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Annotated List of Works Consulted Primary Sources Breen, Michael. "Second Republic: Could Democracy Have Succeeded in 1960?

" The Korea Times. The Korea Times, 9 May 2010. Web. 18 Nov. 2011. <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/special/2011/10/113_65596.html>. This primary source is a newspaper article from the Korea Times gives the account of the Second Republic of South Korea by Lee Kie-hong, who was a member of the planning team. It relates to the thesis because it talks about the reaction and reform of the events of the April Revolution. Braun, Henry. Behind the Korean Revolt. [Berkeley, Calif.?]: East Bay Socialist Party SDF, 1960. Print. This primary source is a book that was written during the April Revolution. It describes how the students and professors revolted. This book describes the revolution in great detail. Choi, Yearn-hong. "Memory of April 19 Uprising." The Korea TImes. The Korea Times, 20 Apr. 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/opinon/2011/10/198_64505.html>. This newspaper article from the Korea Times is a primary source because it includes the personal account of the April Revolution given by the author, Choi Yearn-hong, who was, at that time, a sophomore at Yonsei University. It relates to the thesis because it gives a description of the events from someone who personally experienced the revolution. Chung, Ah-young. "Autobiographical Reflections on Journey to Korea." The Korea TImes. The

Korea Times, 6 May 2011. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/include/print.asp?newsIdx=86526>. This primary source is a newspaper article from the Korea Times that includes a personal account of the April Revolution given by John L. Mitchell who was in South Korea at the time to help establish Sogang College. This source relates to the thesis because it gives the perspective of someone who personally experienced the events of the revolution. Kang, Hyun-kyung. "Why Was Democracy Short-Lived After April 19 Students Uprising?" The Korea Times. The Korea Times, 18 Apr. 2010. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2010/04/116_64363.html>. This newspaper article from the Korea Times is a primary source because it includes an account of the April Revolution given by Professor Glenn Paige, a Korean War veteran who was one of the few foreign witnesses. This source ties into the thesis because it gives an eye-witness account of the revolution that took place which led to the reform. "KoreanHistory.info." The 1960 Uprising KoreanHistory.info. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://koreanhistory.info/1960uprising.htm>. This primary source contains videos taken at the April Revolution. These videos explain why the students and professors revolted. The reactions from the government officials showed what the authoritarian government felt about this revolution. Lee, Ho-joon. "New Insights Offered on April 19 Revolution." The Korea Herald. The Korea Herald, 16 Apr. 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.koreaherald.com/pop/NewsPrint.jsp?newsMLId=20100414000672>. This primary source is newspaper article from the Korea Herald which includes another account of the April Revolution from Professor Glenn Paige. This source relates the

thesis because it gives the viewpoint of someone who personally experienced the revolution. Picture on April 19, 1960. Protesters Are Storming the Presidential Residence. Digital image. Ask a Korean!: Protests in Korea. Blogger, 15 May 2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http://askakorean.blogspot.com/2009/05/protests-in-korea.html>. This primary source is a picture that shows the streets filled with furious South Koreans protesting against the fraudulent election. This picture will help with my topic, because I can see what the reactions of South Koreans looked like. Rodong Sinmun, and KCNA. April 19 Popular Uprising, Seoul, 1960. Digital image.Kancc.org. Korean American National Coordinating Council, 20 Apr. 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://kancc.org/enguser/special/gisa.php?id=57&name=tblengcomment>. This primary source is a picture (during the April Revolution) of Lee Ki Bung's house was burned down. Lee Ki Bung was the South Korean vice president during 1960. It relates to my topic, because Lee Ki Bung's suicide was a sign that the revolution had started, slowly changing people's ideas about our government. "The April Revolution of South Korea." Youtube.com. Youtube. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Vakt2zW9bA>. This primary source is (an edited) documentary of the April Revolution in 1960. It shows, in detail, what happened during this "conflict" and how the students reacted to the fraudulent/ rigged voting. This documentary consists of a series of videos taken during the April Revolution.

Secondary Sources Breen, Michael. "Fall of Koreas First President Syngman Rhee in 1960." The Korea Times. The Korea Times, 18 Apr. 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/nation_view.asp? newsIdx=64364&categoryCode=117>. This newspaper article from the Korea Times is a secondary source that talks about the life, presidency, and resignation of South Korea's first president Syngman Rhee. It relates to the thesis because it talks about the events that lead to the April Revolution and the reform it left behind. Grant, Ted. "Revolution Begins in South Korea." Socialist Fight May 1960. Ted Grant Internet Archive. 2009. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.marxists.org/archive/grant/1960/05/skorea.htm>. This secondary source is a newspaper article from the Socialist Fight written by Ted Grant. This source relates to the thesis because it discusses the background of the April Revolution and the world's reactions to the events. Gregg, Donald. "Park Chung Hee." Time.com. TIME, 23 Aug. 1999. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2054405,00.html>. This secondary source is a TIME article that discusses South Korea under the government of General Park Chung Hee, who gained power after the abdication of Syngman Rhee. This source relates to the thesis because it talks about the reaction and reform the country experienced after the events of the April Revolution. Kim, Charles. "Moral Imperative: South Korean Studenthood And The April Revolution."Asia Pacific Reader. Asia Pacific Reader Archives, 16 Oct. 2008. Web. 29 Nov. 2011. <http://www.uoft.asiapacificreader.org/index.php?

Itemid=36&id=37156&option=com_content&task=view>. This secondary source gives a basic description of the April Revolution in 1960. It also includes facts about the revolution and reform, which relates to my NHD theme. Although this source was recently created, it is a very thorough summary of the April revolution. Kim, Charles R. The April 19th Generation and the Start of Postcolonial History in South Korea. Vol. 12. Seongnam, South Korea: Academy of Korean Studies, 2009. PDF. This book written by Charles R. Kim is a secondary source because it talks about the April Revolution in great detail with sections on the April 19th Generation and the events occurring at that time. It relates to the thesis because it discusses the factors that lead up to the revolution, the revolution itself, the reaction of the people, and the reform. Kim, Djun Kil. "House Divided." The History of Korea. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2005. 158. Print. This book is a secondary source, because it describes the events occurring during the 1960's in South Korea in secondhand account. This book relates to my topic, because it explains how South Koreans' reform was influential to future generations. Kim, Yun-sik. "Democratic and Autocratic Rule." The Korea Times. The Korea Times, 4 Mar. 2008. Web. 8 Jan. 2012. <http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/include/print.asp? newsIdx=20038>. This secondary source is a newspaper article from the Korea Times that explains each of the republics throughout the history of South Korea. It relates to the thesis because it discusses how the April Revolution forever reformed the government of South Korea. Park, Myung-lim. "On the 50th Anniversary of the April Revolution." The Korea TImes. The

Korea Times, 26 Apr. 2010. Web. 6 Nov. 2011. <http://www.koreafocus.or.kr/design2/society/view.asp? volume_id=97&content_id=103021&category=D>. This secondary source is a newspaper article from the Korea Times that talks about the 50th anniversary of the April Revolution and how the events that day changed history. It relates to the thesis because it discusses the reform that occurred after the April Revolution and what it taught the country of South Korea. "S. KOREAN REPTILE MEDIA ACCUSED OF EULOGIZING DICTATOR." States News Service 15 May 2011.General OneFile. Web. 19 Dec. 2011. <http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE %7CA256443316&v=2.1&u=tall78416&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w>. This secondary source provides information about democratic movement organizations in South Korea related to the April 19 uprising. This source expresses the reaction of proApril Revolution groups to the actions of media on Syngman Rhee, pro-US dictator. "South Korea." State.gov. Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, 7 July 2011. Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2800.htm>. This secondary source presents information about the history of South Korea, including information about the South Korean government. The revolutions that took place explain why South Korea's government transformed so much. "South Korea - The Syngman Rhee Era, 1946-60." Country Studies. Ed. Andrea M. Savada and William Shaw. GPO/Library of Congress, 1990. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://countrystudies.us/south-korea/11.htm>. This secondary source is a website that discusses society and economics in South Korea during the reign of Syngman Rhee

(1946-1960). It relates to the theme because the reign of Rhee was a factor that sparked the April Revolution and knowing how South Korea was influenced by his rule can help us understand how the April Revolution reformed it. "South Korea- History." Culturegrams.org. ProQuest LLC, Brigham Young University. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country_sections.php? contid=3&wmn=Asia&cid=149&cn=South_Korea&sname=History&snid=2>. This secondary source contains relevant information about Syngham Rhee, who was one of the major people involved in this revolution. This sources information is based on primary sources from the past, such as witnesses recording students' reactions and their attempt to reform through protests.