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OBJECTIVE y y Conduct an experiment by using four-ball test. The relationship between scar diameter and load applied to the ball bearings is studied.

BACKGROUND/THEORY The Four-Ball Tester is the standard test that used to measure a lubricants extreme properties in metal to metal contact situation. The test used to determine the load carrying properties of a lubricant at high test load. The tester can perform both Wear Preventative (WP) and Extreme Pressure (EP) analysis for measuring the wear and friction characteristic. In the case of WP or EP lubricants the ability to resist scuffing is the primary concern. The Four-Ball Tester is a good laboratory tool for developing oil with good engine wear control. The point contact interface is obtained by rotating a steel ball under load against three stationary steel balls that secured and placed in triangular pattern within a bath of lubricant. The torque transferred between the rotating and the stationary balls. The digital timer can be used to control the duration of the test. If the torque exceeds a preset, or the balls weld during a test power to the drive motor is automatically turned off. Measurements are taken at the rotating speed, temperature and normal load as specified by published standard. The normal load, friction force, and temperature can be monitored using Windows-based Data Acquisition Software. Loads applied for the wear test producing s circular wear scar on each ball, and the average wear scar diameter is determined for comparison. Wear scar diameter on the steel balls are measured using an image acquisition system to evaluate the relationship between scar diameter and applied load. This testing method can used for specification purposes such as differentiate between lubricating fluids which is having low, medium, and high level of extreme pressure properties. In order to achieve accurate and desire results, the user should determine his satisfaction whether results of this test correlate with field performance or other bench test machine. Figure 1(a) shows the picture of Four-Ball Tester and Figure 1(b) shows the schematic diagram of ball bearings arrangement in the machine.

Figure 1(a) Four-Ball Tester

Figure 1(b) Arrangement of ball bearing

PROCEDURES 1. Three ball bearing specimens was locked into based fixture of test machine. 2. The ball bearing was locked into drive shaft. These balls were act as fourth ball bearing of the system. 3. Test lubricant was poured into based fixture until it covered the whole ball bearing. 4. The based fixture was placed on machine. 5. The test was started with test load of 200kg. 6. The temperature of test lubricant has been controlled and recorded by using the control unit and monitor. 7. The data such as torque, speed in rotational per minute (rpm) and other necessary data according to the ASTM standard was controlled and recorded. 8. The dimension of the ball scar was measured by using microscope of image acquisition system. 9. The procedure was repeated for other test load.

EXPERIMENTAL DATA Rotation per minute = 1770 60 rpm (refer to the ASTM D2596)

Table 1: Scar Diameter for Various Applied Load (ASTM D2596) Applied Load (kg) 200 300 400 Normal Load (N) 1962 2943 3924 Friction Torque (Nm) 0.46 0.30 0.44 Diameter Ball 1 (mm) 4.478 5.927 5.445 Diameter Ball 1 (mm) 5.021 5.831 5.618 Diameter Ball 1 (mm) 4.896 5.689 5.191 Average Scar Diameter (mm) 4.789 5.816 5.418


Scar Diameter (mm) vs Applied Load (N)

6 Scar Diameter (mm) 5.5 5 4.5 4 200 250 300 350 400 450

Applied Load (N)

Figure 1: Graph of Scar Diameter (mm) vs. Applied Load (N)

The above graph shows that the scar diameters are increased and then decrease if keep increasing the applied load. Nevertheless, theoretically, the scar diameter should increase as the applied load is increase. The inaccuracy results show that we are having the errors during experiment. The main error is due to technique to obtain the results through the microscope. This will affect the size of wear area (scar diameter). Other than that, the inappropriate applying the lubricant not only affect the wear area but also the friction torque.


2 Z2

Figure 2: Spheres in Elastic Contact

Base on the figure 2, the two elastic spheres 1 and 2 have radii R1 and R2 will press into contact with force P. Then, the resultant circular contact area has

Figure 3: Resulting Semi-elliptical Pressure Distribution According to the Hertzian Contact, after supply a load, the surface contact will compress as shown in figure 3. The maximum pressure or Hertz pressure P0 will occur on the axis of symmetry. This will make the centers of the two spheres move together by the displacement, .    Where a = Sphere Radius R = Effective Radius P = Applied Load E* = Elastic Modulus This displacement can be known as the scar diameter.

DISCUSSIONS 1. Since the equation of scar diameter against applied load is   

Therefore, the relationship between scar diameter and applied load can simplified to   In order words, it can say that the greater applied load is applied, the bigger of the scar diameter.

2. To predict scar diameter at higher applied load, it can use the equation   

In order to get the ratio scar diameter to applied load, we can rearrange the above equation     400kg applied load), we can get

By substitute back the experimental result (Case 3  


Since, the similar size and similar material is used, therefore, we can use this ratio to predict the scar diameter at higher applied load. If the applied load is switched to 700kg (6867 N) then the scar diameter will be         All these are the sample calculation if the applied load is 700kg (6867 N). Then the predicted scar diameter will be 7.83 mm

3. In this experiment, there got a lot of factors that can affect the value measurement results. Here are the factors and its explanation. Type of Lubricant 40. In this experiment, the used lubricant is Motor Oil Semi Synthetic 10 W According to the ASTM D-2270, the viscosity index is 176. Higher viscosity index leads to good lubricant. It reduces the more friction force and temperature as well. Applied Load In this experiment, the used applied load is starting from 200kg until 400kg. Base on the equation in Discussion 1, scar diameter will increase as the applied load is increase. The higher applied load, the bigger scar diameter can be obtained. Cleaning Process Before conducting any experiment, the cleaning process is one of the most important factors. It is not only cleaning the specimen (ball bearing) but also the apparatus which the ball bearings have directly contact to it. This cleaning process can eliminate the dust at the surface of the ball bearing. Proper cleaning process makes the result more accurate. Technique of Obtaining the Scar Diameter in the Microscope Since the scar diameter is not a totally round or ellipse surface, therefore, we must cover as much as the wear area and reduce the unwanted area. All these obtaining skill must have enough chariness.

QUESTIONS 1. Here are the explanation of effect of frequency of rotation and rotation time Effect of Frequency of Rotation When higher rotation per minute (rpm) is applied, the bigger scar diameter can be obtained. Nevertheless, it is valid in the 1770 60 rpm according to the ASTM D2596. If the low rpm (below 1710 rpm) is applied, it may not easy to observe wear of surface. However, if high rpm (above 1830 rpm) is applied, the condition of the steel ball may start to fracture and it will have a local welding among the four steel balls. If such thing occurs, it is unable to obtain the desired results. Effect of Rotation Time In the experiment, the rotation time is just 10 seconds. If the rotation time is less than10 seconds, the wear area may not clearly to see. At the same instant, the wear area will reduce as well due to shorter time in contact reaction. Nevertheless, if the more rotation time is applied (more than 10 seconds), there may be having a greater wear area and even local welding will occur. Excluding this, longer rotation time will have high friction torque due to more time is spent to reduce friction. 2. Effect of Additive Reactivity on Lubricant There got 4 classification of lubricant base on the behavior of the additives, they are a) Non-reactive b) Low friction c) Anti-wear d) Extreme-pressure (EP) The effects of the additives reactivity on lubricant are  Improves the wear and friction characteristic  Improves the oxidation resistance  Corrosion control  Contamination control

3. Rather than four-ball test, there also have other test geometries for friction. Here are the types of test and its explanation. Falex Pin and Vee Test

Figure 4: Falex Pin and Vee Test In Pin and Vee test, the pin is trapped between the vee blocks. When the load is applied, the rotation speed and the generated torque will overcome the friction between surfaces. Here are the test geometries for Falex Pin and Vee Test.  Range of Direct Load  Range of Rotation Speeds  Maximum Torque Timken-Block on Ring Test : 50 5000 N : 0 3000 rpm : 4000

Figure 5: Timken-Block on Ring Test In Timken test, a block or ball cylinder is pressed against a rotating ring. The external surface of the latter passes through a lubricant is dragged into contact thanks to the rotating motion. Here are the test geometries for Timken-Block on Ring Test.     Range of applied load External diameter of ring Ring thickness Range of rotation speed : 10 -1000 N : 36 mm : 8 mm : 0 3000 rpm

Reciprocating Tribometer Schwingung Reibung Verschlei

(SRV) Test

Figure 6: SRV Test In SRV test, there have a tribometer which allows lubricant qualification versus different contact configuration representative of various problematic, for instant, piston cylinder, cam valve, chain and fretting. Here are the test geometries for SRV Test     Range of applied load : 25 1000 N Range of frequency : 10 250 Hz Range of amplitude : 10 m 3 mm Range of temperature : up to 250 C

CONCLUSION After finished this experiment, we had conduct this experiment by using four-ball test. In this experiment, I had learn that the as the applied load is increased the scar diameter should increased too. Base on the Hertz Theory, the   , where is scar diameter and P is applied load. During conducting this experiment, the cleaning process is one of the most critical factors which will affect the results. Hence, we must chariness in this process.

REFERENCES 1. Bharat Bhushan (2001). Modern Tribology Handbook Volume One: Contact Between Solid Surfaces (Pg 147 Pg 148 ) United States Of America 2. E.D Price, A.W. Lees (2003) Online Detection of Subsurface Distress by Acoustic Emissions. Switzerland 3. Tiong Chiong Ing (2008) Experimental Evaluation on Lubricity of RBD Palm Olein Using Fourball Tribotester. Malaysia 4. Cetr Multi Contact Tribometer Retrieved 23 October 2011 from 5. Contact Between Two Spheres Retrieved 23 October 2011 from 6. Additives To Boundary Lubricants Retrieved 23 October 2011 from 7. Lubricant Retrieved 23 October 2011 from 8. Semi-Synthetic 10W-40 Motor Oil Retrieved 23 October 2011 from