Diagram show the simulation models for time based and sensorbased during run. Simulation has been run for 200 seconds for 25 run for each .time-based and sensor-based system in normal and busy condition. Data from the reports generated in Arena is mean waiting compiled in Microsoft Excel before the paired T test is done using Microsoft Excel. Figure shows the time (in seconds) of time-based system and sensorbased system in normal and busy condition.

All statistical data from simulation and paired T -test is compiled in Table . From here, tvalue is calculated at 10.087 for normal traffic condition and 4.5115 for busy traffic condition. With t-value as calculated and degree of freedom is 24 (n-l), the p-value for normal traffic condition is 4.l495TIO, whereas the p-value for busy traffic condition is 1.438y4. As both p-value is less than 0.05, it is safe to assume that there are different values in both normal and busy condition, which suggests there are improvements if the sensor is implemented in the system. 38

Result of the study from simulation modelling of the traffic light control system with timebased system and the sensor-based system showed that there are a lot of improvements on waiting time of vehicles in the junctions if the implementation of sensor is done to the traffic light\ system. Mean waiting time of time-based traffic light system is around 20 seconds for both normal traffic condition and busy traffic condition, while for sensor-based traffic light system, the mean waiting time for vehicles in the junctions is about 7.5 seconds for normal traffic condition, and about 17 seconds for busy traffic conditions.

Within this study, the Arena simulation software, which is more appropriate for simulation of manufacturing system, is used. While there are a lot of specific tools or simulation software intended for traffic light studies available, the Arena software proves to be more general purpose simulation software that can be used in simulation of the traffic light control system. Therefore, in formulating optimal solutions for each of the traffic light in the intersections, more appropriate tools can be used to study the traffic light system and to improve the traffic condition at the intersection intended. However, some of the tools used in studying the traffic light system are intended for specific purpose of the study or scarce and hard to get. Hence a more general purpose tool such as Arena simulation software can be configured in order to get the optimal solutions for the intended studies.

TABLE

39

Traffic light control system involves a very complex study. Even implementing one traffic light in a single junction involved a lot of studies to be done and there is no obvious optimal solution. In the study there are four junctions of an intersection involved, therefore, a more complex work needs to be done as the state of one light influences the traffic flow and conditions of other junctions as well.

While the work is to see if the implementation of sensor in the traffic light control system can improve the waiting time of vehicles in the junction of an intersection, it does not provide an optimal solution for the improvement of the waiting time of vehicles in junctions as each parameter of the traffic light system such as arrival rate of vehicles at the intersection, the average number of vehicles waiting in the junction and optimal traffic light duration is different from one intersection to another. These parameters need to be studied first to obtain the optimal solutions for the intended traffic light system. However, the simulation done within the study provided general solution for implementing sensors in the traffic light control system. Therefore, by implementing sensor in traffic light system, the waiting time for vehicles in the junctions at the intersection can be reduced significantly as has been proven by statistical method. Further improvements can be made in the system by modifying the parameters in the simulation suitable for intended studies.

40

6. MODULES DESCRIPTION
6.1 TRAFFIC CONTROL UNIT
This section consists of microcontroller, LCD display

FIGURE 6.1 Traffic Control Unit

6.1.1 IR TRANSMITTER Infrared (IR) transmitters are found in many everyday electronic devices, such as television remote controls. These devices operate in the electromagnetic spectrum's infrared region. An IR transmitter is designed to transmit signals and commands to electronic equipment through infrared waves. 41

Infrared transmitters are short-range communication devices and are not designed for long-range communication. An IR transmitter can be employed for many applications. Essentially, it is used to give commands to electronic devices from a distance without using cords, cables or wires. Most modern electronic devices are controlled mainly through an IR transmitter, making them remote-control devices. Very few designated buttons make it onto actual modern electronics such as televisions and video game systems

6.1.2 IR RECIEVER
IR receiver controls are using a 32-56 kHz modulated square wave for communication. These circuits are used to transmit a 1-4 kHz digital signal (OOK modulation) through infra light (this is the maximum attainable speed, 1000-4000 bits per sec). The transmitter oscillator runs with adjustable frequency in the 32-56kHz range, and is being turned ON/OFF with the modulating signal, a TTL voltage on the MOD input. On the receiver side a photodiode takes up the signal. The integrated circuit inside the chip is sensitive only around a specified frequency in the 32-56 kHz range. The output is the demodulated digital input (but usually inverted), just what we used to drive the transmitter. When the carrier is present, this output is usually low. When no carrier is detected, the output is usually high.

6.1.3 MICROCONTROLLER
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated C, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. 42

Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems.

FIGURE 6.2 MICROCONTROLLER Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (milli watts or microwatts). They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nano watts, making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption.

43

6.1.4 DRIVER CIRCUIT


In electronics, a driver is an electrical circuit or other electronic component used to control another circuit or other component, such as a high-power transistor. They are usually used to regulate current flowing through a circuit or is used to control the other factors such as other components, some devices in the circuit. The term is used, for example, for a specialized computer chip that controls the high-power transistors in AC-to-DC voltage converters. An amplifier can also be considered the driver for loudspeakers, or a constant voltage circuit that keeps an attached component operating within a broad range of input voltages.

FIGURE 6.2 DRIVER CIRCUIT Typically the driver stage(s) of a circuit requires different characteristics to other circuit stages. For example in a transistor power amplifier, typically the driver circuit requires current gain, often the ability to discharge the following transistor bases rapidly, and low output impedance to avoid or minimise distortion. 44

6.1.5 SIGNAL CONDIONING CIRCUIT


In electronics, signal conditioning means manipulating an analog signal in such a way that it meets the requirements of the next stage for further processing. Most common use is in analog-to-digital converters. In control engineering applications, it is common to have a sensing stage (which consists of a sensor), a signal conditioning stage (where usually amplification of the signal is done) and a processing stage (normally carried out by an ADC and a micro-controller). Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are commonly employed to carry out the amplification of the signal in the signal conditioning stage. Signal inputs accepted by signal conditioners include DC voltage and current, AC voltage and current, frequency and electric charge. Sensor inputs can be accelerometer, thermocouple, thermistor, resistance thermometer, strain gauge or bridge, and LVDT or RVDT. Specialized inputs include encoder, counter or tachometer, timer or clock, relay or switch, and other specialized inputs. Outputs for signal conditioning equipment can be voltage, current, frequency, timer or counter, relay, resistance or potentiometer, and other specialized outputs. Signal conditioning can include amplification, filtering, converting, range matching, isolation and any other processes required to make sensor output suitable for processing after conditioning.

6.1.6 LCD
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs do not emit light directly.

45

LCDs are used in a wide range of applications, including computer monitors, television, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones. LCDs have replaced cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. They are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, and since they do not use phosphors, they cannot suffer image burn-in. LCDs are, however, susceptible to image persistence.

FIGURE 6.4 LCD LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs. Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment. It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of segments filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source (backlight) or reflector to produce images in colour or monochrome. The most flexible ones use an array of small pixels. The earliest discovery leading to the development of LCD technology, the discovery of liquid crystals, dates from 1888. By 2008, worldwide sales of televisions with LCD screens had surpassed the sale of CRT units.

6.1.7 LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.

46

FIGURE 6.5 LED When a light-emitting diode is forward-biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, and faster switching. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive lighting, advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals. LEDs have allowed new text, video displays, and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.

6.2 AMBULANCE SECTION

47

6.2.1 KEYPAD
A keypad is a set of buttons arranged in a block or "pad" which usually bear digits, symbols and usually a complete set of alphabetical letters. If it mostly contains numbers then it can also be called a numeric keypad. Keypads are found on many alphanumeric keyboards and on other devices such as calculators, push-button telephones, combination locks, and digital door locks, which require mainly numeric input. As a general rule, the keys on calculator-style keypads are arranged such that 123 is on the bottom row. Whereas, in a telephone keypad, either in a home or mobile phone, there will be the 123-keys at the top. A phone key-pad also has the special buttons labelled * (star) and # (octothorpe, number sign, "pound" or "hash") on either side of the zero key. Most of the keys on a telephone also bear letters which have had several auxiliary uses, such as remembering area codes or whole telephone numbers. The keypad of a calculator contains the digits 0 through 9, from bottom upwards, together with the four arithmetic operations, the decimal point and other more advanced mathematical functions.

Keypads are also a feature of some combination locks. This type of lock is often used on doors, such as that found at the main entrance to some offices.

6.2.1 ENCODER
An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm or person that converts information from one format or code to another, for the purposes of standardization, speed, secrecy, security, or saving space by shrinking size.

48

6.2.2 TRANSMITTER
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna, produces radio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as cell phones, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not usually called transmitters even though they often have similar circuits. The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to transmitting equipment used for broadcasting, as in radio transmitter or television transmitter. This usage usually includes both the transmitter proper as described above, and the antenna, and often the building it is housed in. An unrelated use of the term is in industrial process control, where a "transmitter" is a telemetry device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal, and sends it, usually via wires, to be received by some display or control device located a distance away.

49

7 IMPLEMENTATION RESULT

TABLE RESULT There were two sets of data that has been analyzed: data from time-based system and the sensor-based system. These data obtained from the reports generated by Arena after the entire simulation full. They were analyzed to see if the improvement in waiting time of vehicle is succeeded or not. The data is compared by using the paired T -test, a way to compare two sets of data to see if significant improvement has been made or not. The paired T-test of the data acquired from the simulation is done in two tests: the paired T-test of the data from the simulation in normal traffic condition and the paired T -test of the data from the simulation of busy traffic condition. As the simulation generates vehicles in random arrival time based on exponential distribution, average waiting time is different in different simulation run.

The above Data show the simulation models for time based and sensor-based during run. Simulation has been run for 200 seconds for 25 run for each .time-based and sensor-based system in normal and busy condition. 50

Data from the reports generated in Arena is mean waiting compiled in Microsoft Excel before the paired T test is done using Microsoft Excel. Figure shows the time (in seconds) of time-based system and sensor-based system in normal and busy condition.

All statistical data from simulation and paired T -test is compiled in Table . From here, tvalue is calculated at 10.087 for normal traffic condition and 4.5115 for busy traffic condition. With t-value as calculated and degree of freedom is 24 (n-l), the p-value for normal traffic condition is 4.l495TIO, whereas the p-value for busy traffic condition is 1.438y4. As both p-value is less than 0.05, it is safe to assume that there are different values in both normal and busy condition, which suggests there are improvements if the sensor is implemented in the system. Result of the study from simulation modelling of the traffic light control system with time-based system and the sensor-based system showed that there are a lot of improvements on waiting time of vehicles in the junctions if the implementation of sensor is done to the traffic light\ system. Mean waiting time of timebased traffic light system is around 20 seconds for both normal traffic condition and busy traffic condition, while for sensor-based traffic light system, the mean waiting time for vehicles in the junctions is about 7.5 seconds for normal traffic condition, and about 17 seconds for busy traffic conditions.

Within this study, the Arena simulation software, which is more appropriate for simulation of manufacturing system, is used. While there are a lot of specific tools or simulation software intended for traffic light studies available, the Arena software proves to be more general purpose simulation software that can be used in simulation of the traffic light control system. Therefore, in formulating optimal solutions for each of the traffic light in the intersections, more appropriate tools can be used to study the traffic light system and to improve the traffic condition at the intersection intended. However, some of the tools used in studying the traffic light system are intended for specific purpose of the study or scarce and hard to get. Hence a more general purpose tool such as Arena simulation software can be configured in order to get the optimal solutions for the intended studies.

51

8 CONCLUSION

Traffic light control system involves a very complex study. Even implementing one traffic light in a single junction involved a lot of studies to be done and there is no obvious optimal solution. In the study there are four junctions of an intersection involved, therefore, a more complex work needs to be done as the state of one light influences the traffic flow and conditions of other junctions as well. While the work is to see if the implementation of sensor in the traffic light control system can improve the waiting time of vehicles in the junction of an intersection, it does not provide an optimal solution for the improvement of the waiting time of vehicles in junctions as each parameter of the traffic light system such as arrival rate of vehicles at the intersection, the average number of vehicles waiting in the junction and optimal traffic light duration is different from one intersection to another.

These parameters need to be studied first to obtain the optimal solutions for the intended traffic light system. However, the simulation done within the study provided general solution for implementing sensors in the traffic light control system. Therefore, by implementing sensor in traffic light system, the waiting time for vehicles in the junctions at the intersection can be reduced significantly as has been proven by statistical method. Further improvements can be made in the system by modifying the parameters in the simulation suitable for intended studies.

52

9 FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

9.1 IMPLEMENTATION OF GSM

The system will inform the status of the patient to the hospital as the command giving to the system in the ambulance. This section consists of temperature sensor and a heart rate sensor which record the status of the patient. Whenever the driver wants to sent the information about the status of the patient to the hospital, by pressing the switch the system will send the information through SMS. In this way the doctors were for the situation in the hospital.

53

9.1.1 GSM

GSM (Global

System

for

Mobile

Communications,

originally Groupe Spcial Mobile), is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe technologies for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks. Developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, the GSM standard originally described a digital, circuit switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. The standard was expanded over time to include first circuit switched data transport, then packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services). Packet data transmission speeds were later increased via EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) referred as EGPRS. The GSM standard is more improved after the development of third generation (3G) UMTS standard developed by the 3GPP. GSM networks will evolve further as they begin to incorporate fourth generation (4G) LTE Advanced standards. "GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association.

9.1.2 HEART RATE SENSOR


Modern heart rate monitors usually comprise two elements: a chest strap transmitter and a wrist receiver or mobile phone (which usually doubles as a watch or phone). In early plastic straps water or liquid was required to get good performance. Later units have used conductive smart fabric with built-in microprocessors which analyse the EKG signal to determine heart rate.

54

Strapless heart rate monitors now allow the user to just touch two sensors on a wristwatch display for a few seconds to view their heart rate. These are popular for their comfort and ease of use though they don't give as much detail as monitors which use a chest strap. More advanced models will offer measurements of heart rate variability, activity, and breathing rate to assess parameters relating to a subject's fitness. Sensor fusion algorithms allow these monitors to detect core temperature and dehydration Another style of heart rate monitor replaces the plastic around-thechest strap with fabric sensors - the most common of these is a sports bra for women which includes sensors in the fabric. In old versions, when a heart beat is detected a radio signal is transmitted, which the receiver uses to determine the current heart rate. This signal can be a simple radio pulse or a unique coded signal from the chest strap (such as Bluetooth, ANT, or other low-power radio link); the latter prevents one user's receiver from using signals from other nearby transmitters (known as cross-talk interference). In recent years smart phone applications have been developed that measure the heart beat rate by tracking the acceleration at your chest (Sports Heart Rate Monitor) or by tracking color changes in the light that passes through your finger (Instant Heart Rate). ` Newer versions include a microprocessor which is continuously monitoring the EKG and calculating the heart rate, and other parameters. These may include accelerometers which can detect speed and distance eliminating the need for foot worn devices. There are a wide number of receiver designs, with various features. These include average heart rate over exercise period, time in a specific heart rate zone, calories burned, breathing rate, built-in speed and distance, and detailed logging that can be downloaded to a computer. 55

9.1.3 TEMPERATURE SENSOR

The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of 1 4C at room temperature and 3 4C over a full 55 to +150C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level.

The LM35s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 A from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1C in still air. The LM35 is rated to operate over a 55 to +150C temperature range, while the LM35C is rated for a 40 to +110C range (10 with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.

9.1.3.1 FEATURE
Calibrated directly in Celsius (Centigrade) Linear + 10.0 mV/C scale factor 0.5C accuracy guaranteable (at +25C) Rated for full 55 to +150C range 56

Suitable for remote applications Low cost due to wafer-level trimming Operates from 4 to 30 volts Less than 60 A current drain Low self-heating, 0.08C in still air Nonlinearity only 14C typical

Low impedance output, 0.1 for 1 mA load

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10 OUTPUT SCREEN SHOTS

10.1 TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROL UNIT

Figure 10.1 Traffic Control Unit 58

10.2 AMBULANCE SECTION

Figure 10.2 Ambulance Section

59

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