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Jose Rizal: A Biographical Sketch JOSE RIZAL, the national hero of the Philippines and pride of the Malayan

race, was born on June 19, 1861, in the town of Calamba, Laguna. He was the seventh child in a family of 11 children (2 boys and 9 girls). Both his parents were educated and belonged to distinguished families. His father, Francisco Mercado Rizal, an industrious farmer whom Rizal called "a model of fathers," came from Bian, Laguna; while his mother, Teodora Alonzo y Quintos, a highly cultured and accomplished woman whom Rizal called "loving and prudent mother," was born in Meisic, Sta. Cruz, Manila. At the age of 3, he learned the alphabet from his mother; at 5, while learning to read and write, he already showed inclinations to be an artist. He astounded his family and relatives by his pencil drawings and sketches and by his moldings of clay. At the age 8, he wrote a Tagalog poem, "Sa Aking Mga Kabata," the theme of which revolves on the love of ones language. In 1877, at the age of 16, he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree with an average of "excellent" from the Ateneo Municipal de Manila. In the same year, he enrolled in Philosophy and Letters at the University of Santo Tomas, while at the same time took courses leading to the degree of surveyor and expert assessor at the Ateneo. He finished the latter course on March 21, 1877 and passed the Surveyors examination on May 21, 1878; but because of his age, 17, he was not granted license to practice the profession until December 30, 1881. In 1878, he enrolled in medicine at the University of Santo Tomas but had to stop in his studies when he felt that the Filipino students were being discriminated upon by their Dominican tutors. On May 3, 1882, he sailed for Spain where he continued his studies at the Universidad Central de Madrid. On June 21, 1884, at the age of 23, he was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine and on June 19,1885, at the age of 24, he finished his course in Philosophy and Letters with a grade of "excellent." Having traveled extensively in Europe, America and Asia, he mastered 22 languages. These include Arabic, Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Malayan, Portuguese, Russian, Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other native dialects. A versatile genius, he was an architect, artists, businessman, cartoonist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist, musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, opthalmic surgeon, poet, propagandist, psychologist, scientist, sculptor, sociologist, and theologian. He was an expert swordsman and a good shot. In the hope of securing political and social reforms for his country and at the same time educate his countrymen, Rizal, the greatest apostle of Filipino nationalism, published, while in Europe, several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary tendencies. In March 1887, his daring book, NOLI ME TANGERE, a satirical novel exposing the arrogance and despotism of the Spanish clergy, was published in Berlin; in 1890 he reprinted in Paris, Morgas SUCCESSOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS with his annotations to prove that the Filipinos had a civilization worthy to be proud of even long before the Spaniards set foot on Philippine soil; on September 18, 1891, EL FILIBUSTERISMO, his second novel and a sequel to the NOLI and more revolutionary and tragic than the latter, was printed in Ghent. Because of his fearless exposures of the injustices committed by the civil and clerical officials, Rizal provoked the animosity of those in power. This led himself, his relatives

and countrymen into trouble with the Spanish officials of the country. As a consequence, he and those who had contacts with him, were shadowed; the authorities were not only finding faults but even fabricating charges to pin him down. Thus, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago from July 6, 1892 to July 15, 1892 on a charge that anti-friar pamphlets were found in the luggage of his sister Lucia who arrive with him from Hong Kong. While a political exile in Dapitan, he engaged in agriculture, fishing and business; he maintained and operated a hospital; he conducted classestaught his pupils the English and Spanish languages, the arts. The sciences, vocational courses including agriculture, surveying, sculpturing, and painting, as well as the art of self defense; he did some researches and collected specimens; he entered into correspondence with renowned men of letters and sciences abroad; and with the help of his pupils, he constructed water dam and a relief map of Mindanao - both considered remarkable engineering feats. His sincerity and friendliness won for him the trust and confidence of even those assigned to guard him; his good manners and warm personality were found irresistible by women of all races with whom he had personal contacts; his intelligence and humility gained for him the respect and admiration of prominent men of other nations; while his undaunted courage and determination to uplift the welfare of his people were feared by his enemies. When the Philippine Revolution started on August 26, 1896, his enemies lost no time in pressing him down. They were able to enlist witnesses that linked him with the revolt and these were never allowed to be confronted by him. Thus, from November 3, 1986, to the date of his execution, he was again committed to Fort Santiago. In his prison cell, he wrote an untitled poem, now known as "Ultimo Adios" which is considered a masterpiece and a living document expressing not only the heros great love of country but also that of all Filipinos. After a mock trial, he was convicted of rebellion, sedition and of forming illegal association. In the cold morning of December 30, 1896, Rizal, a man whose 35 years of life had been packed with varied activities which proved that the Filipino has capacity to equal if not excel even those who treat him as a slave, was shot at Bagumbayan Field.

WORKS
Rizal's Paintings Title: Saturnina Rizal Material: Oil Remarks: Now in Rizal Shrine in Fort Santiago Title: Dapita church curtains Material: Oil Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894 Title: A painting on a pair of mother-of-pearl Material: Oil Remarks: Shells painted by Rizal in Dapitan and given as a gift to Doa Leonor Valenzuela and later passed into the hands of Doa Margarita Valenzuela Title: Spanish coat of arms Material: Water color Remarks: Done during a fiesta of San Rafael in Calamba in 1867 Title: Allegory on a pair of porcelain bases of the new year celebration Material: Oil Remarks: Made in Berlin in 1886 Title: Christ crucified Material: Crayon Remarks: 1875 Title: Immaculate Conception Material: Crayon Remarks: Made in Manila, 1974 Title: Portrait of Morayta Material: Crayon Remarks: Made in Barcelona, 1885 Title: Along Suez Canal Material: Ink or pencil Remarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary Title: Castle of St. Elmo Material: Ink or pencil Remarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary Title: Aden Material: Ink or pencil Remarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary Title: Fishes caught in Dapitan Material: Ink Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 18 in number Title: Sketch of himself Material: Remarks: Made in the training class in sketching Title: Pencil sketch of Dr. Blumentritt Material: Pencil Remarks: Made in Leitmeritz, 1886 Title: Monkey and the Turtoise Material: Ink Remarks: Made by Rizal in the album of Mrs. Juan Luna in Paris in 1886 Title: Segunda Katigbak Material: Ink Remarks: Title: Brooklyn Bridge Material: Pencil Remarks: De Nueva York (illustration) diary. Made in 1886 Title: Sulpakan Material: Ink Remarks: Epistolario Rizalino

Sketches Made by Rizal Title: Singapore lighthouse Material: Ink or pencil Remarks: Sketch book of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 or the diary

Title: Father Pablo Pastells Material: Remarks: Lost Title: Room in which El Filibusterismo was begun Material: Crayon Remarks: Made in October 1887 in Calamba Title: Two sketches without description Material: Crayon Remarks: Madrid diary of January 1884. Academy of San Fernando Title: A landscape and sketch of a figure Material: Remarks: Madrid diary of January 1884. Academy of San Fernando Title: Side sketch of Rizal's nurse Material: Remarks: Title: Side sketch of Seor Monroy Material: Remarks: Title: Sketch of artist Juancho Material: Remarks: Title: Padre Burgos Material: Remarks: Title: Mt. Makiling Material: Remarks: Title: Sketches of his stay in Japan Material: Ink Remarks: Made in 1888 Title: Imitation of Japanese art Material: Ink Remarks: Made in 1888 Title: Studies of passengers of SS Djemnah Material: Pencil

Remarks: Sketchbook of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 Title: Parting view of Manila Material: Pencil Remarks: Sketchbook of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 Title: Cover of Noli Me Tangere Material: Ink Remarks: Now in the original Noli Me Tangere in Bureau of Public Libraries Title: Rizal family tree Material: Remarks: Made in Dapitan Title: Heads of Sibili Cumana Material: Ink Remarks: Made in Dapitan. Included in the Sibila Cumana Title: Antonio de Morga Material: Pencil Remarks: Made in London while annotating "Sucecos" Title: Sketch of friends in Cafe Madrid Material: Chalk Remarks: Lost Title: Sketches of scenery and Filipino customs Material: Remarks: Sent to Dr. Czpelack in 1888 from London Title: Pen sketches of Drs. de Wecker and Becker made by Rizal and inserted in a letter to Dr. Viola Material: Ink Remarks: Lost. Made in Madrid in 1886 Title: Sketch of the ascent of Mt. Makiling Material: Pencil Remarks: Sent to Dr. Blumentritt Title: Sketches of diary: De Heidelberg a Leipzig pasando por el Rhin

Material: Pencil Remarks: Made in Germany, Switzerland and Italy in 1887 Title: Sketches of diary: De Marseille and Hong Kong Material: Pencil Remarks: Made on board the Djemnah in 1887 Title: Sketches of "Apuntas de Portificacion de Campaa" Material: Ink Remarks: Made in London in 1888 Title: "Limang Salita" Material: Ink Remarks: Made in Berlin 1886 Title: Notas Clinicas Material: Ink Remarks: Made in Madrid in 1884-1885 Title: Sketch of the plan of their lodging house in 15 Bao, Madrid Material: Ink Remarks: Lopez Museum Title: Sketches of archeological findings in Lumanao hill Material: Ink Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894-1895 Title: Sketches in "Hundred Letters" Material: Ink Remarks: May be seen in "100 Letters of Jose Rizal" Title: Sketches of diary: De Marseille and Hong Kong Material: Pencil Remarks: Made on board the Djemnah in 1887 Title: Leonor Rivera Material: Crayon Remarks: Kept in original frame Title: Sketches of diary: De Marseille and Hong Kong

Material: Pencil Remarks: Made on board the Djemnah in 1887 Title: Sketch of himself Material: Ink Remarks: Sent to Dr. Blumentritt in 1887 Title: Sketch of Fritz Ullmer Material: Pencil Remarks: Made in Heidelberg in 1886 Title: Sketches of Spanish characters in Madrid Material: Ink Remarks: Made in Madrid in 1883 Title: Cartoons made in Heidelberg Material: Ink Remarks: made in Heidelberg in 1886 Title: Sketch of Pastor Ullmer Material: Pencil Remarks: made in Heidelberg in 1886 Title: Sketch of Ephigenia Material: Pencil Remarks: Made in Heidelberg in 1886 Title: Sketch of a gladiator Material: Pencil Remarks: Made in Heidelberg in 1886 Title: Sketch of a boat Material: Ink Remarks: Made in Leitmeritz in 1886

Sculptures Made by Rizal Title: Triumph of death over life Material: Clay Remarks: Given to Dr. Blumentritt in 1890 in Brussels Title: Triumph of science over death Material: Clay Remarks: Given to Dr. Blumentritt in 1890 in Brussels Title: Bust of Father Jose Guerrico Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894 Title: Oyang Dapitana Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1893 - 1894 Title: Model head of a Dapitan girl Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan Title: Sacred heart of Jesus Material: Wood Remarks: Made in Ateneo de Manila in 1875 1877 Title: Sacred heart of Jesus Material: Terra Cotta Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894 Title: Composite statuette (nude lady lying down) Material: Terra Cotta Remarks: Molded in Brussels in 1890 Title: Mother's revenge Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1894 Title: Josephine Bracken (medallion) Material: Wood Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1895 - 1896 Title: Dr. Francisco Mercado (bust) Material: Wood Remarks: Life-size. Made Calamaba in 1887 1888

Title: Prometheus bound Material: Clay Remarks: Given to Dr. Blumentritt in 18909 in Brussels Title: Bust of Felix Pardo de Tavera Material: Remarks: Made in Paris Title: Image of Virgin Mary Material: Wood Remarks: Made in Ateneo de Manila Title: Wild boar Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan Title: Orate Frantes (let us pray brethren) Material: Wax Remarks: Illustrated in Alejandro's La Senda Del Sacrificio Title: San Antonio de Padua Material: Clay Remarks: Title: Bust of Dr. Ricardo Carnicero Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1892 - 1893 Title: St. Paul the Hermit Material: Clay Remarks: Given as a gift to Fr. Pablo Pastells by Rizal in Dapitan in 1893 Title: Bust of Gen. Blanco Material: Ivory Remarks: Made in Dapitan Title: Heads of 3 Beckette Girls Material: Bas Relief, Clay Remarks: Made in London, 1888 Title: Josephine's Head Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan Title: Two gate columns (depicting busts) Material: Wood Remarks: Made in Dapitan when the water service was completed in 1895

Title: Parting view of Manila Material: Pencil Remarks: Sketchbook of Rizal on his first trip on May 1882 Title: Bust of Augustus Ceasar Material: Clay Remarks: Sent from London to Dr. Blumentritt in 1888 Title: Bust of Julius Ceasar Material: Clay Remarks: Sent from London in December 1888 Title: A (Filipina) girl doll Material: Wood Remarks: Title: A marionette in a form of a clown Material: Wood Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894 - 1895 Title: A gay Franciscan Friar beside a wine barrel Material: Wood Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1893 Title: Biscuit mold Material: Wood Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1893 Title: Wooden platters Material: Wood Remarks: Dapitan, 1894 - 1896 Title: Three wooden tops of different sizes Material: Wood Remarks: Dapitan 1894 Title: Allegoric medal - The Centenary of the Real Society of the Friends of the Country Material: Wax Remarks: Retana Title: Bust of an intern at Hospital de Sta. Cruz Material: Clay Remarks: Barcelona, 1885 Title: Two statuettes. A maiden and a beggar Material: Terra Cotta Remarks: Sent to Blumentritt from Paris in

September 1889 Title: Bust of Juan Sitges Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan Title: Bust of "El Friale al Regreso" Material: Wood Remarks: Title: A bowl of a pipe representing a girl's head Material: Wood Remarks: Dapitan Title: Josephine Sleeping Material: Plaster Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1895 - 1896 Title: Bust of Gov. Carnicero and his wife Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Dapitan in 1895 Title: Public faucets representing a lion's head Material: Terra Cotta Remarks: Made in Dapitan, 1894 - 1895 Title: Bust of his father Material: Clay Remarks: Made in Calamba, 1881 Title: Head of Egyptian (candle holder) Material: Plaster Remarks: Made in Hong Kong in 1892 Title: Bust of Mirabeau Material: Terra Cotta Remarks: Made in Barcelona, intended for Valentin Ventura Title: The wounded gladiator Material: Clay Remarks: Started in Madrid in 1884 at Academia de San Fernando Title: Bust Presented in the Solon of Paris Material: Clay Remarks: Accepted by the Solon in 1889

Maps and Plans Made by Rizal

Title: Relief map of Mindanao Material: Remarks: Made in Dapitan church plaza by the end of 1892 Title: Pacific ocean spheres of influence Material: Remarks: Made during the administration of Pres. Benjamin Harrison. Mentioned by Rizal in his Article "The Philippines a Century Hence", made in London in 1889. Title: Plan for modern college (front and side views) Material: Remarks: Owned by Dr. L. L. R, apparently in Paris, 1872 Title: The lake district of central Luzon Material: Remarks: Mentioned in "Memorias de un Estudiante de Manila", 1872. Title: Plan of the waterworks in Dapitan Material: Remarks: Made with Father Sanchez, in Dapitan, 1895 Title: Sketch of the Lumanao Hill where jewels were found Material: Remarks: Owned by Ateneo. Made in 1895

To Josephine Education Gives Luster to the Motherland To the Virgin Mary Sa Aking mga Kabata

NOVELS Noli Me Tangere El Filibusterismo

Rizal's Poems Last Poem of Rizal (Mi Ultimo Adios) To The Philippines Our Mother Tongue Memories of My town Hymn to Labor Kundiman A Poem That Has No Title Song of Maria Clara To the Philippines Youth