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2/10/2012

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Whats an SBA?
y An SBA (School-Based Assessment) is a (Schoolresearch paper

The SBA Guide


A Step-by-Step helper for the CSEC Step-bySocial Studies SBA
The Core Curriculum Unit, Ministry of Education

y The student will select a Research topic, conduct an investigation in that area, and present the findings and conclusions based on that investigation

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Why an SBA?
y The SBA is designed to give students the opportunity to put into practice the concepts, skills and content they have learnt in the theory component of the syllabus y It gives students the chance to see the relevance of their learning to real life y It gives students who may be stronger at skill demonstration than at content presentation the chance to improve their grades
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Objectives of the SBA


y     The SBA develops and tests the skills of: Critical thinking Decision Making Communication Enquiry

y Also allows students to earn 20% (40) of final grade under every-day assessment everyconditions.
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

The SBA: A Part of Internal Assessment


y Seek to include SBA tasks as part of onongoing internal assessment. y Allocate specific session each week for the development of these skills. y A good time to start: Second term of Grade 10 y Graded tasks should contribute to course grade.
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Changes to the S.B.A.


y Reports are now marked out of an aggregate of 40mks rather than 35mks. y Reasons for research allocated 2mks y Method of Investigation allocated 2mks instead of 1mk y Data Collection Instrument allocated 4mks instead of 3mks
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

y Apply skills to applicable content areas.

y Procedure 2mks instead of 3mks

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S.B.A Changes
y Presentation of Data: Best practice (6mks) not confined to three (3) ways y Analysis and Interpretation merged as one task and allocated 8mks instead of 10mks (5/5) y Overall presentation 4mks

What are the steps in conducting research for an SBA?


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Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Selecting an SBA Topic


y Ensure selected topic is aligned to syllabus topics y Wording of topic must be specific, clear and relevant y Topic must be manageable student must be able to carry out investigation to answer question stated in the topic y Topic must be stated in the form of a Question
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

A Guide to Selecting a Topic


y Ask the following: - Is there an issue/problem affecting me, my family, my friends, my community, my country that I am interested in solving? - Is there a common sense response to a situation in my environment that requires methodical research? y When the problem is identified, decide on what aspect of the problem you will research. research. Make sure to focus on what is manageable for the period. period.
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Components of the Topic


y Good research topics must state: - The Problem: e.g. Teenage Smoking Problem: - What aspect of the problem do you wish to measure/Variable: measure/Variable: e.g. Factors which Contribute - The Location: e.g. Red Hills, Jamaica Location: Sample Topic: An Investigation into the Factors which contribute to Teenage Smoking in Red Hills, Hills, Jamaica
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Statement of the Problem


y All key components of the topic must be stated in the form of a question.

y For example: What are the factors that contribute to Teenage Smoking in Red Hills, Hills, Jamaica?

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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Reason for Area of Research


y Answer the question: y Why was this area of study chosen? Related Questions: -What does one know about the problem? (Has the problem been highlighted in the media?) -What does one hope to find out?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Scope of SBA
y SPECIFICS
about? y This is expressed in the Research Question. Question. y The topic must be clear, detailed and measurable. measurable. y Example In what ways, and to what extent, has illegal sand mining affected the lives of residents in Lakes Pen?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

What exactly is the SBA

Scope of SBA
y SUBSTANCE What information will be
needed for this SBA? y This will determine what type of datadatagathering method is used. Make a list! used. y Examples How many persons are involved? Are they from the community? How does the mining take place? Who benefits?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Scope of SBA
y SUBJECTS From whom do I need to get
information? y This determines your POPULATION. POPULATION. y Examples - Do I need to interview all the residents of Lakes Pen? Should I speak only with those persons who live close to the mining areas? Do I need to speak with the miners only?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Scope of SBA
y SPACE
What area(s)/places will be covered by this SBA?

Methodology
y How will data be gathered?
o Interview? o Survey? o Observation?

y This determines the boundaries of your study in terms of physical space. space. y Examples - Where does Lakes Pen end? Should I include surrounding communities? Which ones?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

y How will I decide who is interviewed?


o Entire population? o Sample?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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Procedure for Data Collection


The following questions should guide the response on this task: y Where and When will the research be conducted? y Who will form the sample population? population? y What will be the size of the sample? sample? y Which sampling technique will be used? Probability: Simple Random, Stratified Random, Systematic Random y Non-Probabilty: Accidental, Judgmental, NonSnowballing
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Method(s) of Investigation
y What technique(s) will be used to collect data? Surveys: Questionnaires Interview schedule Observation checklist Documentary research

y What is known about the respondents background? background?

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Methodology - Interview
y Used when large amounts of data are required from one source or a few sources y Preferably face-to-face, as responses may lead face-tointerviewer to ask follow-up questions to followobtain more information y Questions must be written with care they must obtain the information required, but they must filter out unwanted information y Start with general questions, move to specifics
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Methodology - Survey
y Used to gather information from a wide variety of sources, or from a large number of sources y May require the use of questionnaires, opinion polls, or on-the-spot interviews, among other on-theinstruments y Questions must be written with care they must obtain the information required, but they must filter out unwanted information
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

y Start with general questions, move to specifics

Methodology - Observation
y Used to gather behaviour information (mainly) on

Methodology Population v. Sample


y All persons from whom relevant data is possible make up the POPULATION for your research y It may not be possible to gather data from the entire population. A part of that population can population. be used as a SAMPLE y A sample is a sub-group of a population. It must: subpopulation. must:
o Include persons from all categories of the population in the same ratio as the population itself o Be large enough to be meaningful, but small enough to be manageable
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

y Usually does not require interaction between observer and subjects y The subjects may be informed or unaware y Information gathered is totally dependent on the observers point of view
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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Methodology Population v. Sample


y General Rules for Sample sizes at CSEC level y Population Size 30 or less 31 50 51 70 71 100 Over 100
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Methodology Population v. Sample


y Example: Example: o Lakes Pen Population 300; Adult Males 104; 300; 104; Adult Females 90; Children 106 90; o Population for study = 300 (all categories are affected by illegal sand mining) o Sample for study = 10% of 300 = 30; 10 Adult 10% 30; Males, 9 Adult Females, 11 children
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Sample % 100 60 40 30 <30

Sample Size 30 20 30 20 30 20 30 30

Data Collection: Questionnaire


y Well designed questionnaires are structured to allow the same types of information to be collected from a relatively large number of people in the same way and for data to be analyzed systematically.

Data Collection Questionnaire Design


y There are no set rules regarding number of questions, but ensure: ensure: y Questions are able to gather all information needed y Questionnaire is not too long (may deter respondents) y Also ensure individual questions are not too long! y Remember: Remember:

y Questions must get you ALL THE INFORMATION YOU WANT, but must also NOT GIVE YOU INFORMATION YOU DONT WANT!
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009 Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Tips for an effective Questionnaire


y Start with questions to gather demographic data e.g. age, gender, address etc. These are usually closed questions etc. y For categorised responses ensure categories are not too wide/large e.g. 35 40 yrs is better than 35 60 yrs. yrs. y Leave sensitive questions for later in the Questionnaire. Questionnaire. These are usually open/free response questions y Avoid LEADING QUESTIONS (questions worded to lead the respondent to a particular answer) e.g. Do you agree that the Government is doing a poor job in your community?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Constructing the Questionnaire


There are two types of Questions: y CLOSED QUESTIONS respondent must give one definite answer, or must choose from options given
y e.g. Gender, Address, Education level reached y For sensitive topics (e.g. age), use categories instead of absolute figures: 10 15, 16 20, 21 25 etc.

y OPEN QUESTIONS respondent is free to answer as he/she chooses y e.g. What is the role of Government?
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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Constructing the Questionnaire


Open Questions: y Can be used even if a comprehensive range of alternative choices cannot be compiled y Allow exploration of the range of possible themes arising from an issue Closed Questions: y Easy and quick to fill in y Minimize discrimination against the less literate or the less articulate y Easy to code, record, and analyse results quantitatively y Easy to report results Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Constructing the Questionnaire


There are several types of Closed Questions: Questions: y Yes/No questions. Give limited information questions. y Categorised responses respondent chooses one category. category. Categories are exclusive (no overlap)
e.g. 31 35, 36 40, 41 45 yrs. 35, 40, yrs.

y Scaled responses respondent selects an option in a list scaled from highest to lowest degree
e.g. Strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Constructing the Questionnaire


y For sensitive issues: Less direct approaches have been suggested y Aim to minimize bias: People tend to answer questions or give responses a way they perceive to be socially desired. y Format of Questions: It is possible to use a mixture of the two formats (Closed and Open) e.g. Give a list of options, with the final option of "other" followed by a space for respondents to fill in other alternatives.
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Constructing the Questionnaire


y Use short and simple sentences : Less confusing and ambiguous y Ask for only one piece of information at a time y Avoid negatives if possible: e.g. Instead of asking respondents whether they agree with the statement, Teen smoking should be banned", the statement should be rephrased as, Teen smoking should continue. Double Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009 negatives should always be avoided.

Constructing the Questionnaire


y Ask precise questions: Questions may be ambiguous because a word or term may have a different meaning y Ensure those you ask have the necessary knowledge y Level of details: Avoid unnecessary details. People are less inclined to complete long questionnaires
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Interviews
y Interviews are often said to be questionnaires on paper and therefore many of those rules apply. y Some personal and interpersonal factors are however, associated with this process: Appearance, Speech, Mannerism, Temperament, Tenacity, Discretion and Confidentiality. Rules:
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Never 1. Read questions word for word Read 2. Probe directively 3. Seek bias answers through interaction

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Observation Checklist
y There should be a prepared list of things related to the problem statement that an observer is going to look for y All relevant observations will be noted

Documentary Research
y This involves the use of texts and documents as source materials: e.g.  Government publications  Newspaper  Personal photographs  Diaries  Surveys and other written, visual and pictorial sources

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Methodology Sampling
y How do I select a sample? y 3 main methods of selecting persons for a sample: sample: o Random Sampling o Systematic Sampling o Stratified Sampling y Sampling methods are designed to reduce or eliminate BIAS on the researchers part. part.
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Methodology Random Sampling


y Works best when population is large and nonnonspecific y Uses a series of randomly generated numbers (Example - RND# or RAND# on a calculator may give a value of 0.1234, then 0.7987 when pressed 1234, twice) y Choose a consistent place value (Example the first number after the decimal point). This will tell you point). the next person to interview (Example the first person, then the seventh). seventh).
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Methodology Stratified Sampling


y Works best when population is large and specific (when responses from specific groups are required) y Population is divided into subgroups (Example by age) and care is taken to ensure that equal numbers of persons from each group are interviewed y May work in conjunction with Random Sampling, where persons are randomly selected from within defined groups (Stratified Random Sampling)
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Methodology Systematic Sampling


y Works best when population is large and uniform y Researcher decides on a set interval (Example 5) and interviews each person at that interval (Example every 5th person) y May work in conjunction with Stratified Sampling, where persons are selected at set intervals within preset categories (Systematic Stratified Sampling)

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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Data Collection Points to Note


y Face to face delivery of Questionnaire allows for immediate feedback form, and explanation of items to, respondents y Remote delivery of Questionnaire allows for respondent to answer in his/her own time y Numbering of Questionnaires - may help in remote delivery, in case follow-up is required followCore Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Justification of Method
y Give reasons to support your use of the technique(s) selected. One may ask questions such as: -Is the method appropriate for collecting the type of data needed? -How well will the sample population (if applicable) relate to the technique?  Consider: cost effectiveness, time efficiency, confidentiality, privacy, ability of respondents
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Presentation of Data
y Several presentation methods available: y Graphs (e.g. line, bar, scattergram, etc.) y Tables y Charts (pie, bar etc.) y Photographs y Diagrams (hierarchies, models etc.) y Each is used in SPECIFIC circumstances. circumstances.
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Presentation of Data
GRAPHS LINE GRAPHS y used to show data which changes continuously over time, and passes through all values between one point and another y At all times, the line has a real value y May be compound (several lines on one graph) or simple (one on each graph)
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Presentation of Data
GRAPHS SCATTERGRAM y used to show how one value relates to another y Straight line relationship indicates strong

Presentation of Data
y 1. 2. The reason for presenting data graphically is twotwo-fold: It is a visual way to look at the data and see what happened and make interpretations. It is usually the best way to show the data to others.

y Line up to the right positive relationship (as one increses, the other increases) y Line down to the right negative relationship (as one increases, the other decreases)
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

(Reading lots of numbers in the text does not appeal to readers and does not convey information well.)
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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Presentation of Data
GRAPHS BAR GRAPHS y used to show data which is different at different points y There are no intermediate values between one point and another y May be compound (several bars at each point) or simple (one at each point)
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Presentation of Data
CHARTS PIE CHARTS y used to show data which is subdivided into component parts y May be 2-D or 3-D y Two may be used to show how two similar data sets are composed
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Presentation of Data
CHARTS BAR CHART y used to show data which is subdivided into component parts y May be 2-D or 3-D y Two may be used to show how two similar data sets are composed
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Presentation of Data
DIAGRAMS y used to show structure, processes or flows y Several types available y Used when parts structure/process/flow distinct of are
B D
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

A E B

A C E F

Presentation of Data
PHOTOGRAPHS y used to add effect to written information y must be relevant to content y preferably placed immediately after related text y Must clearly show what it is intended to show, and nothing more
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Analysis of Data
y Analysis means assessing the data to look for TRENDS, PATTERNS and CONCLUSIONS, in an effort to answer the question What is this data telling me overall?
y Look for: for: y Data Relationships (How is one thing related to another?) y Data Clusters (Which groups of respondents answer questions in the same way?) y Data Variations (which groups of respondents answer questions in different ways to other respondents?) y Data Anomalies (Which responses are way out? Who gave these responses?)
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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Analysis & contd


y In seeking to find out how the data compares, the researcher may examine for example: - Whether a relationship exists between habit formation and family type. - Whether a relationship exists between social class and habit formation - Whether a pattern exists in the experiences of users. The researcher will also give his/her views on patterns/relationship observed. y Discussion must be supported by the data.
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Interpretation of Data
y Interpretation means explaining what all this data means in the context of the question. This question. is where you: you: y Assess how much the data you have collected answers the question you started with y Assess how relevant your findings are y Try to explain any shortfalls observed in the data y Discuss other things which may have affected your findings
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

(Documentary research may be used to enrich discussion)

Findings
y State 3 distinct findings which the data revealed. y For example: - What are the main causes of Teenage Smoking in Red Hills? - Which age group demonstrates the highest incidence of smoking? - Which substance is most frequently smoked among the teens? Findings should be supported by data. (This justifies the findings)
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009 Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Findings
y May be a repetition of findings from analysis but here they are listed, when in the analysis they might not have been clearly articulated. articulated. If it seems repetitive, reword them

Recommendations and Implementation


y Two recommendations and one implementation strategy y Look at two findings, and make recommendations on how solve/improve/eliminate them two to

Writing Skills
y Write in English! English! y Check Spelling! Spelling! y Check Grammar! Grammar! y Make sure you mean what you say and say what you mean! mean!

y For each recommendation, briefly explain (two sentences or so) your reason for proposing it y For one of these recommendations, suggest (a short paragraph) how it can be implemented
Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

Core Curriculum Unit, MoE, 2009

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