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Introduction to SURPAC

May 2007 www.gemcomsoftware.com

Copyright 2007 Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd (A Gemcom Company). All rights reserved. This software and documentation is proprietary to Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd. Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd publishes this documentation for the sole use of Surpac licenses. Without written permission you may not sell, reproduce, store in a retrieval system, or transmit any part of the documentation. For such permission, or to obtain extra copies please contact your local Surpac Minex Group Office. Surpac Minex Group Pty Ltd Level 8 190 St Georges Terrace Perth, Western Australia 6000 Telephone: (08) 94201383 Fax: (08) 94201350 While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this manual, we assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damage resulting from the use of the information contained herein. All brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. About This Manual This manual has been designed to provide a practical guide to the many uses of the software. The applications contained within this manual are by no means exhaustive as the possible uses of the software are only limited by the users imagination. However, it will give new users a starting point and existing users a good overview by demonstrating how to use many of the functions in Surpac. If you have any difficulties or questions while working through this manual feel free to contact your local Surpac Minex Group Office. Contributors Rowdy Bristol Phil Jackson James Willoughby Surpac Minex Group Perth, Western Australia Product Surpac 6

Table of Contents
About This Document ............................................................................................................. 1 Overview ................................................................................................................................ 1 Requirements......................................................................................................................... 1 Objectives .............................................................................................................................. 1 Document Conventions.......................................................................................................... 2 Getting Started......................................................................................................................... 5 Installing Surpac from a CD ................................................................................................... 5 Starting Surpac ...................................................................................................................... 6 Licencing Surpac.................................................................................................................... 7 Setting the Work Directory ..................................................................................................... 8 Exiting Surpac ........................................................................................................................ 9 Modifying the Surpac Desktop Icon ....................................................................................... 9 Surpac Concepts ................................................................................................................... 11 Surpac Data Types .............................................................................................................. 11 Function-centric vs Data-centric Operations........................................................................ 12 The Surpac Interface ............................................................................................................. 14 Menus .................................................................................................................................. 15 Toolbars ............................................................................................................................... 16 Navigator.............................................................................................................................. 16 Preview Pane ....................................................................................................................... 17 Legend Pane........................................................................................................................ 18 Graphics............................................................................................................................... 18 Properties Pane ................................................................................................................... 19 Layers Pane ......................................................................................................................... 19 Status Bar ............................................................................................................................ 19 Message Window................................................................................................................. 20 Getting Help ........................................................................................................................... 21 Field Help and Form Help .................................................................................................... 21 Online Help .......................................................................................................................... 23 Tutorials ............................................................................................................................... 27 Support................................................................................................................................. 28 Strings .................................................................................................................................... 32 String Data Hierarchy........................................................................................................... 32 Types of Strings ................................................................................................................... 33 Description Fields................................................................................................................. 33 Data Numbering ................................................................................................................... 33 Data Ranges ........................................................................................................................ 33 String File Names................................................................................................................. 34 String Directions................................................................................................................... 35 Viewing String Data.............................................................................................................. 35 String File Structure ............................................................................................................. 37 Viewing and Saving Data ...................................................................................................... 40 Multiple Viewports ................................................................................................................ 40 Attributes and Styles Files ................................................................................................... 44 Saving Data.......................................................................................................................... 54 Editing Data............................................................................................................................ 56 Orbit Mode ........................................................................................................................... 56

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Selection Modes................................................................................................................... 56 The Move Tool ..................................................................................................................... 69 Creating Data ......................................................................................................................... 75 Create a Simple Pit Design.................................................................................................. 75 Managing Data in Layers ...................................................................................................... 86 Layers and the Surpac Work Area....................................................................................... 86 Creating Layers.................................................................................................................... 86 Appending Data to a Layer .................................................................................................. 92 Replacing Data in a Layer.................................................................................................... 97 Saving Workspace Settings ............................................................................................... 101 Triangulated Surfaces ......................................................................................................... 105 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 105 Naming Conventions.......................................................................................................... 105 DTM Conventions .............................................................................................................. 105 Viewing a DTM Surface ..................................................................................................... 106 Creating a DTM Surface .................................................................................................... 106 Creating a Boundary String Between Two DTM Surfaces................................................. 110 File-based Method ............................................................................................................. 110 Graphics-based Method..................................................................................................... 112 Calculating a Cut and Fill Volume Using DTM Surfaces ................................................... 113 Viewing a Solid Model........................................................................................................ 114 Creating and Validating a Solid Model............................................................................... 115 Calculating a Volume Using a Solid Model ........................................................................ 122 File Tools .............................................................................................................................. 124 String Maths ....................................................................................................................... 124 Applying a Boundary String ............................................................................................... 130 Classifying Strings.............................................................................................................. 132 2D Transformations............................................................................................................ 134 Polygon Intersection........................................................................................................... 137 Advanced Interface Operations ......................................................................................... 142 Menu Bars, Menus and Commands .................................................................................. 142 Displaying and Customising Menu Bars ............................................................................ 143 Customising Toolbars and Buttons .................................................................................... 146 Using and Creating Profiles ............................................................................................... 149 Using the Function Chooser .............................................................................................. 151 Working with Forms ........................................................................................................... 152 Configuring windows and panes in the Interface ............................................................... 153 More Surpac Functions....................................................................................................... 156 Drillhole Database.............................................................................................................. 156 Block Models...................................................................................................................... 161 Plotting with Autoplot.......................................................................................................... 168

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About This Document


Overview
This document is designed to help new or prospective users install Surpac and start using the software. More detailed training information is available within the software and from your local support office. Visit http://www.surpac.com to locate your nearest support office.

Requirements
Before proceeding with this tutorial, ensure you have the following items: 1. A copy of Surpac 6 for installation. This is usually installed from a CD, but you can download the software from the http://www.surpac.com Web site. 2. A suitable computer with a CD ROM drive. Minimum Windows RAM Processor Graphics card XP Professional 512 Mbytes P4 >1.75 gigahertz (GHz) A graphics adapter with 256 MB memory, from a major manufacturer such as NVIDIA or ATI. Recommended XP Professional 1-4 Gbytes P4 Duo >2.5 GHz An NVIDIA or ATI graphics card, separate from the motherboard, with 512 MB memory.

Objectives
By working through this tutorial, you should be able to: Install and licence Surpac. Understand Surpac data types and concepts. Understand the basic components of the user interface. Get assistance from the various sources of Surpac help. View and save various types of Surpac data. Understand Surpac selection modes and use them to edit data in Surpac. Create data by digitising. Understand the use of layers in Surpac. Understand the concepts of DTM surfaces and solids. Use file tools to work with strings. Customise the interface and work with forms. Display drillhole databases and block models. Plot simple files using Autoplot.

Document Conventions
Typographical Conventions Some text in this manual has special formatting to identify it as a particular element of information. The following list describes the different formats and their meanings: Text Format <Bold Italic> Meaning Text or data that varies with each input is shown in italic font and enclosed in angle brackets. Some examples are installation directories, dates, names and passwords. When you substitute the text for the variable, do not include the brackets. For example: <password> requires you to substitute a password in place of <password>. A word or phrase to which the author wants to give emphasis. For example: you must select an item from the list to continue. This typeface indicates one of the following: A file name, path or URL. Strongly emphasized text. For example, It is very important to save the data []. Text that a procedure has instructed you to type. A menu option, tab, button, check box, list, option button, text box or icon. For example: Drag and drop the file pit1.str into graphics.

Italics Bold

Keyboard Conventions Key Combination <key>+<key> Meaning Press and hold down the first key, then press the second key. For example: CTRL+Z means hold the CTRL key down, then press Z.

Menu Conventions In this documentation, the following example demonstrates the syntax used for menus and submenus: From the File menu, select Open, and then Block model. This means click the File menu, move the cursor over the Open command and then select Block model on the submenu.

Mouse Conventions Action Click Right-click Double-click Drag and drop <an object> Drag Right drag Rotate Description Quickly press and release the left mouse button without moving the mouse. Press and release the right mouse button without moving the mouse. Without moving the mouse, click the left button twice rapidly. With the cursor over the object, press and hold down the left mouse button to select the object. Move the mouse until the cursor is in the position you want and then release the mouse button. Press and hold down the left mouse button. Then move the mouse in the direction that the text specifies. Press and hold down the right mouse button. Then move the mouse in the direction that the text specifies. Use your finger to make the wheel button roll. Move it forward, that is in a clockwise direction, or backward, that is in an anticlockwise direction.

Forms Forms contain several components that you will use to provide information to Surpac: 1. Title 2. Tab 3. Text box 4. Combo box or Drop-down list 5. Radio button or Option button 6. Label 7. Help 8. Check box 9. Button

Elements of Forms As shown on the previous page, forms can contain the following elements: Element 1. Title Description Title of the dialog box. Example

2. Tab

Labelled group of options used for many similar kinds of settings. Rectangular box in which you can type text. If the box already contains text, you can select that text and edit it. Closed version of a list box with an arrow next to it. Clicking the arrow opens the list. Round button you can use to select one of a group of mutually exclusive options. Text attached to any option, box, button, or to any other element of a window or dialog box. Context sensitive help button.

3. Text box

4. Combo box or Drop-down list 5. Radio button or Option button 6. Label

7. Help

8. Check box

Square box that you select or clear to turn an option on or off. Rectangular or square button that initiates an action. Buttons have text labels to indicate their purpose.

9. Button

Getting Started
Overview In this chapter you will learn about: Installing Surpac from a CD. Starting Surpac. Licencing Surpac. Setting the work directory. Exiting Surpac. Modifying the Surpac desktop icon.

Installing Surpac from a CD


Task: Install Surpac 1. Insert the CD into your computers CD-ROM drive and the installation menu will appear.

Note: If the installation menu does not appear, use Windows Explorer to navigate to the CD and double-click Autorun.exe. You will see the following page:

2.

Click Install. You are prompted to choose which software product to install.

3.

Click Surpac. The windows installer starts up. During the install process, you will see information about how to proceed. When you are prompted to click Next, do so. When you are prompted to accept the licence agreement, click Accept, and then click Next. Note: You must accept the terms of the license agreement or the installation will not continue. When prompted to choose an installation directory, select the default installation directory. Note: Although you can use the Change option to select another destination folder for the program, it is recommended that you use the default location. Do not install the software in any folder within C:\Program Files or in any folder whose name contains spaces. If you do, Surpac might not perform in the way you expect and need.

4. 5.

6.

Caution:

7. 8.

When prompted to enter a product, ensure that Surpac is selected, and click Next. Click Install, and then click Finish when the Finish button becomes available.

Starting Surpac
Task: Start Surpac Start Surpac, using either of these methods: Double-click the Surpac icon on your desktop.

Click Start, select All Programs, and then Surpac Minex Group, and then the command for Surpac 6.

Licencing Surpac
The instructions below are for installing a single user licence. In order to proceed, you will need: Surpac 6 installed, as previously described. A USB or parallel sentinel. A valid token number.

If you do not have all of these, please contact your local support office. Task: Licence Surpac 1. 2. Insert the sentinel into a USB or parallel port as appropriate. Start Surpac. If the Surpac interface is displayed, you already have a valid licence. Proceed to step 6. If you see the form below, a valid licence does not exist. Select local, and then click Apply.

3.

4.

In the Token field, enter the token number, and click Validate.

5.

Click Apply. Note: Refer to the Installation Manual for troubleshooting and for details about network licences.

6.

To review licence details, or enter a new token number: a. b. From the File menu, select Licencing, and then Change/Inspect licence. After reviewing or updating the licence, click Apply.

Setting the Work Directory


A work directory is the default directory for saving Surpac files. Files used in this tutorial are stored in the folder: <installation directory>\demo_data\tutorials\introduction where <installation directory> is the directory in which Surpac was installed.

Task: Set the Work Directory 1. 2. In the Surpac Navigator, right-click the introduction folder. Select Set as work directory.

The name of the work directory is displayed in the title bar of the Surpac window.

Exiting Surpac
Task: Exit Surpac Exit Surpac, using either of these two methods: From the File menu, select Exit. Click the button at the top right corner of the Surpac window.

Modifying the Surpac Desktop Icon


All of the files in this tutorial are stored in a specific directory. Each time you start Surpac, you will need to have the working directory set to that folder. The following steps describe how to create an icon that automatically sets the working directory when you start Surpac. Tip: You can create multiple Surpac desktop icons with different properties.

Task: Modify the Surpac Icon so that the Work Directory is Set Automatically 1. 2. Move the cursor over the Surpac icon on your desktop.

Hold down the right mouse button, drag and release.

3.

From the popup menu, select Copy Here. A copy of the original icon is created:

4. 5.

Right-click the new Surpac icon, and select Properties. In the Start in field on the Shortcut tab, enter <install_directory>\demo_data\tutorials\introduction where <install_directory> is the folder where Surpac is installed.

6. 7.

Click OK. Right-click the icon you have just modified and select Rename. Alternatively, the F2 key can be used as a shortcut. Type: Surpac Introduction and press ENTER. The icon will appear with the new name:

8.

9.

Double-click this icon to start Surpac. Notice that the work directory is automatically set when Surpac starts up.

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Surpac Concepts
Overview In this chapter, you will learn about: Surpac data types. Function-centric vs data-centric operations.

Surpac Data Types


Surpac uses many different file types. Each file type is represented by a unique icon in the Navigator. Following is a list of the most common file types used in Surpac: File type String DTM Example pit1.str pit1.dtm Description A string is a sequence of three-dimensional coordinates representing some physical feature. Digital Terrain Mode (DTM) files are generated from .str files and can represent surfaces or solids. A DTM surface is a set of triangles that represent a surface such as topography or a pit design. A solid model is a set of triangles that represents a 3D shape, such as an ore zone or an underground mine design. Drillhole database (DDB) files are used to connect to relational drillhole databases. It is a text file that tells Surpac which tables and fields to read from the database. Survey database (SDB) files are used to connect to relational survey databases. It is a text file that tells Surpac which tables and fields to read from the database. A Block Model is a form of spatially-referenced database that provides a means for modelling a 3D body from point and interval data such as drillhole sample data. It provides a method for estimating volume, tonnage, and average grade of a 3D body from sparse drillhole data. The files output from the Plotting module are in DWF format. You can open and edit them in the Surpac plotting window or send them to a plot device such as a Plotter. Macros are custom programs, created to perform a set of repetitive tasks or functionality specific to an operation. You can easily record and edit TCL scripts in Surpac. This icon identifies a type of file that you can import directly into Surpac. For example, you can import any file that has one of the following extensions: .dxf, .dwg, .dgn, .dm, .shp, .dgd. Surpac styles files contain information such as drawing styles, colour settings for strings and DTMs, or default Surpac settings.

Geological database Survey database Block model

surpac.ddb

ug_mine.sdb block.mdl

Plot files

pit_str.dwf

Macros

macro.tcl

Plugins

topo2.dxf

Styles file

styles.ssi

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Function-centric vs Data-centric Operations


Many graphical operations in Surpac can be performed quicker via a data-centric approach by selecting the data first, then specifying an operation to be performed on the data.

Function-centric When you invoke a function first, and then specify the data you want to use, you are performing a function-centric operation. For example, when you click the icon to Open a file select the file to be opened. , Surpac displays a form. Then you

You can perform nearly all operations using the function-centric approach. For non-graphical operations, this is often the only option. For example, to calculate volumes between two DTM surfaces, you must use the functioncentric approach, such as by selecting Cut and Fill between DTMs from the Volumes menu.

Data-centric When you select data first, and then specify the function to be applied to the data, you are performing a data-centric operation.

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For example, when you right-click a file, a popup menu is displayed. You then choose the operation to be performed such as Open.

Many graphical operations are quicker and easier to perform using the data-centric approach. For example, you can select data in a string file, and then right-click to display functions that Surpac can perform on the data.

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The Surpac Interface


So that you can see the Surpac interface with some data files in the Navigator, ensure that you have started Surpac and set the work directory as described in the Getting Started chapter. Overview The Surpac interface consists of 10 different areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Menus Toolbars Navigator Preview pane Legend pane Graphics Properties pane Layers pane Status bar Message window

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Menus
The menus group functions from a particular module, such as the Block Model module. Task: Open a File Using the Menu 1. 2. From the File menu, select Open, and then String/DTM file. Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

The file pit1.str is displayed in graphics.

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Toolbars
A toolbar is a collection of icons that have related functions. Toolbars allow you to access commonly used functions directly, without the need to search through the menus.

Task: Use the Reset Graphics Button from the Toolbar 1. 2. Open the file pit1.str in graphics. . Click the Reset graphics icon This function removes all the data that is displayed in graphics. If data has been modified, Surpac will display a form to allow you to save the file. This is described in detail in the chapter Viewing and Saving Data.

Navigator
The Navigator works like Windows Explorer. Using the Navigator, you can manage your files and directories by creating new folders, cutting, copying, pasting, and deleting files and folders.

Task: Open a File from the Navigator 1. 2. Right-click the file pit1.str in the Navigator. From the menu, select Open.

The file pit1.str is displayed in graphics.

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Preview Pane
The Preview pane displays string data without the need to load it into graphics.

Task: Display a String File in the Preview Pane 1. If the Preview pane is not displayed, click the Preview button at the top of the Navigator. Click the file pit1.str in the Navigator. Click and drag in the Preview pane to rotate the data, as shown below:

2. 3.

4.

Click the Preview button again to close the Preview pane.

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Legend Pane
This is the area where you can see the legends for data in graphics.

Graphics
Known as the graphics area, or simply graphics, this is the area where you perform most of the work in Surpac. The graphics area is a three-dimensional work area. Any file loaded into graphics has Y, X, and Z coordinates.

Task: Display and View Data in Graphics 1. 2. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Drag and drop the file pit_design.str into graphics. The file is displayed in graphics:

3.

Perform the following steps: Use the left mouse button to rotate the image. Use the right mouse button to zoom in and out based on the centre of the image. Use the wheel button, or both mouse buttons, to pan the image. Use the wheel button to zoom in or out in relation to the current location of the cursor.

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Properties Pane
This is the area where you see: The properties of your file data when the Navigator is active. Information about graphics data when Surpac is in select mode and you have data selected.

Layers Pane
This is the area where you manage your data in layers. This is described in detail in the chapter Managing Data in Layers.

Status Bar
The Status bar shows the coordinate position of the mouse cursor as well as the string number and design gradient. The Status bar also shows whether a database or blockmodel is loaded into memory.

Task: View Changes to the Status Area 1. 2. Drag and drop surpac.ddb (a geological database) into graphics. Drag and drop block_model.mdl (a block model) into graphics. Notice that two buttons have been added to the status area, indicating that a database named surpac and a block model named block_model are loaded:

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3.

Move the mouse within the graphics area. Notice that the coordinates shown in the status area are updated as you move the mouse. In the Status bar, click the surpac button, and select Close. Click the block_model button, and select Close.

4. 5.

Message Window
The Message window shows the information, warnings, and error messages that Surpac produces while it is executing functions. Tip: Sometimes the message window also contains information such as coordinates of selected points. You can copy this information and paste it into text files or documents.

Task: Clear the Message Window 1. 2. Right-click in the Message window to display a menu. Select Clear in the menu.

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Getting Help
Overview There are a number of resources to assist you whether you are trying to solve a problem, to understand how a function works, or to enter data into a form. In this chapter, you will learn about: Field help and Form help. Online help. Tutorials. Support.

Field Help and Form Help


When Surpac prompts you to enter information, it displays a form. The components on the form where you enter information are known as fields. You can get helpful information about each field by accessing Field help. Helpful information about the entire form, and concepts related to the function, are available by accessing Form help. Task: Access Field Help and Form Help 1. 2. 3. Click the Reset Graphics icon .

From the File menu, select Open, and then String/DTM file. Click the Location field, and then right-click to display a popup menu.

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4.

From the popup menu, select Field help. A window appears with help that is specific to the field selected.

5.

Press TAB several times. Notice that the help text changes as the cursor moves to different fields. This happens because the Enable auto help box is selected. Click the Enable auto help box so that it is cleared. Press TAB several times. Notice that the help text does not change. Click the Enable auto help box so that it is selected. Click the X button in the top right corner of the help window to close it. Click and then right-click in a field to display the following menu.

6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

11.

From the menu, select Form Help. Form help provides information about the function Open file.

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Online Help
Online help contains more detailed information than form help and field help, as well as examples and troubleshooting assistance.

Task: Access Online Help from a Form 1. 2. From the Display menu, select 2D Grid. Click the button at the lower left corner of the form.

The online help for the 2D Grid function appears:

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3.

Close the help window.

Task: Access Help from the Help Menu. 1. In Surpac, from the Help menu, select Table of contents.

2.

In the table of contents, expand SSILM, and then Surpac Software Licence Manager (SSILM). Select Overview.

3.

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Task: Use the Index to Search for Information. The Index is another good way to locate help. 1. 2. 3. In Surpac, from the Help menu, select Table of contents. In the lower left corner, click the Index tab. In the text box at the top, slowly type each letter of the word autoplot. After you type each letter, the help system selects the index entry that is the closest match. Press ENTER.

4.

Task: Search the Online help. 1. 2. 3. In Surpac, from the Help menu, select Table of contents. In the lower left corner, click the Search tab. Type the words clip DTM, and click Search. This search returns all the help topics that contain both the words clip and DTM. The topics that contain the most occurrences of these words are ranked higher in the list. Click the topic that is ranked 1 at the top of the list, DTM Maths.

4.

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This topic contains a large number of occurrences of DTM and only one occurrence of clip. It does not contain the phrase clip DTM anywhere in the help topic.

You can also do a phrase search by enclosing your search in quotes. 5. Type clip DTM in the Search box, and then click Search. The search will find only the exact phrase clip DTM. 6. 7. Click the top row, DTM Clip. Scroll down in the help topic so that you can see the text clip DTM highlighted.

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Tutorials
Tutorials are designed to teach you how specific functions work within a practical, task-based environment, by working through exercises using a specific dataset. Surpac tutorials are available via the tutorials profile. When you install the software from the CD, the tutorials are installed into directories under: <installation directory>\demo_data\tutorials where <installation directory> is the folder where Surpac is installed. Each directory contains a tutorial in PDF format, as well as a data directory that contains the files required to perform the exercises outlined in the tutorial. Task: Access the Tutorials profile. 1. 2. Right-click in the blank area on the right of the main menus. From the popup menu, select Profiles, and then tutorials as shown below:

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You will see a set of menus for the tutorials as shown in the image below:

To view the tutorials or run the macros for the tutorial, you must first click on the menu item to change the directory to your chosen tutorial. You can then either view the tutorial document as a PDF or run the macros that appear in the tutorial. Internet download You can also download individual tutorials from http://www.surpac.com. From the main page, select Support, then Tutorials.

Tip: The tutorials offered on this page may be more recent than those from the CD installation.

Support
The final type of help is where you contact your local Support office, either by email or by phone.

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Task: Log a help request. 1. From the Help menu, select Log a request.

2.

Fill in a detailed description of your problem.

3.

Click Contact Info.

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4.

Enter your personal details, and then click OK.

5. 6. 7.

Click Computer Info Click Capture Config to automatically get the details of your PC. Enter as much detail as possible, and then click OK.

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8. 9.

If you have data to demonstrate your problem, click Attach File Navigate to the data file that you want to attach, and then click Open.

10. 11. 12.

Click Save. Give your output file a meaningful name. Navigate to the folder where you wish to store the file, and then click Save.

13.

Email the .sbg file to: bugs@surpac.com

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Strings
Overview The most common file format used for storing information in Surpac is a string file. A string file contains coordinate information for one or more points, as well as optional descriptive information for each point. It is important to understand how Surpac organises and uses data stored within a string file; this will enable you to work more efficiently with strings.

String Data Hierarchy


Data in a string file is classified into: Points. Segments. Strings.

All points in a string file are grouped into segments, which are further grouped into strings. The example below shows conceptually how a string file contains strings, which contain segments, which contain points.

String File

String 1

String 2

String 99

Segment 1 Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4

Segment 1 Point 6 Point 7 Point 8 Point 9 Point 10 Point 11 Point 12 Point 13

Segment 1 Point 14 Point 15 Point 16

Segment 2 Point 17

Segment 2 Point 5

Segment 3 Point 18 Point 19

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Types of Strings
There are three types of strings: Open. Closed. Spot Height.

The table below explains these terms. Surpac Term Open string Closed string Spot height string Common Term Line Polygon Points not associated with a line or polygon Example Drill hole trace Property boundary Blast hole collar locations

Description Fields
Points, strings, and segments can have one or more pieces of descriptive information associated with them. This information is stored in a description field. Description fields are named according to the order they appear. Description fields are named in the format D<incremental number>, such as D1, D2, D3. For example, a closed segment representing an ore zone could have the gold grade, silver grade, and specific gravity stored in separate description fields. If the information is stored in that order, they could be assigned as follows: D1: gold grade D2: silver grade D3: specific gravity

Data Numbering
Strings, segments, and points are identified by unique numbers. You can assign string numbers to represent particular features, such as string 1 for toes in a pit, string 2 for crests, and string 99 for spot heights. Surpac automatically assigns segment numbers and point numbers.

Data Ranges
You can use a range to refer to groups of data numbers, such as strings, segments, and points. The comma ( , ) is used for a range which includes a start, an end, and optionally an increment. You use the following format to specify such a range in Surpac: <start>,<end>,<increment> Note: When the increment is 1, you can use <start>,<end> without specifying the increment.

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The semicolon ( ; ) is used to identify unique values, or to separate multiple comma ranges. Here are some examples: Data values 12345678 1357 2000 2200 2400 16 269 234569 25 50 60 70 80 90 3 6 9 12 15 20 30 5 10 15 20 40 50 60 Range 1,8 1,7,2 2000,2400,200 1;6 2;6;9 2,6;9 25;50,90,10 3,15,3;20;30 5,20,5;40,60,10 Description from 1 to 8, at an increment of 1 (implied) from 1 to 7, at an increment of 2 from 2000 to 2400, at an increment of 200 1 and 6 2 and 6 and 9 from 2 to 6 at an increment of 1 (implied) and 9 25 and from 50 to 90 at an increment of 10 from 3 to 15, at an increment of 3 and 20 and 30 from 5 to 20, at an increment of 5 and from 40 to 60, at an increment of 10

String File Names


Surpac string file names have the following components: Component Location ID Extension Description Any combination of characters and numbers Numbers only Always .str Required? Required Optional Required

Here are some examples of file names: File name pit.str bench105.str 2007design.str 2007design2.str grade_control135.str dhcomp2_50.str level-300.str Location pit bench 2007design 2007design grade_control dhcomp2_ level 2 135 50 -300 ID 105 Extension .str .str .str .str .str .str .str

Spaces in file names are not recommended. In some situations, Surpac will not work correctly when you are using a file that has a space in the file name. You can use ranges to refer to the ID of filenames. For example, you can refer to the files: geo130.str, geo140.str, geo150.str, geo160.str, geo170.str using the following syntax: Location: ID: geo 130,170,10

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String Directions
When you view closed strings in the XY plane, the points have an order that is either clockwise or anticlockwise. This direction is important when calculating areas and volumes. Clockwise strings represent an area of inclusion. Anticlockwise strings represent an area of exclusion.

Viewing String Data


Here is an example which demonstrates the previous concepts. Task: View String Data 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Drag and drop the file bench105.str into graphics. From the Display menu, select Strings, then With string and segment numbers. Enter the following information, and then click Apply.

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The data in this file represents a horizontal view, also known as a plan view, of a pit design, the survey stations, and the geology for one level in a pit.

The data is organised as follows:

String number 1 2 3 8 8 30005 30008 5. 6.

Segment number 1 1 1 1 2 30005 30008

Data

Type

D1

D2

D3

Low grade ore Medium grade ore High grade ore Footwall trace Hangingwall trace Pit design toe Survey stations

Closed Closed Closed Open Open Closed Spot height

Gold (g/t) Gold (g/t) Gold (g/t) footwall hangingwall Station name

Silver (g/t) Silver (g/t) Silver (g/t)

SG SG SG

From the Display menu, select Point, then Numbers. Enter a value of 1 for the String range, and then click Apply.

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Notice that the order of points for string 1 is clockwise in the XY plane.

7.

Click the Reset graphics icon

String File Structure


Sometimes it is helpful to view the contents of a string file in a text editor. Task: View string data in a text editor 1. From the Navigator, right click bench105.str, and then select Edit. The file opens in a text editor, as shown below: bench105,10-Apr-07,,SSI_STYLES:styles.ssi 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 1, 7258.380, 1605.719, 105.000, 1.23,14.23,2.7 1, 7263.140, 1606.580, 105.000, 1.23,14.23,2.7 1, 7274.228, 1614.057, 105.000, 1.23,14.23,2.7 1, 7248.565, 1603.880, 105.000, 1.23,14.23,2.7 1, 7258.380, 1605.719, 105.000, 1.23,14.23,2.7 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 2, 7466.432, 1830.163, 105.000, 2.46,24.67,2.62 2, 7457.474, 1821.080, 105.000, 2.46,24.67,2.62 2, 7451.982, 1813.469, 105.000, 2.46,24.67,2.62 2, 7484.708, 1836.230, 105.000, 2.46,24.67,2.62 2, 7466.432, 1830.163, 105.000, 2.46,24.67,2.62 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, Header record Axis record First point of string 1 Second point of string 1

Last point of string 1 Null record First point of string 2

Last point of string 2 Null record

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The first line is known as the header record, and contains these items: file name, date modified, purpose (which is empty in this example), styles file. bench105,10-Apr-07,,SSI_STYLES:styles.ssi

The second line contains the axis record. This is a two-point line used in some sectioning functions. For many string files this is not required; when it is not required, values of zero are used for all coordinates. The Y, X, and Z values of each of the two end points of the axis are stored in the following order: 0, Y1, X1, Z1, Y2, X2, Z2 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000

The third line is the start of string data, and is stored as: String number, Y, X, Z, D1, D2, D3, D100 1, 7258.380, 1605.719, 105.000, 1.23,14.23,2.7

A null record indicates the end of a segment. String 1 is closed, because the first point and the last point are the same. When the file was created, the following values were chosen: D1 = gold (g/t), D2 = silver (g/t), and D3 = SG. String 1 outines an area of low grade ore with: a gold value of 1.23 grams/tonne. a silver value of 14.23 grams/tonne. a specific gravity of 2.7.

2.

Scroll down to see the data shown below.

0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 8, 7199.895, 1630.789, 105.000, footwall 8, 7346.360, 1727.625, 105.000, footwall 8, 7503.229, 1878.935, 105.000, footwall 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 8, 7227.920, 1565.439, 105.000, hangingwall 8, 7387.427, 1686.744, 105.000, hangingwall 8, 7532.455, 1837.632, 105.000, hangingwall 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 30005, 7356.295, 1801.489, 105.000, 30005, 7355.173, 1800.666, 105.000, 30005, 7356.295, 1801.489, 105.000, 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 30008, 7253.261, 1749.263, 105.798, STATION_105A 30008, 7283.412, 1776.295, 105.561, STATION_105B 30008, 7411.188, 1690.666, 105.561, STATION_105D 30008, 7508.075, 1829.604, 105.561, STATION_105E 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, END

start of string 8 end of string 8, segment 1 start of string 8, segment2 end of string 8, segment2 start of string 30005

end of string 30005 start of string 30008

end of string 30008 end of file

String 8 is open, since the first and last points are different. String 8 consists of two segments.

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3.

String 30005 is closed, since the first and last points are the same. String 30008 is a spot height string with the survey station name in the D1 field. Exit the editor without saving changes.

Note: Manually editing string files is not recommended. If the format becomes corrupted, Surpac might not work correctly when using the file.

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Viewing and Saving Data


Overview In this chapter you will learn about: Multiple viewports. Attributes and styles files. Saving data.

Multiple Viewports
You can view data in different ways using multiple viewports.

Task: Work with Multiple Viewports 1. 2. Drag and drop pit_design.str into graphics. Right-click in graphics to display a popup menu.

3.

From the popup menu, select Viewport, then Copy view. A maximised copy of the current view appears on a tab called View 2.

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4.

Right-click the View 2 tab and select Close to close this viewport.

5.

Right-click in graphics, select Viewport, then Split vertically.

Each viewport contains the same data.

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6.

Right-click the left viewport, select Viewport, then Split horizontally.

7.

Right-click the right viewport, select Viewport, then Split horizontally.

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8.

Click and drag in the top left viewport to rotate the data. The data is now in an oblique view. Click in the bottom left viewport.

9.

10. 11.

Click the

icon to view the data in the XZ plane.

Click in the top right viewport.

12.

Click the

icon to view the data in the YZ plane.

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Attributes and Styles Files


Styles files control how strings, digital terrain models and solid models (DTM files) are displayed. You can change them to suit your needs. With styles files, you can specify many attributes, such as line colour, marker size and drawing method (lines, markers, attributes, values). Every time you save a string file, the associated styles file is also saved so that when the string file is next opened, it will automatically use the correct styles.

Task: Change Display Style The dataset in this task represents a soil sampling study that measured the arsenic concentrations at various locations. In this task you will change the display style for the points to make it easier to see where the concentrations of arsenic are highest. 1. Open the file samp_classified1.str. This file contains a series of points that show the concentration of arsenic in the soil. The default style settings display the string as coloured lines as shown in the following image. Representing the data in this way does not help you see where the arsenic concentration is high or low.

The points have been classified into four levels of concentration, each represented by a separate string.

A point whose arsenic concentration is 350 parts per million (ppm), for example, forms part of string 3. In this task, we will display the strings as spot heights to show the areas that have the highest concentration of arsenic.

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2. 3.

Click the Legend tab to show the Legend pane. In the Legend pane, click on the + sign next to Strings under the file samp_classified.str The legend shows that string 1 is, string 2 is blue, string 3 is blue-green, and string 4 is green.

4.

In the Legend, double-click string 1. The Set Drawing Styles form is displayed.

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5.

Edit the form as shown in the following image to select the drawing method, colour, marker type and text properties for displaying the four spot height strings.

Specifically, do the following steps for each of the Custom Styles rows 1 to 4: a. Type marker,d1 in the Drawing Method cell. Note: marker,d1 instructs Surpac to draw a marker for each point, using the d1 field as a label. b. Select the line colour by clicking the line in the line cell and selecting Properties.

c.

Click Edit.

d.

Select the colour blue, green, orange and red for each of the four rows respectively.

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Note: You can use any of the four colour tabs shown below to select the colour of the markers and the d1 field labels.

This tab Swatches HSB RGB Crayola e. f.

allows you to choose a colour by clicking in a box on the display. specifying its Hue, Saturation and Brightness. specifying its Red, Green and Blue values selecting the name of the colour from a standard list of colour names.

Click OK to finish the colour selection. Click the Markers cell, select Properties and then select the marker type. For this row 1 2 3 4 Select this marker type

g.

Click in the Text cell, select Properties, and then enter oru for the Units and 8.5 for the size.

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h.

Click Apply.

With object relative units (oru), the size of the text is set to the same units as the object. In our example, the text size for range 1 is set to 8.5 oru. The text size will be equivalent to an object that is 8.5 metres high and so will appear larger when you zoom in and smaller when you zoom out. For more information on choosing text sizes, see the Online Reference Manual. 6. Click the check box in the lower left part of the form and in the Filename text box, type ssi_styles:marker.ssi.

7.

Click Apply. The styles are now stored in the file marker.ssi in the styles directory.

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The Set Drawing Styles form should now look like the following image.

The result is shown below. By looking at the colours, you can quickly see the areas of lowest arsenic concentration (blue), intermediate concentration (green and orange) and highest concentration (red).

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8.

Zoom in and you will see numbers like these:

9. 10.

Click the Save icon on the toolbar Click Apply in the Save File form.

The file samp_classified1.str is associated with the styles file marker.ssi. This means that when samp_classified1.str is next opened, this styles file will also load. In this way it is possible to have a collection of styles files suitable for a range of display purposes.

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Task: View Point Properties The Point properties function displays point attribute information including string, segment and point numbers, y,x,z coordinates, and description fields. 1. 2. 3. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Open the file lev1665.str by dragging it from the Navigator into graphics. Click Select Point/Triangle using the select tool.

4.

Select any four points by holding down the CTRL key and clicking on the points.

5.

From the Inquire menu, select Point properties. The Message window displays the point properties for all of the selected points.

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Task: View Segment Properties 1. 2. 3. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Open the file lev1665.str by dragging it into graphics. Select the segment as shown in the following image.

The segment properties are displayed in the Properties pane.

Task: Determine Bearing and Distance Between Two Points

1. 2. 3.

Click the Reset graphics icon Open the file lev1665.str.

From the Inquire menu, select Bearing and distance between 2 points. Notice the prompt to select the setup point.

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4.

Click on any point. Notice the prompt to select the foresight point. Select another point. The Message window displays the bearing, distance and gradient between the two points in the order in which they were selected.

5.

6.

Press ESC to terminate the function.

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Saving Data
There are two ways to save a file: text or binary.

In most cases you will save strings as text files. However, if the text string files are very large (more than 5 MB), it may be worth saving them as binary files to reduce the time it takes to load the data into graphics. Typically, you can expect a saving of up to 15% in the size of the string file and up to 30% in the time to load the data into graphics. Task: Save a File 1. 2. 3. Reset graphics. Open the file lev1665.str. Use the Select tool to select a point in the string.

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4.

Right-click and select Delete from the menu.

5. 6.

From the File menu, select Save, and then String/DTM. In the Filename field, type lev1665_modified, and click Apply.

The Save function saves the contents of the active layer to a file. Tip: An alternative method to show the Save File form is to click the icon in the toolbar.

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Editing Data
Overview In this chapter, you will learn about: Orbit mode. Selection modes. The Move tool.

Orbit Mode
Orbit mode is the default graphics mode, where you can rotate data in three dimensions. When you are using the orbit tool, Surpac operates in function-centric mode. Task: Use Orbit Mode to Rotate Data

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Drag and drop survey1665.str into graphics. From the Tools toolbar , click the Orbit tool icon .

Click and drag in the Graphics Viewport. The data rotates in three dimensions.

Selection Modes
There are several ways of selecting data: Select mode. Point/Triangle mode. Segment/Trisolation mode. String/Object mode. Box selection.

When any of theses selection tools are used, Surpac will operate in data centric mode.

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Task: Change Selection Modes 1. From the Tools toolbar tool icon 2. . , click the drop-down triangle on the Select

Click Select Point/Triangle.

The Select tool icon, now displays the Point/Triangle selection mode: 3. Click the Select tool icon (not the drop-down triangle ). .

The icon now displays Segment/Trisolation selection mode: 4. Click the Select tool icon again. .

The icon now displays String/Object selection mode: 5. Click the Select tool icon again. .

The icon now displays Select selection mode: 6. From the Tools toolbar

, click the Box selection icon .

The Tools toolbar now displays Box selection mode:

7. 8.

Right-click anywhere in the Graphics Viewport to display a popup menu. At the bottom of the menu, click the Selection tool icon.

Notice that the Tools toolbar now displays Select selection mode: 9. Right-click anywhere in the Graphics Viewport to display a popup menu.

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10.

At the bottom of the popup menu, click the Orbit view tool icon.

Notice that the Tools toolbar now displays Orbit view mode: 11. From the Tools toolbar, click the Select tool icon . .

The Tools toolbar now displays Select selection mode: 12. Press the ESC key. The Tools toolbar now displays the Orbit view mode: .

Task: Use Point/Triangle Mode to Delete Points

1. 2. 3.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Drag and drop survey1665.str into graphics. From the Selection drop-down menu on the Tools toolbar, click Select Point/Triangle.

4.

Click the point as shown.

5.

Right-click anywhere in the Graphics Viewport to display a popup menu.

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6.

From the popup menu, select Delete.

The point is deleted.

7.

Hold down the CTRL key, and then click the points as shown.

8.

Press DELETE on your keyboard. The points are deleted.

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Task: Use Segment/Trisolation Mode to Reverse Segments 1. From the Selection drop-down menu on the Tools toolbar, click Select Segment/Trisolation.

2.

Hold down the CTRL key, and then click the segments as shown in the following image.

3. 4.

Right-click anywhere in the Graphics Viewport to display a popup menu. From the popup menu, select Reverse.

Notice that the new segment directions are displayed in the message window:

String 2 Segment 1 is now Anti-clockwise String 2 Segment 3 is now Anti-clockwise

Task: Use Select Mode to Break, Join, and Renumber Segments With select mode, you can select either points or segments. This mode allows you to perform many string editing tasks very quickly. 1. From the Display menu, select Point, then Numbers.

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2.

Leave the form as is and click Apply.

You will see the point numbers displayed for all data points.

Note: It is not necessary to display point numbers. This is only done here to clearly identify points which you will select in the following steps. 3. From the Selection drop-down menu on the Tools toolbar, click Select.

4.

Hold down CTRL, and then click points 11 and 14.

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5. 6.

Right-click anywhere in the Graphics Viewport to display a popup menu. From the menu, select Break segments at selected points.

7.

Click at a location between two points on the segment to be deleted, as shown in the following image.

8.

Right-click and select Delete from the popup menu.

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9.

Hold the CTRL key down, and select two points to be joined (105 and 216) as shown.

Note: If two segments of different string numbers are connected, the string number of the first point selected is used for the result. In the preceding example, if point 105 is selected first, then the resulting string number will be 1. If point 216 was selected first, the resulting string number will be 2. 10. Right-click and select Connect points from the popup menu.

11.

Hold the CTRL key down, and select two points to be joined (130 and 25) as shown.

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12.

Right-click and select Connect points from the menu.

The final result should look like this:

13.

Repeat steps 4 to 12 for other locations, until the final result is as shown.

14.

From the Display menu, select Strings, then With string numbers.

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15.

Leave the form as is and click Apply.

Next, you will use the select tool to select and renumber all segments of string 2 to string 1.

16.

Click at a location between two points on a segment that you will renumber.

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17.

Right-click and select Select strings from the popup menu.

Notice that all segments of the string are selected.

18. 19.

From the Edit menu, select Strings, then Renumber. Enter a value of 1 in the to string field, and click Apply.

Task: Use String/Object Mode to Delete and Clean Strings 1. From the Selection drop-down menu on the Tools toolbar, click Select String/Object.

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2.

Click string 30008, as shown in the following image.

3.

Right-click and then select Delete from the popup menu.

4.

Click string 1, as shown.

5.

Right-click and then select Clean from the popup menu.

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6.

Enter data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

7. 8.

From the File menu, select Save as. Enter data as shown, and then click Apply.

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The Move Tool


Once you have selected data, you can use the Move Tool to move it: Constrained along an axis. Constrained in a plane. Unconstrained.

Task: Move Data Along an Axis 1. 2. 3. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Drag and drop lev1665.str into graphics. From the Selection drop-down menu on the Tools toolbar, click Select Point/Triangle.

4.

Hold the CTRL key down and click two points as shown below:

5.

From the Tools toolbar,

click the Move Tool

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6.

Click and drag the X axis, as shown: Before After

Notice that the status bar displays coordinate values as well as the movement.

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Task: Move Data in a Plane

1. 2.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Make sure that the Reset graphics option is selected, and then click Apply to reset graphics without saving your changes.

3. 4.

Drag and drop ore1.str into graphics. From the Selection drop-down menu on the Tools toolbar, click Select Segment/Trisolation.

5.

Rotate the data and then click the segment shown.

6.

From the Tools toolbar,

click the Move Tool

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7.

Click and drag the red and blue corner to constrain the movement to the XZ plane. Before After

Notice that only the X and Z values in the status bar change as you move the segment.

8. 9.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Make sure that the Reset graphics option is selected, and then click Apply to reset graphics without saving your changes.

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Task: Move Data in Three Dimensions

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Drag and drop und1.str into graphics. Drag and drop und_layout.str into graphics. Click and drag in graphics to rotate the data as shown:

5.

From the Selection drop-down menu on the Tools toolbar, click Select String/Object.

6.

Click the string in und_layout.str.

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7.

Right-click and then select the Move Tool from the popup menu.

8.

Click inside the yellow square at the intersection of the three axes and move the string as shown.

Notice that all three coordinates in the status bar change as you move the string.

9. 10.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Make sure that the Reset graphics option is selected, and then click Apply to reset graphics without saving your changes.

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Creating Data
Overview In this chapter you will learn about: Creating a simple pit design.

Create a Simple Pit Design


You will design a pit base around an ore zone at an elevation of 150, and then extend it up to an elevation of 250 at a 45 degree pit wall angle. Task: Create a Simple Pit Design 1. 2. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Drag and drop ore150.str into graphics. This file represents a horizontal slice of ore zones at an elevation of 100.

3. 4.

From the Create menu, select Digitise, then Properties. Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

5.

From the Create menu, select Digitise, then Digitise new point at mouse location.

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6.

Click in graphics to create points 1, 2, and 3 as shown in the following image. Note: Do not press ESC. You have not finished creating the string. Note: You will not see the numbers 1, 2 and 3 in graphics. They are shown on the following image so you know the order in which to create the points.

7. 8.

From the Create menu, select Digitise, then New point by selection. Click three points at the northern end of the segment, as shown in the following image, to create points 4, 5, and 6.

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9. 10. 11.

From the Create menu, select Digitise, then By following a segment. Click and hold down the left mouse button at point 7, then drag to point 8 and release. Click and hold down the left mouse button at point 9, then drag to point 10 and release.

12.

From the Create menu, select Digitise, then Close current segment. The segment will be closed, as shown in the following image:

Note: When you create closed segments in the XY plane (plan view), you will usually create them in a clockwise direction. Clockwise segments are regarded as an area of inclusion, and give expected results when you intersect them with other clockwise segments.

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13. 14.

From the File menu, select Save, then string/DTM. Enter the data as shown below, and then click Apply.

15. 16. 17. 18.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Drag and drop pit150.str into graphics. From the Display menu, select Point, then Numbers. Enter the following data, and then click Apply.

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You will see something similar to the following image.

Next, you will delete some points to make the outline more convex. 19. Set the selection mode to Select Point/Triangle.

20.

Hold the CTRL key down and click several points as shown below.

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21.

Right click to display a menu, and then select Delete.

You will see something similar to the following image.

Next, you will set the slope wall angle to 45 degrees. 22. From the Status Bar at the bottom of the Surpac window, click the Design grade button.

23.

Enter the following data, and then click Apply.

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The Design grade button will now display the current design gradient.

Next, you will set the string number for the top of the pit. This is an optional step. 24. From the Status Bar at the bottom of the Surpac window, click the Design string button.

25.

Enter the following data, and then click Apply.

The Design string button displays the current design string number.

Next, you will expand the segment horizontally by a distance of 100. At an angle of 45 degrees, this will create a pit crest 100 meters above the base, at an elevation of 250. 26. 27. 28. From the Edit menu, select Segment, then Expand/Contract. Click anywhere in graphics to select the segment for expanding. Enter the data as shown below, and then click Apply.

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29.

Press ESC to finish expanding. You will see the pit crest, similar to the following image.

30. 31. 32.

Hold down the right mouse key and drag down or to the left to zoom out. From the Display menu, select 2D Grid. Enter the following data, and then click Apply.

You will now see the limits of the data in the X and Y dimensions.

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This procedure can be useful for determining the limits of a block model. Next, you will create a DTM from this data. 33. 34. From the Surfaces menu, select Create DTM from Layer. Enter the data as shown below, and then click Apply.

35.

If you see a break line error and some lines that cross in the pit crest, delete some points where the lines cross:

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a. b. c.

Click the Select tool and click Select Point/Triangle. Select a point to delete. Right-click and click Delete.

d. 36. 37.

From the Surfaces menu, select Create DTM from Layer, and click Apply.

From the Display menu, select 3D Grid. Enter the data as shown below, and then click Apply.

38.

Click and drag in graphics to rotate the data. You will now see the pit as a DTM surface.

Next, you will save the DTM file.

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39. 40.

From the File menu, select Save, then string/DTM File. Enter the following data, and then click Apply.

41.

In the following form, click Yes.

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Managing Data in Layers


Overview Many computer-aided design (CAD) packages use the term layer to define a set of information contained within one file. In this sense, a Surpac string number is the same as a CAD package layer. However, in Surpac, a layer is an area in memory which contains data displayed in graphics. Layers can contain strings from one or more string files. In this sense, you can append data from different files into one layer, and create a new file. All layers are contained within the Surpac Work Area (SWA). In this chapter you will learn about: Layers and the Surpac Work Area. Creating layers. Appending data to a layer. Replacing data in a layer. Saving Workspace settings.

Layers and the Surpac Work Area


When Surpac starts, it creates an area in memory called the Surpac Work Area (SWA). All data that is displayed in graphics is stored within one or more layers, which are located within the SWA. Before you have displayed any data in graphics, the SWA contains one layer, called the main graphics layer.

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: none

All layers in the SWA are displayed in the Layers panel, at the lower left corner of the Surpac window:

Creating Layers
By dragging a file from the Navigator to graphics, you create a new layer with the same name as the file. You can also create a new layer using the New button on the Layer panel.

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Task: Creating Layers 1. 2. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Drag and drop the file pit1.str into graphics from the Navigator. Notice that the Layers panel now shows two layers, the main graphics layer and a new layer called pit1.str which becomes the active layer.

This symbol

indicates that the layer is active. visible. selectable.

The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: none

Layer: pit1.str

Data: All strings from pit1.str

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3.

Drag and drop the file map1.str into graphics from the Navigator. Notice that the Layers Panel now shows three layers, and map1.str is the active layer.

The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: none

Layer: pit1.str

Data: All strings from pit1.str

Layer: map1.str

Data: All strings from map1.str

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Next, you will create a circular area delineating the boundary of a waste dump, and save the data to a separate file. As part of this process, you will create a new layer where the data will be stored. 4. 5. On the Layers panel, click the button.

Type waste dump in the text box, and then click Apply.

Notice that the new layer is now the active layer.

6. 7.

From the Create menu, select Circle by drag. Click the centre of the circle, then drag to the location shown in the following image, and then release the mouse button.

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8.

Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

9.

Press ESC to finish using the function. Notice that the waste dump layer is now displayed in red, and it is preceded by an asterisk (*).This occurs when you have changed data in a layer, but you have not yet saved it.

10. 11.

From the File menu, select Save, then string/DTM. Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

Notice that the waste dump layer is now displayed in black.

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The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: none

Layer: pit1.str

Data: All strings from pit1.str

Layer: map1.str

Data: All strings from map1.str

Layer: waste dump

Data: String 1 (the circle) stored in dump_boundary.str

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Appending Data to a Layer


You can append data to a layer by holding down the CTRL key when dragging and dropping a file into graphics. Also, the Open File form contains an option to append data in a layer. You can combine data from different files by appending them into one layer, and then saving the file.

Task: Appending Data to a Layer with the Navigator 1. 2. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Hold the CTRL key down, then drag and drop the file pit1.str into graphics from the Navigator. Notice that while you drag a file into graphics with the CTRL key pressed, the cursor is displayed with a plus sign ( + ):

After releasing the mouse, notice that the Layers Panel still only shows one layer, the main graphics layer.

The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: All strings from pit1.str

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3.

Hold the CTRL key down, then drag and drop the file map1.str into graphics from the Navigator. After releasing the mouse, notice that the Layers Panel still only shows one layer, the main graphics layer.

The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: All strings from pit1.str All strings from map1.str

Next, you will save the data from both files to a new file. 4. 5. From the File menu, select Save, then string/DTM. Enter the data as shown, and then click Apply.

The file map_and_pit.str contains all data from pit1.str as well as all data from map1.str.

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Task: Appending Data to a Layer with the Open File Command

1. 2. 3.

Click the Reset graphics icon

From the File menu, select Open, then string/DTM. Enter the data as shown, and then click Apply.

Notice that by setting String Range to 2, only string 2 from pit1.str is opened in the main graphics layer.

4.

From the File menu, select Open, then string/DTM.

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5.

Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

Notice that by setting String Range to 2;12;52, only those strings have been opened. Also, because Replace current data was not selected, the data is appended to the main graphics layer.

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The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: String 2 from pit1.str Strings 2;12, and 52 from map1.str

6. 7.

From the File menu, select Save, then string/DTM. Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

The file pit_and_buildings.str now contains string 2 from pit1.str as well as string 2, string 12, and string 52 from map1.str.

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Replacing Data in a Layer


You can replace data in a layer with the SHIFT key modifier when dragging and dropping a file into graphics. Also, the Open File form contains an option to replace data in a layer.

Task: Replacing Data in a Layer with the Navigator 1. 2. Click the Reset graphics icon .

Drag and drop the file map1.str into graphics from the Navigator. Notice that the Layers panel shows the two layers:

The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: none

Layer: map1.str

Data: All strings from map1.str

3. 4.

Click pit1.str so that it is the only file selected in the Navigator. Hold the SHIFT key down, then drag and drop the file pit1.str into graphics from the Navigator.

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Notice that while you drag a file into graphics with the SHIFT key pressed, the cursor is displayed with an X.

After releasing the mouse button, notice that the Layers panel still shows both layers:

However, the contents of the map1.str layer have been replaced by the data in the file pit1.str:

The SWA now contains:

Surpac Work Area

Layer: main graphics layer

Data: none

Layer: map1.str

Data: All strings from pit1.str

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Task: Replacing Data in a Layer Using the Open File Command

1. 2. 3.

Click the Reset graphics icon

From the File menu, select Open, then string/DTM. Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

Notice that all the data in pit1.str is open in the main graphics layer.

4.

From the File menu, select Open, then string/DTM.

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5.

Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

Notice that all data in the main graphics layer is replaced by the data in map1.str because Replace current data was selected.

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Saving Workspace Settings


You can save all the data, layers, and settings in a Surpac Work Area (SWA) file. You can restore all this information by opening the SWA file.

Task: Saving a Workspace

1. 2. 3. 4.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Drag and drop the file ore1.dtm into graphics from the Navigator. From the View menu, select Surface view options, then Lighting options. Enter the data as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

5. 6.

Drag and drop the file pit_design.str into graphics from the Navigator. Drag and drop the file topo1.str into graphics from the Navigator.

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7.

Click in graphics and drag to rotate the data as shown in the following image.

Notice that four layers exist in the Layers Panel.

8. 9.

From the File menu, select Save, then Graphics workspace. Enter ore_pit_topo, and then click Apply.

The file ore_pit_topo.swa is created. Note: The terms Graphics workspace and SWA both refer to the Surpac Work Area. When you save a workspace, you create a file with a .swa extension. 10. From the View menu, select Surface view options, then Lighting options.

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11.

Enter data as shown, and then click Apply.

12.

Click the Reset graphics icon

Notice that all the layers are deleted except the default main graphics layer.

13.

Drag and drop the file ore_pit_topo.swa into graphics from the Navigator.

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Notice that you have restored the layers in the Layers panel, and the lighting settings and the view direction.

Note: SWA files are text files which store information about other files. If you want to open an SWA file on another computer, you must ensure that the files that the SWA file references are available using the same directory structure. 14. 15. From the View menu, select Surface view options, then Lighting options. Enter the following data, and then click Apply to reset your lighting to its original state.

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Triangulated Surfaces
Overview
Surpac supports two types of triangulated surfaces: DTM surfaces and three-dimensional solid models (3DMs). A DTM surface is a set of triangles which represent a surface, such as topography or a pit design. A solid model is a set of triangles which represents a threedimensional shape, such as an ore zone or an underground mine design. The following concepts are presented in this chapter: Naming Conventions. DTM Conventions. Viewing a DTM surface. Creating a DTM surface. Creating a boundary string between two DTM surfaces. Calculating a cut and fill volume using DTM surfaces. Viewing a solid model. Creating and validating a solid model. Calculating a volume using a solid model.

Naming Conventions
The objects you create in Surpac are numbered by a system analogous to that of string and string segment numbers: String Segment Point Object Trisolation Triangle

When you define an object, you explicitly assign it both an object number and a trisolation number. Surpac refers to the object by the object and trisolation number that you assigned. The object number must be an integer in the range of 1 to 32000. The trisolation number must be a positive integer.

DTM Conventions
DTMs cannot model overhangs or vertical surfaces. DTMs must be identified as Object 1, Trisolation 1. When creating a DTM, strings identified as spot heights are interpreted differently to strings identified as breaklines.

This chapter describes using strings to act as break lines. A Breakline string is a string that represents physical features you can see in the real world, such as a crest of a pit, a fault in a geological model, or a contour in a pit. Spot height strings contain random points which, when connected by a string line, do not represent any physical feature for example randomly surveyed points, or borehole collars.

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Viewing a DTM Surface


Task: View a DTM in Graphics

1. 2.

Click the Reset graphics icon

to clear the graphics area.

Drag and drop the file waste_dump.dtm into graphics. You should see something like the following image, which represents a waste dump.

3.

Use your cursor to view the data from different angles.

Creating a DTM Surface


Overview It is important to understand how a string file relates to a DTM. In order for a DTM file to remain valid, the string file from which it was created must remain unchanged from the time that you created the DTM. Therefore, if you modify the string data, you will also need to recreate the DTM.

Task: Create a DTM Graphics based Method 1. 2. Open the file topo1.str in graphics. From the Surfaces menu, select Create DTM from layer.

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3. 4. 5.

Click Apply on the form to create a DTM surface. From the File menu, select Save, then String/DTM to save the DTM file. Enter the data as shown below, and then click Apply.

6. 7.

Click Yes. Drag and drop the file topo1.dtm into graphics.

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Task: Create a DTM File based Method You will now create a DTM from the string file pit_design.str using the file based DTM creation option. You will use this function to demonstrate the impact of using strings as breaklines. 1. From the Surfaces menu, select DTM File functions, then Create DTM from string file. Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

2.

Note: The Strings to act as break lines box is not ticked. 3. Open the file pit_design.dtm in graphics.

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Notice that there are several triangles in the DTM that do not reflect the results we desire. You will now repeat the procedure, but using the Strings to act as breaklines option. 4. From the Surfaces menu, select DTM File functions, then Create DTM from string file. This time ensure that the Strings to act as break lines box is selected. Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

5.

The message window informs you of the processing as the DTM is created. When processing is finished, a new window displays a log file, which is a small report containing information about your DTM. 6. Close the log file window. The DTM file is saved automatically as pit_design.dtm. 7. Open the file pit_design.dtm.

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Creating a Boundary String Between Two DTM Surfaces


Task: Create a Boundary String by Intersecting Two DTMs You will now create a boundary string where the pit to be used in volume calculations intersects the topography. A boundary string file is used for: delineating cut and fill material for calculating volumes. finding the intersection of a fault plane with a surface. finding where a pit design breaks the natural surface.

There are two methods of creating the boundary string in Surpac: a file-based method and a graphics based method. In the file-based method, there is no need to display the DTMs, and the boundary string is automatically saved to the nominated file. In the graphics-based method, the DTMs must be displayed in graphics and the boundary string is not automatically saved but is simply displayed in its own graphics layer. You must save your boundary string to a file after it is generated.

File-based Method
Firstly, you will examine the file-based method. In this example, you will show only the DTMs for clarity. 1. 2. Click the Reset graphics icon to clear the graphics area.

Open the files pit_design.dtm and topo1.dtm in graphics. Notice that the pit extends past the natural topography. To determine the volume of the pit, you need to define the boundary where the topography cuts the pit design. You do this by creating a boundary string of the intersection between both DTMs.

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3.

From the Surfaces menu, select DTM File functions, then Line of intersection between two DTMs. In the following form: a. Fill in the names of the DTM files you wish to intersect. b. Specify the output string. c. Click Apply.

4.

5.

Drag and drop intersection1.str into graphics.

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Graphics-based Method
You can also complete this process graphically. Using this method, the DTMs must be displayed in graphics because the function uses graphics layers to determine its input and output. 1. 2. Open topo1.dtm and pit_design.dtm in graphics. From the Surfaces menu, select Clip or intersect DTMs, then Line of intersection between two DTMs. Complete the form as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

3.

This outputs the same result as the file-based function, but you can select the fields graphically. In the graphics-based method, you must save the string in the intersection layer to a string file. After applying this form, the result is displayed in graphics and should look something like the following image:

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Calculating a Cut and Fill Volume Using DTM Surfaces


Task: Calculate Cut and Fill Volumes Between Two DTMs One of the most common uses of DTMs is to calculate volumes. You can use the DTM Volumes function to compute the volume between two DTM surfaces, contained within a boundary string. 1. 2. From the Volumes menu, select Cut and fill between DTMs. Fill in the form as shown below, and click Apply.

You should see a report like the following:

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Viewing a Solid Model


Task: Viewing a Solid Model 1. Drag and drop solid_model.dtm into graphics. This image shows a solid that represents an ore body.

2.

Use the cursor to view the ore body from different angles. Notice that the 3DM or solid is a closed shape that represents a closed structure.

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Creating and Validating a Solid Model


Task: Create and Validate a Solid Model 1. 2. 3. Drag and drop the file ore1.str into graphics. From the Display menu, select Strings, then With string and segment numbers. Fill in the form as shown below and click Apply.

Note: Triangulation will occur using segment numbers. This means that segment 1 will triangulate to segment 2, segment 2 will triangulate to segment 3, and so on.

4. 5. 6.

Click Box Select Points

on the Tools toolbar.

Select View, then Zoom, then Out. Click and drag a box that contains all segments.

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7.

Right-click in graphics and choose Select segments.

8.

Right-click in graphics and select Triangulate.

The solid is displayed.

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9.

Hold the ALT key down, then click and drag in graphics to rotate the data to the view shown below. Notice that the solid is not closed.

10.

Move the cursor near the end segment and click so that one point is selected.

11.

Right-click in graphics and choose Select segments.

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12.

Right-click in graphics and select Triangulate.

The solid is now closed at the end segment.

13.

Hold the ALT key down, then click and drag in graphics to rotate the data to expose the other end of the object, as shown below.

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14.

Move the cursor near the end segment and click so that one point is selected.

15.

Right-click in graphics and choose Select segments.

16.

Right-click in graphics and select Triangulate.

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The solid is now closed at the end segment.

17.

Right-click in graphics and select Validate solids.

18.

Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

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The validation status is written to the Message window.

The results are also written to the file valid1.not as shown in the following image.

From the File menu, select Save, then string/DTM and click Apply.

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Calculating a Volume Using a Solid Model


Task: Calculate a Volume for a Solid Model 1. 2. 3. Click the Reset graphics icon to clear the graphics area.

Drag and drop ore_solid1.dtm into graphics. From the View menu, select Data view options, then Long section view. You should see an image like the following:

4.

From the Display menu, select 2D Grid.

5.

Click Apply.

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6.

From the View menu, select Zoom, then Out.

7. 8.

From the Solids menu, select Solids tools, and then Report volume of solids. Enter the information as shown below, and click Apply.

The report appears similar to the following: SOLID MODELLING OBJECT REPORT Layer Name: ore_solid1.dtm Object: 1 Trisolation: 1 Validated = true Status = solid Trisolation Extents X Minimum: 1441.416 X Maximum: 1960.408 Y Minimum: 7119.489 Y Maximum: 7600.000 Z Minimum: -1.119 Z Maximum: 244.029 Surface area: 275999 Volume : 2527231

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File Tools
Overview The File tools module is a collection of functions for manipulating and creating string files. These functions give you a high level of flexibility when using Surpac. This section gives you a broad overview of: String maths. Applying a boundary string. Classifying strings. 2D transformations. Polygon intersection.

Objectives By working through this document, you should be able to apply the functions in File tools.

String Maths
String maths allows you to manipulate string file data mathematically. Some of the uses of this function are: Interchanging Y,X,Z and description fields. Applying various mathematical functions to individual fields. Setting individual fields to a constant or to the value of another field. Scaling Y,X,Z values about a given datum value. Calculating areas, lengths and directions of segments.

Next, you will convert some geological ore zone interpretations from section coordinates to plan (real-world) coordinates.

Task: Convert Geological Ore Zone Interpretations from Section Coordinates to Plan (Real-World) Coordinates 1. 2. 3. Click Reset graphics .

Open ore_section1.str by dragging it into graphics. From the Display menu, select 2D grid.

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4.

Enter a grid size of 50 x 50, and then click Apply. Your image will look like the following:

Next, you will convert this data to plan view, also known as real world coordinates. 5. From the File tools menu, select String maths.

6.

Enter the following parameters on the String Maths form, and then click Apply.

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7.

Open ore_plan1.str. Your data is now in plan view and appears similar to the image below. This view of the data shows you cross sections of an ore body.

The next example uses string maths to increase the Y value of pit1.str by 200 metres. You might do this, for example, if the coordinates of a reference survey station are incorrect by 200 metres in the north-south plane.

Task: Move a Pit 200 Metres North to Correct Survey Station Error 1. 2. 3. 4. Clear graphics. Open the file pit_design.str in graphics. From the File tools menu, select String maths. Enter the following parameters, and click Apply.

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5.

Open the files pit_new.str and pit_design.str in graphics and move the images around to see the difference between them. The new pit has moved 200 metres in the Y direction from the original pit.

In the next example, you will place the accumulated 2D distance of a ramp along a string in the D1 field, and the total length of the ramp along the string in the D2 field. Information such as this can be a factor in extraction costs or in the economic viability of a mining operation.

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Task: Calculate the Cumulative Length of a String 1. 2. From the File tools menu, select String maths. Fill in the form as shown below and click Apply.

Note: For detailed information about expressions, see the Surpac help.

3. 4. 5.

Click Reset graphics

Drag and drop ramp_cl_2dlength.str into graphics. From the Display menu, select Point and then Attributes.

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6.

Fill in the form as shown below, and then click Apply.

The string is displayed with the cumulative distance at each point. The total length of the string, therefore, is 1016.92 metres.

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Applying a Boundary String


An example of when you might use the Apply boundary string function is when the extents of your data are greater than your survey boundaries. The Apply boundary string function works in the same way as a pastry cutter it keeps that which is inside a boundary and excludes everything outside. For Surpac to correctly interpret which data is inside or outside a boundary, the boundary string must be a closed string that is clockwise in direction. It is important when using this function to distinguish between spot height strings and strings which represent open or closed features because Surpac treats each one differently. When you apply a boundary string to spot heights, only those points which lie inside or on the boundary are saved. For strings that are not explicitly defined as spot height strings, new points are created where the string intersects the boundary. This is to ensure the strings are neatly clipped to the boundary. In this example, you will use the Apply boundary string function to cut a soil sampling file to a boundary string. Task: Applying a Boundary String to a Soil Sampling File 1. 2. Clear graphics. Open the string file soil1.str by dragging it into graphics. This file shows soil sampling data over a large area. There are strings that show contours at 100 ppm intervals for arsenic and string 30003 which shows the point locations where the samples were recorded. Open bdy100.str in graphics. You will use this string to cut the data to a boundary.

3.

The boundary line is in a separate layer to soil1.str. The preceding image gives you a good view of the files that you will be processing with the Apply boundary strings function. Note: Because this function is a File tools function, you do not have to show the files in graphics for Surpac to process the data. However, by showing the files in graphics, it might help you understand what is happening.

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4. 5.

From the File tools menu, select Apply boundary string. Complete the form as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

6. 7.

Click Reset Graphics

View the file soil2.str and the boundary string bdy100.str by dragging them into graphics. The new soil data is constrained within the defined boundary.

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Classifying Strings
It is often useful to classify the strings in a file, based on the value contained in a specific field. This value may be an elevation, or a numeric attribute, for example an assay grade value. You can classify strings based on the Y, X, Z fields or the description fields D1 to D100. By classifiying the data, you will create a separate string, which you can then plot with different attributes such as different colours or line thicknesses. The following example uses the Classify strings by numbers function to classify the file samp1.str based on the value in the D1 field which represents arsenic concentrations in ppm.

Task: Display Soil Samples using String Classification 1. 2. Open the file samp1.str which contains soil sample data. From the Display menu, select Point, and then Attributes, and then click Apply.

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3. 4.

From the File tools menu, select Classify strings by numbers. Complete the form as shown in the following image. Note: Press TAB to create a new row in the Classification table.

5.

Click Apply.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Click Reset graphics

Open the file samp_classified1.str. From the Display menu, select Hide everything. From the Display menu, select Point, then Markers, and click Apply. From the Display menu, select Point, then Attributes, and click Apply.

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The points are coloured according to the classification that you specified.

2D Transformations
2D transformations are useful when you have to transform coordinates from one coordinate system to another, for example from the Map Grid of Australia (MGA) system to a local grid. One example of where this can occur is where survey data has been entered using an incorrect backsight. You can then correct the data by transforming the coordinate system onto the backsight that was originally used. Another example is when oblique sections have been taken through a DTM or string file using an axis. In this case, the resultant section string files have coordinates relating to the axis used. You can transform them back to real-world coordinates using the 2D Transformation function. In the following task you will transform pit1.str into the same coordinate system as pit2.str using 2D transformation. Although the two pits are geographically close, they are in different local grids. You will convert them to the same grid system. Task: Transform a Pit to a Different Coordinate System 1. 2. 3. Clear graphics. Open the file pit1.str by dragging it into the graphics area. From the Inquire menu, select Report layer extents to show the coordinate extents in the Message window. Open the file pit2.str and determine the coordinate extents.

4.

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5.

Click Zoom to extents

to see the distance between the two pits.

6.

From the File tools menu, select Transformations, then 2D transformation of string file. Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

7.

Note: Old points are the coordinates in the mine coordinate system; New points are the coordinates in the national coordinate system. Note: You have entered a Z correction of -750 here because pit2 is 750 meters below pit1.

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8.

Verify that the transformation parameters are correct.

If the grids are plane metric grids, the scale factor should be 1.0. Any variation represents an error. In our example, we have an error of 5 mm in 10 metres. Note: By default the rotation is displayed in DDD.MMSS format. Shift Y is the difference between Y1 (old) and Y1 (new) as entered on the first form. Shift X is the difference in easting between X1 (old) and X1 (new). In other words, the shifts are the difference in northing and easting between the coordinates of the first point in the two systems. 9. Click Accept these adjustments and click Apply.

10. 11.

Reset graphics by clicking

View the result of the transformation: a. Open the files pit1.str, transformed_pit1.str and pit2.str in graphics. b. Zoom to the data extents by clicking .

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At the top of the screen you can now see both pits in the same coordinate system. Notice both the shift and rotation for transformed_pit1.str.

Polygon Intersection
In Surpac, you can use the Intersect polygons function to calculate the area of an ore zone within, or outside of, a pit boundary. This function creates a new closed shape from two existing closed shapes by performing an intersection, outersection, or union operation. Operation Intersection Example of Usage Determining the area which is common to two closed strings. By intersecting two closed strings you produce a string which has one or more segments which represent the area common to the two strings. Determining the material which might remain after an excavation is completed, for example the excavation of an open pit. Joining two strings together to represent the total area of both strings, for example to represent the shape which will remain after two intersecting pits are excavated.

Outersection Union

In the polygon intersection process, one of the closed strings is the intersecting string and the other is the intersected string. In outersection operations, the order in which you specify the strings affects the resultant string.

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Task: Intersect Polygons to Calculate the Area of an Ore Body within a Pit Boundary When you know the area of an ore body in a bench you can do other useful calculations, such as an ore volume calculation. 1. 2. 3. Clear graphics. Open bench105.str. From the Display menu, select Strings, and then With string numbers.

4. 5.

From the File Tools menu, select Intersect polygons. Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

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Note: By filling in the form as shown above, you have identified string 30005 as the intersecting polygon and strings 1, 2 and 3 as the intersected polygons. Surpac creates a new file, int_bench105.str, which shows the areas of the pit bodies that are within the pit. 6. 7. Clear graphics. Open int_bench105.str.

8.

For each ore body, select the segment that represents it in graphics. The area is shown in the Properties pane.

The next example involves using the polygon intersection function to determine which parts of an ore block are inside an open pit.

Task: Clip Ore Blocks Inside a Pit 1. 2. Clear graphics. Open kbb135.str.

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This file shows the ore blocks at the 135 elevation of an open pit. 3. Hold down CTRL and drag the file con135.str into graphics to append it to the same layer. This file is the outline contour of the open pit at the 135 elevation. Notice that some of the ore blocks are outside the pit boundary.

4. 5.

From the File tools menu, select Intersect polygons. Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

Note: String range 1,5 specifies that the pit boundary will intersect with all strings numbered from 1 to 5 (there are 5 strings in kbb135.str that collectively represent the ore blocks).

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6. 7.

Click Reset graphics

Open kbi135.str to show the ore blocks that are inside the pit and open con135.str to see the pit boundary.

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Advanced Interface Operations


Overview The following concepts are presented in this chapter: Displaying and customising menus. Customising toolbars and buttons. Using and creating profiles. Using the function chooser. Working with forms. Configuring windows and panes in the interface.

Menu Bars, Menus and Commands


If you do not understand the meaning of the terms menu bar, menu and command, you could easily become confused when you try to create a customised menu bar. The following image shows the Main (Short) menu bar. It contains several menus: File, Edit, Create, Display, View, Inquire, File tools, Surfaces, Volumes, Plotting, Customise and Help.

Each menu contains commands (or menu items, which means the same thing). The commands are located on the menu or on a submenu. For example, the Plotting menu contains the Autoplot, Plotting window, Plotting sheet setup window and Print plot file commands, and it also contains the Entity, Map, Process, and Plotting contours submenus. Each submenu contains more commands.

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Displaying and Customising Menu Bars


You can activate most Surpac functions using the menu system. A black triangle submenu. on the right side of a menu item indicates that you can select it to display a

To see the list of menu bars and toolbars you can view, right-click in empty space on the menu bar or in the toolbar region.

The preceding image indicates that the Blast design menu bar and the Main (Short) menu bar are currently displayed. Click on a menu bar to switch between displaying it and hiding it. In Surpac you can also create your own customised menu bars or toolbars to group together the functions that you use frequently, or to group together all the functions that you need to use to do a specific task.

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Task: Create a Customised Menu Bar 1. From the Customise menu, select Customise menus/toolbars.

2.

To create a new menu bar, right-click on Menubars under User Menus/Toolbars and select New from the list.

3.

To rename the menu bar: a. b. c. d. Right-click MenuBar_1. Select Edit from the list. Type pit_design. Press ENTER.

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4.

Select the menus to place in the menu bar: a. Expand the Surface design menu bar.

b.

Hold down CTRL and select the Pit Design, Expand segment and Expand string folders.

c. d.

Click Copy. Select the new pit_design menu bar.

e. f.

Click Paste. Click Apply.

The pit_design menu bar floats above the Surpac window. 5. Drag the pit_design menu bar to a location where there is some space at the top of the Surpac window.

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Customising Toolbars and Buttons


Task: Display Toolbars and Create a Customised Toolbar You might find that you only are using only a small number of the digitising functions, for example, Start new string, Start new segment, Digitise New Point at Mouse Location, New midpoint and Close current segment. You could create a toolbar that has only the functions that you need by taking a copy of the Digitise toolbar, removing some of the functions from it and adding the New Midpoint function to it. 1. 2. Right-click in some empty space anywhere in the menu bar or toolbar region. Select Toolbars to see which toolbars are currently displayed.

3. 4.

From the Customise menu, select Customise menus/toolbars. To create a new toolbar, right-click on the Toolbars folder (under User Menus/Toolbars) and select New from the list. This will create a new menu, called Toolbar1.

5. 6.

Right-click on Toolbar1 and select Edit. Type pit_design and press ENTER.

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7.

Under Surpac Menus/Toolbars, expand the Surface design toolbar.

8.

Hold down CTRL and select several of the surface design commands.

9. 10.

Click Copy. Select the new pit_design toolbar and click Paste.

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Task: Creating a Custom Button to Put on a Toolbar 1. 2. 3. From the Customise menu, select Customise menus/toolbars. In the Modify menus and toolbars dialog box, select your toolbar and click New. Fill in the form as shown in the following image and click Apply to create a new button on the designated toolbar. Note: To fill in the Command field you will have to click the Ellipsis button and navigate to a TCL file. Similarly, to fill in the Image field, you must click the adjacent Ellipsis button and navigate to an icon file in the icons folder.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Click Apply in the Modify menus and toolbars dialog box. Right-click in an empty area near the toolbars. From the Toolbars menu, select pit_design. Drag the pit_design toolbar to a location where you can clearly see it.

8.

Move the cursor over the icon on the right of the toolbar to see its ToolTip.

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Using and Creating Profiles


A profile is a set of menus and toolbars grouped together into modules. The profiles are available by right-clicking in the empty space and selecting from the available profiles. Task: Select the geology_database Profile 1. 2. Right-click in the empty space at the top of the Surpac interface. Select Profiles, and then geology_database.

The top of the Surpac window appears similar to the following image.

The interface now contains a new set of menus and toolbars that cover the functionality for processing data from a geological database. Profiles also allow you easy access to all of your customisations.

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Task: Saving your Customisations to a Profile If you are an experienced Surpac user, you might wish to create your own profile to get faster access to the toolbars, menus and commands that you need for your work. 1. Make sure that Surpac is displaying the menu bars and toolbars that you use frequently and that the menu bars and toolbars that you do not need are hidden. Right-click in the empty space at the top of the Surpac window. From the Profiles menu, click Save.

2. 3.

4.

Enter a name for your profile, and then click Apply.

When you open Surpac in the future, you can choose your profile which will reload your customised settings for menus, toolbars and buttons and automatically configure your workspace.

Task: Restoring the Default Profile 1. 2. Right-click the empty space beside the toolbars at the top of the Surpac window. Click Restore.

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Using the Function Chooser


The fastest way for you to run a function is to use the function chooser. You can type an alias into the function chooser to run a function. An alias is an abbreviation of the function name. Task: Run Two Functions from the Function Chooser 1. 2. Drag and drop the file pit_design.str into graphics. Type CS (for Clear Screen) directly into the function chooser at the lower part of the Surpac window.

3.

Press ENTER to run the function. Running the Clear Screen function makes the graphics area empty but, unlike the Reset graphics command, it leaves the data in the layer.

4. 5.

Type the alias DRWS (for Draw Strings) into the function chooser. Fill in the form for the function Draw Strings as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

The pit is shown in graphics again. Note: You can find a complete list of aliases in the files SSI_ETC:short.ssi and SSI_ETC:Surpac.mst.

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Working with Forms


You control how a function works by entering parameters into a form. The terms form and dialog box mean the same thing. The Open File form and its components is a typical form.

By clicking a field on a form, and then right clicking, you see options to help you fill in the form. Last value if blank Selecting this command causes the field to keep the last value you entered when the application does not supply a value. For example, if you select Last value if blank for the Layer field of the Open File form, the text in the Layer field does not change, but if you select Last value if blank for the Location field, the last file name is shown. Last value Selecting this item causes the field to keep the last value regardless of the value that Surpac inserts. For example, if you select Last value in the Layer field of the Open File form, the Layer field displays the name of the layer that you used on the last occasion you used this form. Constant... Selecting this item allows you to enter a value to use for this field every time you use the form. Application Selecting this item causes the field to display the value supplied by Surpac. This is the way that Surpac worked in previous versions.

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Configuring windows and panes in the Interface


You can modify panes in the interface using the three buttons on the top right side of the pane: Toggle floating. Toggle auto-hide. Close.

Toggle floating The Toggle floating button enables you to dock or undock the pane. When the pane is docked it is fixed to an area of the Surpac window, when it is undocked it floats so you can move it to any part of the Surpac window. You can also dock the pane by moving it to one of the edges of the screen, or to an existing pane. To restore the pane to its original position, click again on the Toggle floating button or rightclick on the top part of the pane and click Floating.

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Toggle auto-hide The Toggle auto-hide button enables you to hide the pane so that you have more workspace for other panes.

When you click Toggle auto-hide, the pane is minimised and attached to the side of the Surpac window. The following image shows the Properties pane attached to the side of the Surpac window.

To show the pane when it is minimised, move the cursor over the minimised pane. To restore the pane to its original position, click Toggle auto-hide again.

Close To close a pane, click the x button in the top right corner.

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To restore a pane that you have closed, select View, then Dockable windows and click on the pane that you want to restore. In the example below, the Tools properties pane was closed, so it is not selected as a dockable window. By clicking on Tool properties, you can restore the pane to its original position.

To restore the whole interface to its original state, right-click an empty area in the toolbar region, and click Restore. Then click Apply.

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More Surpac Functions


Overview This chapter presents the following concepts: Drillhole Database. Block Models. Plotting with Autoplot.

Drillhole Database
You can display drillhole data in Surpac to help you see where there are high concentrations of ore in a section. This can help you create input for the block model. In the following task, the drillhole data is stored in a relational database, specifically an MS Access database called surpac.mdb.

Task: Open a Database, Display the Drill Holes and Create Sections 1. 2. Click Reset graphics to clear the graphics window.

Open the surpac.ddb file by dragging it into the graphics area. A new icon appears on the Status bar which indicates that the drillhole database is now ready to be used.

Note: Surpac.ddb connects Surpac to the Surpac.mdb database. 3. Click the surpac icon on the Status bar and select Display drillholes.

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4.

Click the Labels tab, select the sample table and select the gold field.

Note: Because you filled in the table as shown in the previous image, the drill holes will be displayed with labels for gold levels. The labels will appear on the right side of the drill holes, with the formatting that you have specified here. 5. 6. Click Apply. In the empty Define Query Constraints form, click Apply.

Note: No constraints apply to the query so all the drillholes in the database are shown.

7.

From the Display menu, select 2D Grid.

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8.

Enter a grid line interval of 40 and 40 in the X and Y directions, and click Apply.

Next, you will show a section of drillholes from 7260N to 7300N. 9. From the Database menu, select Sections and then Define.

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10.

On the Section Method tab, enter the data as shown below, and click Apply.

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11.

From the View menu, select Zoom and then In.

Different sample values are displayed using different colours. These colours are controlled by a styles table in the database. 12. Click the Surpac icon at the bottom of the screen, and then click Drillhole display styles. Expand the tree to see the display attributes for gold.

13.

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Block Models
The block model is a powerful dataset that contains 3D spatial information such as grade values, geological units, geophysical attributes, geotechnical information, optimisation values, design data, scheduling information, and haulage distances. The data is stored in blocks of a pre-defined size and spatial area. The number of attributes included in a block model is unlimited, and the type of information stored is diverse.

Task: Display, Constrain, and Report a Block Model 1. 2. Click Reset graphics to clear the graphics window.

Open the block_model.mdl file by dragging it into graphics. The block_model icon appears in the Status bar. You can now display and report information in the block model.

3. 4.

Click the block_model icon, and then select Display. Fill the form in as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

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The entire block model is displayed in graphics.

Next, you will remove the outer blocks from view to show only the ore body. 5. Click the Block model icon, and then select New constraint. Constraints are a powerful way to define related parts of a block model, such as blocks inside an ore zone. Constraints can help you visualise ore bodies and produce reports and resource estimates. 6. Select constraint type BLOCK and then fill in the three input boxes below so that the constraint is gold > 0.

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7.

Click Add to add the constraint, and then click Apply.

The model displays only those blocks that contain gold. Next, you will colour the blocks by their gold values. 8. 9. 10. 11. Click the Block model icon, and then select Colour by attribute. Select gold for the Attribute to colour by. Select the Apply transition when scanning box. Click Scan to load a palette of default colours that Surpac will use to colour the block.

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12.

Click Apply.

13.

From the Block Model menu, select Display, then Edge and face visibility.

14.

Clear Display block edges, and click Apply.

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The model is displayed without block edges.

15. 16.

From the Block Model menu, select Attributes, then View attribute for one block. Click a block to see the values contained within it.

17.

Click Cancel to close the Block Attributes dialog box. Next, you will create a report of the volume, tonnes, and average gold grade.

18. 19.

From the Block model menu, select Block Model, and then Report. Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

Note: We have chosen CSV output because you can easily import a CSV file into a spreadsheet for further processing.

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20.

Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

Note: To add a new report attribute row, right-click below the row and select Add.

The report format you have specified is now stored in the rformat1.bmr file so you can easily produce future reports of this type. This report shows a gold by Average measurement (g/t) and also a gold by Aggregate measurement that shows total grams contained.

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21.

Fill in the form as shown in the following image, and click Apply.

A report is produced that shows the volume, tonnes and gold values for each grade range. Surpac Minex Group Jul 27 Block Model Report My first block model report Constraints Used a. > BLOCK gold 0 Keep blocks partially in the constraint : False 2006

Gold 0.0 -> 1.0 1.0 -> 2.5 2.5 -> 5.0 5.0 -> 999.0 Grand Total

Volume 1177375 1057750 218375 76375 2529875

Tonnes 3446795 3054470 646390 226070 7373725

Gold 0.4 1.62 3.16 6.79 1.34

Gold 1367051 4955674 2044325 1536046 9903096

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Plotting with Autoplot


There are two modules for plotting in Surpac. Autoplot is a module that produces plot files from information displayed in graphics. The Advanced plotting module allows you to produce more complex plots or batch plots.

This section of this document describes Autoplot only. Task: Produce a Plot of a Pit Using Autoplot 1. 2. 3. 4. Click the icon.

Open the file pit_design.str by dragging the file into the graphics window. From the Plotting menu, select Autoplot. Enter the values as shown below, and click Apply. Note: Make sure you select the box to Lock X/Y scale.

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5.

On the following form, enter the title block text, and click Apply.

A box representing the page size appears around the data in graphics.

6. 7.

Drag this box so that the pit is in the centre. Press F2 when the page borders are in the location you want.

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8.

Enter the grid type and grid spacing required for the plot as shown in the following image, and then click Apply.

The plot is displayed in the plot preview window. You can now edit or add information to the plot using the Edit and Create menus.

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