SOLUTIONS MANUAL
Bioprocess Engineering Principles
Pauline M. Doran
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SOLUTIONS MANUAL
Bioprocess Engineering Principles
Pauline M. Doran
University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
ISBN 0 7334 15474
© Pauline M. Doran 1997
Table of Contents Solutions
Page
Chapter 2 
Introduction to Engineering Calculations 
1 

_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} 
_{3} 
Presentation and Analysis ofData 
9 
Chapter 4 
Material Balances 
17 

ChapterS 
Energy Balances 
41 

_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} 
_{6} 
UnsteadyState Material and Energy Balances 
54 
Chapter 7 
Fluid Flow and Mixing 
76 

_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{8} 
Heat Transfer 
86 

_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{9} 
Mass Transfer 
_{'}_{9}_{8} 

Chapter 10 
Unit Operations 
106 

Chapter 11 
Homogeneous Reactions 
122 

Chapter 12 
Heterogeneous Reactions 
_{1}_{3}_{9} 

Chapter 
13 
Reactor Engineering 
151 
NOTE
All equations, tables, figures, page numbers, etc., mentioned in this manual refer to the textbook,
Bioprocess Engineering Principles.
Introduction to Engineering Calculations
2.1 Unit conversion
(a)
From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1 cP::::: 1O~3 kg m I k ^{1} 1 m= lOOcrn
Therefore:
1.5 x106 cP ::::: 1.5 x 106 cP ,1 ^{1}^{0}  ^{3} k t ^{g} ;1 sll.ll~~mI= 1.5 x 10 ^{1}^{1} kg s1 cm ^{1}
Answer: 1.5 x 10 11 kg s1 em t
(b)
From Table A.S (Appendix A): 1 bp (British)::::: 42.41 Btu minI Therefore:
Answer: 5.17 Btu min 1
(e)
From Table A.S (Appendix. A): 1 mmHg:= 1.316 x 10 3 attn
From Table A.I (Appendix A): 1 ft = 0.3048 m
From Table A.7 (Appendix A): 11 atm =9.604 x 10 ^{2} Btu
From Table A8 (Appendix A):
Im=lOOcm
11= lOOOcm ^{3}
Ih=60min
Therefore:
1 Btu minI::::: 2.391 x
to 2 metric horsepower
670mmHgft ^{3} = 670 mmHg ft3 .11.316X10 ^{3} atml.19.604X1O2Btul.I°.3048m1 ^{3}
1 mmHg
llatm
^{2} .391 x 10 ^{2} metric horsepowerI _{I} I h
1 1Btu min
1
.
60.
mm
1 it
_{I}
956
= ,
Answer: 9.56 x 104 metric horsepower h
(d)
From Table A.7 (Appendix A): 1 Btu =0.2520 kcal
From Table A.3 (Appendix A): Ilb = 453.6 g
Therefore:
x
1 100 em 1 ^{3}
1 m
104
metric
.
1
11
lOOOcm3
I.
h
orsepower
h
345 Btu Ib ^{1} = 345 Btulb ^{1} .1o.2i~~Call·14;3~: g I = O.192kcal gl
Answer: 0.192 kcal g1
2.2 Unit conversion
Case 1
Convert to units of kg, m, s.
From Table AJ (Appendix A), lIb = 0.4536 kg
_{2}
Solutions: Chapter 2
From Table A.2 (Appendix A): 1
From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1 cP::: 10 ^{3} kg m ^{l} s·l
1 rn= tOOcm= lOOOmm
Therefore, using Eq. (2.1):
tt3 =: 2.832 x 10 ^{2} m ^{3}
Dup
Re::: p
=
(
3
2mm.1 1m n(3cmsl.l~n(251bfC3I0.4536kgl.1 Ift
l000mmU
l00cmU
I
.
10
3
kgm
1cP
_{1}_{0} 6 P c
1
s
11
lIb
2.832 x 10 2 _{m} 3U _
~
 2.4 x 10
Answer: 2.4 x 10 ^{7}
ease 2
Convert to units of kg, m, s.
From Table Al (Appendix A): 1 in.::: 2.54 x 10 ^{2} m
From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1
Ih=3600s
Therefore, usingEq. (2.1):
Ibm ftI h ^{1} ::: 4.134 x 104 kg mt s·t
Answer: 1.5 x 104
13~sl
=
1.5 x 10 ^{4}
7
2.3 Dimensionless groups and property data
From the Chemical Engineers' Handbook, the diffusivity of oxygen in water at 2S"C is 2.5 x 10 ^{5} cm ^{2} s·l. Assuming
this is the same at 28"C, !lJ= 2.5 x 10 ^{5} cm ^{1} s·t, Also, from the Chemical Engineers' Handbook, the density of water
at 28"e is PL ::: 0.9962652 g cm ^{3} _{,} and the viscosity of water at 28"C is JlL::: 0.87 cPo The density of oxygen at 28°C and 1 atm pressure can be calculated using the ideal gas law. As molar density is the same as n,V, from Eq. (2.32):
Temperature in the ideal gas equation is absolute temperature; therefore, from Eq. (2.24):
T = (28 + 273.15) K = 301.15 K
From Table 2.5, R "" 82.057 cm ^{3} atm KI gmol~l. Substituting parameter values into the density equation gives:
Pa
""
L
RT
""
latm
(82.057cm ^{3} almK:""1 gmol 1)(301.15K)
"" 4.05 x 10 ^{5} gmolcm ^{3}
From the atomie weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of oxygen is 32.0. for Pa to mass tenns:
Converting the result
Pa "" 4.05 ^{x} lO ^{5}^{g}^{m} olem ^{3} ·1 i~~~ll "" l.30XlO ^{3} gcm ^{3}
From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1 eP "" 10 ^{2} g cm~l sl; from Table A.l (Appendix A): 1 ft "" 0.3048 m "" 30.48 cm. The parameter values and conversion factors, together with Db "" 2 mm "" 0.2 em, can now be used to calculate the dimensionless groups in the equation for the Sherwood number.
Solutions,' Chapter 2
3
Therefore:
S_J1.L_
c 
PrJ) 
0,87eP.
1'0
2
1 11
s
gem
leP
349
(0.9962652g cn,3)(2.5 x 10 5 em 2 s I) 
From the equation for _{S}_{h}_{:}
k
Answer: lAO x 10~3em s·1
_Sh:lJ_(ll.21(2.5xl05cm2sI)_I·A
02
L
D1J
,<tUX
.
em
103
I
ems
2.4 Mass and weight
From the definition of density on p 16, mass is equal to volume multiplied by density, Therefore:
From p 16, weight isthe force with wrncha body is attracted to the centre of the earth by gravity.
Newton's law(p 15), this force is equal to the mass of the body multiplied by the gravitational acceleration.
According to
(a)
From pIS, at sea level and 45° latitude. gravitational acceleration g = 32.174 it s2. Therefore:
Weight:::: 624 Ibm (32.174 ft s2) = 2.008x 104 Ibm it s·Z
Converting these units to lbj' from Eq. (2.16), 1lbf= 32,174 Ibm it s·2; therefore:
4
Weight = 2.008 x 10
lbmfts
2
,
llbf
32.174Ib _{m} ft s
2
.= 6241b _{f}
Answer: 624lbI When g :::: 32.174 ft s·2, the number of lb mass is equal to the number of lb force,
(b)
From Table A.I (Appendix A): 1 m= 3.281 ft. Using the same procedure as in (a):
Weight = 624 Ibm (9.76 m sZ .13.2~ft~= 1.998 x 10 ^{4} Ibm fts ^{Z}
Converting to Ibf 

4 Weight = 1.998 x 10 
lbmfts 
2 
llbf 
= 6211bf 

. 

32.1741b _{m} ft s2 

Answer: 621lbf 
2.5 Dimensionless numbers
First, evaluate the units of the groups cCP J.ll _{k} _{)} and (D G1p):
(ep ")
Umtsof 
.
::::
(Bmlb
I
'1'1) Ibh
I
ft
I
= 1
k BIUh1 ft2('Pft1tl
UnilsOf(DG) = (ftllbh ^{1} ft ^{2} = 1
J1.
Ibh1ft1
_{4}
Solutions: Chapter 2
Therefore, these groups are dimensionless. For the equation to be dimensionally homogeneous, (hIC _{p} G) must also be
dimensionless; the units of h must therefore cancel the units of C _{p} G.
Unitsofh "'" unitsofCpG "'" (Btulb ^{1} "pl)(1bh ^{1} fr 2 ) "'" Btu "Fl h ^{1} ft ^{2}
The dimensions of h can be deduced from its units.
From Table A.7 (Appendix A), Btu is a unit of energy with
dimensions "'" L2Ml2. OF is a unit of temperature which, from Table 2.1, has the dimensional symbol E>. h is a unit of time with dimension"'" T; ft is a unit of length with dimension"'" L. Therefore:
Dimensions of h = L2M'l2 aI 1'"1 L2 = MT" 3 e 1
Answer: Units = Btu opi h 1 ft2; dimensions =Ml 3 e 1
2.6 Dimensional homogeneity and Cc
From Table A8 (Appendix A), dimensions of P = L2MT"3 Dimensions of g = LTz Dimensions of p =ML·3
Dimensions of Di "'" L
From p 11, the dimensions oirotational speed, Nj =T!; from p 15, the dimensions of gc= 1. Therefore:
As Np is a dimensionless number, equation (i) is not dimensionally homogeneous and therefore cannot be correct.
Equation (ii) is dimensionally homogeneous and therefore likely to be correct
Answer: (li)
2.7 Molar units
From the atomic weights in Table Rl (Appendix B), the molecular weight of NaOH is 40.0.
(a)
FromEq. (2.19):
Answer: 050 lbmol
lb moles NaOH =
20.0 lb
4O.0lblbmol 1
= 050 lbmol
(b)
From Table A.3 (Appendix A): lIb =453.6 g. Therefore:
From Eq. (2.18):
Answer: 227 gmol
20.01b = 20.0Ib. lib 453.6gl
1
= 9072 g
gram moles NaOH =
9072g
4O.0g gmol
I = 227 grool
(c)
From p 16, 1 kgmol::::: 1000 gmot. Therefore, from (b):
.
Solutions: Chapter 2
5
Answer: 0.227 kgmol
kg molesNaOR = 227 gmol.
1
1000 1 kgmol gmol
I
= 0.227 kgmol
2.8 Density and specific gravity
(a)
From p 16, the density of water at 4°C can be taken as exactly 1 g cm 3 . Therefore, for a substance with specific gravity L5129i~,the density at 20°C is 1.5129 g cm*3,
(I)
lkg=l000g
1 m: 100cm Therefore:
Answer: 1512.9 kg m 3
(il)
From the atomic weights in Table 8.1 (Appendix B), the molecular weight of nitric acid (RN03) is 63.0. RNO" from Eq. (2.18)0
gram moles :
LS129g
1
:
0.0240 gmot
63.0ggmor
In 1 cm ^{3}
Therefore, the molar density is 0.0240 gmol cm ^{3} . From the definition of specific volume on p 16:
Molar specific volume
:
Answer: 41.67 cm 3 gmoll
1
mo ar
d ^{1}
.
:
enslty
.,
0.0240 gmol em 3
,,1::::; :
41.67cm ^{3} gmor ^{1}
(b)
(I)
From p 16, as density is defined as the mass per unit volume, the mass flow rate is equal to the volumetric flow rate multiplied by the density:
Answer: 80 g min l
(ii)
From the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of carbon tetrachloride, CC14, is 153.8. Using the mass flow rate from (a):
Answer: 0.52 grool min I
Molar flow rate :
80 g min ^{l} .l :5~0~1 = 0.52gmolmin ^{1}
2.9 Molecular weight
From p 17, the composition of air is close to 21 % oxygen and 79% nitrogen. For gases at low pressures, this means 21 mol% 02 and 79 mol% NZ. Therefore, in 1 gmol air, there are 0.21 gmot Oz and 0.79 gmol NZ From the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weights of Oz and NZ are 3Z.0 and 28.0, respectively. The molecular weight of air is equal to the number of grams in 1 gmol:
1 gmolair = 0.21 gmOlOz·1 ;~~ll+ 0.79 gmol NZ ·1 ;~;ll= 28.8g
Answer. 28.8
6
Solutions.' Chapter 2
2.10 Mole fraction
The molecular weights can be obtained from Table B.7 (Appendix B): water 18.0; ethanol 46.1; methanol 32.0;
glycerol 92.1; acetic acid 60.1; benzaldehyde 106.1.
In 100 g solution, there are 30 g water, 25 g ethanol. 15 g
methanol, 12 g glycerol, 10 g acetic acid, 8 g benzaldehyde, and no other components. Therefore:
Moles water = 30 g _I ~r:;~ll= 1.67 gruol
Moles ethanol:: 25 g.1 ~~~ll :: 054 gmol
Molesmethanol:: 15 g _I ;~~ll = 0.47 gmol
Molesglycerol = 12g.
.
IIgmaII
92.1g
= O.13gmol
Moles acetic acid = 10g.1 ~~~II= 0.17 gmol
Moles benzaldehyde: 8 g _I :~o~I = 0.08 gmal
The total number of moles is 1.67 + 0.54 + 0.47 + 0.13 + 0.17 + 0.08:: 3.06 gmal. From Eq. (2.20):
Mole fraction water = ;:~~= 0.55
Mole fraction ethanol = ~:~= 0.18
Mole fraction methanol = ~:~~= 0.15
Mole fraction glycerol = ~:~ = 0.04
Mole fraction acetic acid = ~:~::::: 0.06
Mole fraction benzaldehyde ::::: ~:: ::::: 0.03
Answer: 0.55 water; 0.18 ethanol; 0.15 methanol; 0.04 glycerol; 0.06 acetic acid; 0.03 benzaldehyde
2.11 Temperature scales
From Eq. (2.27\
From Eq. (2.25),
40 ::::: 1.8 T(0C) + 32
Tee) = 40
T (OR) ::::: 40 + 459.67
T(°R) = 420
From Eq. (2.24) and the result for T ("C);
T(K) = 40+273.15
T(K) = 233
2.12 Pressure scales
(a)
Assume that the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi. From Eq. (2.28):
Absolute pressure ::::: 15 psi + 14.7 psi::::: 29,7 psi
Solutions: Chapter 2
7
From Table A.5 (Appendix A): 1 psi = 6.805 x Hy2 atm. Therefore:
Answer: 29.7 psi; 2.02 atm
Absolutepressure = 29.7psl.
.
16.805 x 1 psi 10
^{2} atm 1
= 2.02atm
(b)
From p 19, vacuum pressure is the pressure below atmospheric. If the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi:
Absolutepressure = 14.7psi3psi = IL7psi
Answer: 11.7 psi
2.13 Stoichiometry and incomplete reaction
(a)
The molecular weights are calculated from TableB.l (Appendix B): penicillin = 334.;4; glucose = 180.2. The maximum theoretical yield from the stoichiometric equation is 1 gruol of penicillin for every 1.67 gruol of glucose. 'This is equivalent to 334.4 g penicillin per 1.67 x 180.2 = 300.9 g glucose. or 1.1 g gl.
Answer: 1.1 g g~1
(b)
The maximum theoretical yield in (a) is obtained when all the glucose consumed is directed into penicillin production according to the stoichiometric equation. If only 6% of the glucose is used in this way, the actual yield of penicillin from glucose is much lower, at 334.4 g penicillin per (300.9 x 100/ _{6} ) g glucose, or 0.067 g g~l.
Answer: 0.067 g g1
(c)
From the atomic weights in Table B.I (Appendix B), the molecular weight of phenylacetic acid is 136.2.
(I)
The only possible limiting substrates are glucose and phenylacetic acid. Using a basis of II medium, if (50  5.5) = 44.5 g glucose are consumed but only 6% is available for penicillin synthesis, the mass of glucose used in the penicillin reaction is 44.5 x 6/ _{1}_{0}_{0} =2.67 g. 'This is equivalent to 2.67 g/180.2 g gmol1 =1.48 K 10 ^{2} gmol glucose available for penicillin synthesis. At the same time, 4 g or 4 g/136.2 g gmol1 =2.94 x 10~2gruol phenylacetic acid is available which, according to the stoichiometric equation, requires 1.67 x 2.94 x 10 2 =4.91 x 10 2 gruol glucose for complete reaction. As the gmol glucose required is greater than the gmol glucose available after growth and maintenance activities, glucose is the limiting substrate.
Answer: Glucose
(il)
Of the 44.5 g II glucose consumed, 24% or 10.7 g II is used for growth. In a H~)litretank. the total mass of glucose consumed for growth is therefore 1070 g or 1.07 kg.
Answer: 1.07 kg
(iii)
From (i), 1.48 x 10 ^{2} gmol glucose is used in the penicillin reaction per litre. According to the stoichiometry, this produces 1.48 x 10 ^{2} /1.67 = 8.86 x 1O~3gmol penicillin per litre. Therefore, in a l00litre tank, 0.886 gmol or 0.886 gmol x 334.4 g gmol1 =296 g penicillin are formed.
Answer: 296 g
(iv)
IT, from (i), 1.48 x 10 ^{2} gmol [1 glucose is used in the penicillin reaction, 1.48 x 10 ^{2} /1.67 = 8.86 x 10 3 gmolll phenylacetic acid must also be used. This is equivalent to 8.86 x 10 ^{3} gmolll x 136.2 g gmol1 = 1.21 g t ^{I} phenylacetic acid. As 4 g II are provided, (4  1.21) = 2.79 g I~Iphenylacetic acid must remain.
Answer: 2.79 g II
_{8}
Solutions: Chapter 2
2.14 Stoichiometry, yield and the ideal gas law
(a)
Adding up the numbers of C, H, 0 and N atoms on both sides of the equation shows that the equation is balanced.
Answer: Yes
(b)
The molecular weights are calculated from Table B.I (Appendix B).
Cells: 91.5
Hexadecane: 226.4 From the stoichiometry, as 1 gmol of hexadecane is required to produce 1.65 gmol of cells, the maximum yield is 1.65 gmol x 91.5 g gmoll =: 151 g cells per 226A g hexadecane, or 0.67 g gI,
Answer: 0.67 _{g} g1
(e)
From the atomic weights in Table RI (Appendix B), the molecular weight of oxygen is 32.0. From the stoichiometry, 16.28 gmol of oxygen is required to produce 1.65 gmal of cells which, from (b), is equal to 151 g cells.
The maximum yield is therefore 151 g cells per (16.28 groal x 32.0 g grootI) =: 521 g oxygen, or 0.29 g g1.
Answer: 0.29 g g1
(d)
Production of 2.5 kg cells is equivalent to 2500 g =: 2500 g/91.5 g gmoIl = 27.3 gmol cells. The minimum amounts of substrates are required when 100% of the hexadecane is converted according to the stoichiometric equation.
(I)
From the stoichiometry, production of 27.3 gmol cells requires 27.3/1.65 =16.5 gmol =16.5 gmol x 226.4 g gmolI = 3736 g = 3.74 kg hexadecane.
Answer: 3.74 kg
(il) From the answer in (d)(i), the concentration ofhexadecane required is 3.74 kg in 3 m ^{3} , or 1.25 kg m ^{3} .
Answer: 1.25 kg m ^{3}
(ill)
According to the stoichiometric equation, production of 27.3 gmol cells requires 27.3 x 16.28/1.65 =269.4 gmol oxygen. As air at low pressure contains close to 21 mol% oxygen (p 11), the total moles of air required is 269.410.21 = 1282.9 gmot The volume of air required can be calculated using the ideal gas law. From Eq. (2.32):
V = nRT
p
Temperature in the ideal gas equation is absolute temperature; from Eq. (2.24):
T = (20 +273.15) K = 293.15K
From Table 2.5, _{R} _{"}_{"} 82.057 cm ^{3} atm KI gmolI. Substituting these values into the equation for _{V} gives:
Answer: 31 m ^{3}
v= (1282.9gmolj(82.057cm ^{3} atmK ^{1} gmoll)(293.15Kj 1 atm
.
1.!
"'
1
l00cm
^{3} = 31
3
m
Presentation and Analysis of Data
3.1 Combination of errors
c~ "" 0.25 mol m ^{3}
±4%"= 0.25 ±O.OlOmol m ^{3}
CAL
= 0.183
OTR = O.Qll
mol
mol
m ^{3}
m ^{3}
± 4% =: O.183±O.OO73molm ^{3}
s1 ± 5%
For subtraction, absolute errors are added. TherefOre:
C~ CAL"'" (O.250.183)±{O.OlO+0.0073)molm ^{3} "'" O.067±O.0173molm ^{3} =: 0.067 molm ^{3} ± 25.8%
For division, relative errors are added. Therefore:
kLa =: o.OllmOlm3~1 ±{25.8 + 5)% =O.16s 1 ±31% = O.16± 0.05 sl
O.Q67molm
Answer~ 31 %.
This example illustrates how a combination of small measurement errors can result in a relatively
large uncertainty in the final result.
3.2 Mean and standard deviation
(a)
The best estimate is the mean, X. FromEq. (3.1):
x = 5.15+5.45+5.50+5.35 = 5.36
Answer: 5.36
(b)
Calculate the standard deviation from Eq. (3.2):
(5.15  5.36)' + (5.45  5.36)' + (5.50 5.36)' + (5.35  5.36)'
41
= 0.15
Answer. The standard deviation is 0.15. Note that standard error, which can be calculated from the standard deviation, is a more direct indication of the precision of a mean.
(c)
x = 5.15 +5.45 = 5.30
2
Standard deviation is not appropriate for expressing the accuracy of a mean evaluated using only two samples. In this case the maximum error, Le. the difference between the mean and either of the two measured values, might be used instead. The maximum error in this example is (5.30  5.15) =0.15.
Answer. 5.30; an indication of the accuracy is ± 0.15
(d)
x= 5.15+5.45+5.50+5.35+5.15+5.45+5.50+5.35 = 5.36
_{1}_{0}
Solutions: Chapter 3
2 (S.lS S.36f + 2(S.4SS.36)~+ ~(S.50S.36f +2(S.3S S.36)2
= 0.14
Answer: The best estimate of optimal pH is unchanged at 5.36, but the standard deviation is slightly lower at 0.14.
This example illustrates that although the standard deviation decreases as the number of measurements is increased, (j is not strongly dependent on n. The best way to improve the reliability of the mean is to ensure that the individual measurements are as intrinsically accurate as possible, rather thanrepeat the measurement many times.
3.3 Linear and nonlinear models
(a)
Xl = 1; Yl =10
X2=8;Y2=0.5
A straight line plot of y versus x on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq. (3.6).
Eqs (3.7) and (3.8),
A = (YzY1) = 0.510 =136
Answer: y = 1.36 x + 11.4
(h) 

Xl 
= 3.2; Yl =14.5 
(x2
Xl)
81
.
B = YIAxi
= 10(1.36)1 = 11.4
From
);2 = 8.9; Y2 = 38.5
A straight line plot of y versus x Ih on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using the equation:
with A and B given by the equations:
A
=
Y=Axlh+B
YrY1
112_
x2
112
Xl
= 
38.514.S 
= 201 

89Ih_32'k 
. 

. 
, 
B = YIAxi ^{h} = 14.520.1(3.2 ^{1}^{1}^{2} ) = 21.5
Answer:y=20.1x
(0)
'k
21.5
Xl=5;Yl=6
X2= l;Y2=3
A straight line plot of Ity versus xl on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using the equation:
with A and B given by the equations:
_{A}
lly = Ax ^{2} +B
_{=} lin  Ity}
2
2
x2xl
1/3 lI6
= 
2 
2 
=6.9xlO 

1 
5 
3
B = 1/ _{y}_{1} Ax; = 1/6(Mx 1O ^{3} )<S2) = 0.34
Answer: l/y = 6.9 x 10 ^{3} xl + 0.34
(d)
Xl=0.5;Yl=25
x2 =550; Y2 =2600
A straight line plot of y versus x on loglog coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq, (3.10).
From Eqs (3.13) and (3.14),
Solutions: Chapter 3
11
A = (lnY2 ^{l}^{n} Yl) = ln2600ln25 = 0.663
(lnx2lnxI)
ln5501nO.5
lnB = InYIAlnxl =ln25(0.663}ln0.5 = 3.678
Answer: Y= 39.6 x ^{O} .
663
B = e 3 . 678
= 39.6
(eJ
Xl = 1.5; YI = 2.5 X2 = 10; Y2 = 0.036
A straight line' plot of y,versus X on semi·log coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq. (3.15).
From Eqs (3.17) and (3.18):
A = (lnY2 ^{l}^{n} YI) = lnO.036ln2.5 =0.50
(x2  xl)
10 
1.5
In B 
= 
In Y1 
 A Xl 
= In 2.5  (o.50J 1.5 
= 
1.666 

B 
= 
el. ^{6}^{6}^{6} = 5.29 
Answer: Y= 5.29 eo.s Ox
3.4 Linear curve fitting
(aJ
The results determined using Eqs (3.1) and (3.2) are listed below.
Sucrose concentration (g l~l) 
Mean peak area 
Standard deviation 
6.0 
56.84 
1.21 
12.0 
112.82 
2.06 
18.0 
170.63 
2.54 
24.0 
232.74 
1.80 
30.0 
302.04 
2.21 
(bJ
_{1}_{2}
Solutions: Chapter 3
(e)
The linear least squares fit of the data is:
y ::: 0,098 x + 0,83
Answer: y "'" 0.098 x + 0.83, where y is sucrose concentration in g 11 and x is peak area.
(d)
For x::: 209,86, the equation in (c) gives a sucrose concentration oi2IA g II.
Answer: 21.4 g II
3.5 Nonlinear model: calcnlation of parameters
(a)
The proposed model equation has the general form of Eq. (3.15); therefore, if the model is suitable, a plot of a versus
lIT on semilogarithmic coordinates will give a straight line.
As T in the equation is absolute temperature, "'c must
first be converted to degrees Kelvin using Eq. (2.24). The data are listed and plotted below.
Temperature (0C) 
Temperature (K) 
IIT(Kl) 
Relative mutation frequency. a 

_{1}_{5} 
_{2}_{8}_{8}_{.}_{1}_{5} 
3.47 
x 
10 ^{3} 
4.4 x 10 ^{1}^{5} 

20 
293.15 
3.41 x 
lO ^{w}^{3} 
2.0x 
10 ^{1}^{4} 

25 
298.15 
3.35 x 
leT ^{3} 
8.6x 10 14 

_{3}_{0} 
303.15 
3.30 
x 
lfr·3 
3.5 x 
Jer ^{I}^{3} 
_{3}_{5} 
_{3}_{0}_{8}_{.}_{1}_{5} 
_{3}_{.}_{2}_{5} _{x} _{1}_{0}_{} 3 
lAx 
}0"'12 
As the data give a straight line on semi~logarithmiccoordinates, the model can be considered to fit the data well.
(b)
The equation for the straight line in (a) is:
y =: 9.66 x 10 24 e 26 ,12lx
where y is relative mutation frequency and x is reciprocal temperature in units of K~l. For dimensional homogeneity the exponent must be dimensionless (p 12), so that 26,121 has units of K, and EIR in the model equation is equal to 26,121 K From Table 2.5, R =: 8.3144 J gmoll K·1; therefore:
E =: (26,121 K) (8.3144 J gmol~l K*l) =: 217,180.4 J gmol1 =: 217.2 kJ gmot 1
Solutions: Chapter 3
13
Answer: 217.2 kJ gmoll
(c)
From the equation in (b) for the straight line, ao is equal to 9.66 x 10Z4.
Answer: 9.66 X 1024
3.6 Linear regression: distribution of residuals
(aJ
Decrease in medium conductivity (mS cm 1 )
The linear least squares fit of the data is:
y =: 1.58 + 2.10x
where yis increase in biomass concentration in g r ^{1} and xis decrease in medium conductivity in mS cm~l.
(b)
The residuals are calculated as the difference between the measured values for increase in biomass concentration and the values for y obtained from the equation in (a).
Decrease in medium conductivity (mS
Residual
o 
1.58 
0.12 
0.57 
0.31 
!l.23 
0.41 
0.36 
0.82 
1.20 
1.03 
1.36 
lAO 
1.28 
1.91 
0041 
2.11 
0.19 
2.42 
0.46 
2.44 
!l.50 
2.74 
!l.73 
2.91 
1.69 
3.53 
1.99 
4.39 
1.00 
5.21 
1.48 
5.24 
0.02 
5.55 
1.37 
_{1}_{4}
Solutions: Chapter 3
These results are plotted below.
The residuals are not randomly distributed: they are mainly positive at low values of decrease in medium
conductivity, then negative, then positive again. Therefore, the straight line fit of the data cannot be considered a very
good one.
3.7 Discriminating between rival models
(aJ
The results are plotted using linear coordinates below.
The data are reasonably well fitted using a linear model. The linear least squares equation for the straight line fit is:
y = 0.054 + 0.466 x
where y is liquid superficial velocity in m sl andx is gas superficial velocity in m s·l.
The sum of the squares of the
residuals between the measured values for liquid superficial velocity and the values for y obtained from the above equation is 8.4 x 10 5 ,
Solutions: Chapter 3
15
(b)
The proposed power law equation has the same form as Eq. (3.10). Therefore, if the power law model is suitable. the data should give a straight line when plotted on loglog coordinates.
0.01
^{o}^{m}
^{0}^{.}^{1}
Gas superficial velocity, u _{G} (m s·1)
The data are reasonably well fitted using a power law modeL The equation for the straight line in the plot is:
y
= 0.199 x O
.
309
where y is liquid superficial velocity in m s·l andx is gas superficial velocity in m s·l. The sum of the squares of the residuals between the measured values for liquid superficial velocity and the values obtained from the above equation is 4.2 x 10 5 .
«)
The non·linear model is better because the sum of squares of the residuals is smaller.
3.8 Nonlinear model: calculation of parameters
(a), (b) The proposed model equation has the same form as Eq; (3.15). Therefore, if the model is suitable, the data should give a straight line when plotted on semilogarithmic coordinates.
16
Solutions: Chapter 3
(c), (d)
The equation for the straight line in the figure is:
y =. 2.13 x 104 eO.353x
where y is the number of viable cells and x is time in min.
As the exponent must be dimensionless to preserve
dimensional homogeneity (p 12), the dimensions of kd are Tt; therefore k(! =. 0353 minI, The dimensions of No are the same as N, i.e, No is dimensionless and equal to 2.13 x 104.
Answer: kd =. 0.353 minI. No =. 2.13 x 104; the dimensions of ka. are T"l, No is dimensionless
Material Balances
4.1 
Cell concentration using membranes 
L 
Assemble 
(i) 
Flow sheet 
Buffer solution in
80 kg min 1
Cell concentrate
6% bacteria
I 
I 

I 
I 

I 
Hollowfibre membranes 
I 
Buffer solution out 

I 
I 
Fennentation broth 

I 
I 
350 
kg min 1 

1% bacteria 

99% water 
(li) System boundary
The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.
(iii) Reaction equation
No reaction occurs.
2. 
Analyse 
(i) 
Assumptions 
 steady state
no leaks
 only water passes across the membrane
(ii) Extra data
No extra data are required.
(ill) Basis
1 min, or 350 kg fennentation broth
(iv) Compounds involved in reaction
No compounds are involved in reaction.
(v) Massbalance equation
As there is no reaction, the appropriate massbalance equation is Eq. (4.3):
3.
Calculate
mass in = mass out
(i) Calculation table
The calculation table below shows all given quantities in kg. The total mass of cell concentrate is denoted c; the total mass of buffer out is denoted B. The columns for water refer to water originating in the fermentation broth.
_{1}_{8}
Solutions: Chapter 4
In
Out
Stream 

Water 
Bacteria 
Buffer 
Total 
Water 
Bacteria 
Buffer 
Total 

Fermentation 
346.5 
3.5 
0 
350 

broth 

Buffer solution in Cell concentrate 
_{0} 
_{0} 
80 
80 
? 
O.06C 
0 
C 

Buffer solution 
? 
0 
80 
B 

out 

Total 
346.5 
3.5 
80 
430 
? 
0.06C 
80 
C+B 
(li) Massbalance calculations
^{B}^{a}^{c}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{i}^{a} ^{b}^{a}^{l}^{a}^{n}^{c}^{e} 

3.5 kg bacteria 
in "'" 0.06 C kg bacteria out 

C 
= 58.3 kg 

Total mass balance 
430 kg total mass in = (C + B) kg total mass out
Using the result for C:
^{W}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{r} ^{b}^{a}^{l}^{a}^{n}^{c}^{e}
B
"'" 371.7 kg
346.5 kg water in = water out
Water out = 346.5 kg
These calculations allow completion of the mass~balance table with all quantities in kg.
Stream 
In 
Out 

Water 
Bacteria 
814fer 
Total 
Water 
Bacteria 
Buffer 
Total 

Fennentation 
346.5 
3.5 
0 
350 

broth Buffer solution in 
_{0} 
_{0} 
_{8}_{0} 
_{8}_{0} 

Cell concentrate 
_{5}_{4}_{.}_{8} 
_{3}_{.}_{5}_{0} 
_{0} 
58.3 

Buffer solution 
291.7 
0 
80 
371.7 

out 

Total 
346.5 
3.5 
80 
430 
346.5 
3.50 
80 
430 
(iii) Check the results
All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.
4.
(a)
After rounding to three significant figures, the total flow rate of buffer solution out of the annulus is 372 kg minI.
Finalise
Answer: 372 kg min,t
(b)
The total flow rate of cell concentrate from the membrane tubes is 58.3 kg minI.
Answer. 58.3 kg min· I
Solutions: Chapter 4
_{1}_{9}
4.2 Membrane reactor
t.
Assemble 

Flow sheet 



s 
ystem boundary~ 

Feed 
  
 
 _{} 
_{1} 

40 
kg h 1 
I 
I 
Aqueous residue 

10% glucose 
I 
I 
0.2% glucose 

90% water 
I 
Membrane system 
I 
0.5% ethanol 

Solvent 
I 
I 
Product 

40 kg h 1 
I 
I 
(i)
(li)
System boundary
The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.
(iii) 
Reaction equation 
2. 
Analyse 
(i) 
Assumptions 
 steady state
no leaks
 yeast cells do not grow or dislodge from the membrane
 no evaporation
 all C02 produced leaves in the off~gas
 no side reactions
(li) Extra data
Molecular weights (Table B.t, Appendix B): glucose = 180.2 ethanol =. 46.1
(iii) Basis
1 h, or 40 kg feed solution
CO, =44.0
(iv) Compounds involved in reaction
Glucose, ethanol and carbon dioxide are involved in the reaction.
(v)
Mass~balanceequations
For glucose, ethanol and carbon dioxide, the appropriate massbalance equation is Eq. (4.2):
mass in + mass generated =. mass out + mass consumed
For water, solvent and total mass, the appropriate massbalance equation is Eq. (4.3):
3. 
Calculate 
(i) 
Calculation table 
mass in =. mass out
The calculation table below shows all given quantities in kg. The total mass of aqueous residue is denoted R; the total mass of product out is denoted p; the total mass of carbon dioxide out is denoted G.
_{2}_{0}
Solutions: Chapter 4
Stream
In
Out
Glucose 
Ethanol 
CO, 
Solvent 
H,O 
Total 
_{G}_{l}_{u}_{c}_{o}_{s}_{e} 
Ethotwl 
_{C}_{O}_{,} 
4 
0 
0 
0 
36 
40 

_{0} 
0 
0 
_{4}_{0} 
0 
_{4}_{0} 

0_002R 
0.005 R 
_{0} 

0 
? 
0 

_{0} 
_{0} 
? 

4 
0 
0 
40 
36 
80 
0.002 R 
? 
? 
_{S}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{t}
_{H}_{2} _{O}
Total

Feed
Solvent
Aqueous
residue
Product
Offgas
0 
? 
R 
? 
0 
P 
_{0} 
_{0} 
_{G} 
? 
? 
R+P 
Total 

(ii) 
Massbalance calculations 
Solvent balance
Solvent is a tie component.
40 kg solvent in ::::: solvent out
Solvent out ::::: 40 kg
Water balance
Water is a tie component.
36 kg water in ::::: water out
Water out::::: 36 kg
As water appears on the Out side of the table only in the aqueous residue stream:
0.002 R + 0.005 R + 36 kg
:::::
R
R = 36.254 kg
Therefore, the residual glucose in the aqueous residue stream.::::: 0.002 R ::::: 0.073 kg; the ethanol in the aqueous residue
stream::::: 0.005 R::::: 0.181 kg.
Glucose balance
4 kg glucose in + 0 kg glucose generated ::::: 0.073 kg glucose out + glucose consumed
Glucose consumed ::::: 3.927 kg
Converting the glucose consumed to molar terms:
3.927 kg glucose ::::: 3.927kg.
1
1 kgmOll
180.2kg
::::: O.0218kgmol
From the reaction stoichiometry, conversion of this amount of glucose generates 2 X 0.0218 = 0.0436 kgmol ethanol and 2 x 0.0218 = 0.0436 kgmol COZ. Converting these molar quantities to mass:
0.0436kgmolethanol = 0.0436kgmOI·1 iZ:~~11= 2.010kg
0.0436kgm o1CO z = OJM36kgmOLI ~:~ll= 1.92kg
C02 balance
okg COZ in + 1.92 kg C02 generated = C02 out + 0 kg C02 consumed
Ethanol balance
C02 out = 1.92 kg
= G
okg ethanol in + 2.010 kg ethanol generated = ethanol out + 0 kg ethanol consumed
Ethanol out = 2.010 kg
Ethanol leaves the system only in the product and aqueous residue streams. Therefore:
Solutions: Chapter 4
21
Ethanol out in the product stream = (2.010  0.181) kg = 1.829 kg
As the product stream consists of ethanol and solvent only:
P = (1.829 + 40) kg = 41.829 kg
These calculations allow completion of the mass~balancetable with all quantities in kg.
Stream 
In 
Out 

Glucose 
Ethanol 
CO, 
Solvent 
_{H}_{,}_{O} 
Total 
Glucose 
Ethanol 
_{C}_{O}_{2} 
Solvent 
H,O 
Total 

Feed 
4 
0 
0 
0 
36 
40 

Solvent 
_{0} 
_{0} 
_{0} 
40 
0 
40 

Aqueous 
 
0.073 
0.181 
_{0} 
_{0} 
_{3}_{6} 
36.254 

residue 

Product 
0 
1.829 
0 
40 
_{0} 
41.829· 

Offgas 
0 
0 
1.92 
0 
0 
1.92 

Total 
4 
0 
0 
40 
36 
80 
0.073 
2.010 
_{1}_{.}_{9}_{2} 
40 
_{3}_{6} 
_{8}_{0}_{.}_{0}_{0} 
(iii) 
Check the results 
All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.
4.
(0)
1.829 kg ethanol are contained in 41.829 kg of product stream. The ethanol concentration is therefore 1.829/41.829 x
Finalise
100%:::: 4.4%.
Answer: 4.4%
(h)
The mass flow rate ofCOz is 1.92 kg b ^{1} .
Answer: 1.92 kg h~l
4.3 
Ethanol distillation 
1. 
Assemble 
(i) 
Flow sheet 
_{S}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m} boUnda'l'\.
t,
_{r} 

I 
I 

I 
I 

I 
I 

I 
Distillation 
I 

Feed 
column 
I 

50,000 kg hl 
I 

10%e thanal 
I 
I 

90%w atar 
_{I} 
I 

I 
I 

I 
I 
  +  
Distillate 5,000 kg h 1 45% ethanol 55% water
Bottoms
22
SolutilJns: Chapter 4
(li) System boundary
The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.
(ill) Reaction equation
No reaction occurs.
2. Analyse
(i) Assumptions
 steady state
no leaks
(ll) Extra data
No extra data are required.
(ill) Basis
1 h, or 50,000 kg feed
(Iv) Compounds involved in reaction
No compounds are involved in reaction.
(v) Mass¥balance equation
As there is no reaction, the appropriate massbalance equation is Eq. (4.3):
mass in ::::: mass out
3. Calculate
(i) Calculation table
The calculation table shows all given quantities _{i}_{n} kg.
Stream 
In 
Out 

Ethanol 
Water 
Total 
Ethanol 
Water 
Total 

Feed 
5,000 
45,000 
50,000 

Distillate 
2,250 
_{2}_{,}_{7}_{5}_{0} 
5,000 

Bottoms 
? 
? 
? 

Total 
5,000 
45,000 
50,000 
? 
? 
? 
(li) Massbalance calculations 
Total mass balance
50,000 kg total mass in ::::: total mass out
Total mass out ::::: 50,000 kg
Therefore, from the total column on the Out side of the table:
Bottoms out::::: (50,000  5,000) kg ::::: 45,000 kg
Ethanol balance
5,000 kg ethanol in ::::: ethanol out
Ethanol out ::::: 5,000 kg
From the ethanol column of the Out side of the table:
Water balance
Ethanol out in the bottoms := (5,000
, 2,250) kg := 2,750 kg
45,000 kg water in := water out
Water out := 45,000 kg
From the water column of the Out side of the table:
Water out in the bottoms == (45,000  2,750) kg == 42,250 kg
These calculations allow completion of the mass~balancetable with all quantities in kg.
Solutions: Chapter4
23
Stream
In
Out
Water
Water
Ethanol
Total
Ethanol
Total
Feed
Distillate
Bottoms
Total
5,000
5,000
45,000
45,000
50,000
50,000
2,250
2,750
5,000
2,750
42,250
45,000
5,000
45,000
50,000
(ill) Check the results
All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.
4.
(a)
The bottoms contains 2,750 kg ctha,")l and 42,250 kg water in a total of 45,000 kg. Therefore, the composition is
2,750/45,000 x 100% = 6.1 % ethanol. and 42,250/45,000 x 100% = 93.9% water.
Finalise
Answer: 6.1% ethanol, 93.9% water
(b)
Directly from the table, the rate of alcohol loss in the bottoms is 2,750 kg h ^{I} .
Answer: 2,750 kg h ^{I}
4.4 Removal of glucose from dried egg
1.
(i)
Assemble
Flow sheet
(n)
System boundary
The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet
(ill) 
Reaction equation 
2. 
Analyse 
(i) 
Assumptions 
 steady state no leaks
 air and offgas are dry
 gases are at low pressure so vol% = mol%
 H202 remains in the liquid phase
_{2}_{4}
Solutions: Chapter 4
(ti)
Extra data
Molecular weights (Table B.I, A.ppendix B):
glucose::::: 180.2
02=32.0
NZ::::: 28.0
H20 = IS.0
gluconic acid::::: 196.2
HZOz::::: 34.0
Composition of air (p 17): 21% 02, 79% Nz by volume
(ill)
Basis
1 h, or 3000 kg egg slurry
(iv) Compounds involved in reaction
Glucose, 02, water, gluconic acid and HzOz are involved in the reaction.
(v) Massbalance equations
For glucose, 02, water, gluconic acid and HZOz,the appropriate mass~balanceequation is Eq. (4.2):
mass in + mass generated ::::: mass out + mass consumed
For egg solids. Nz and total mass, the appropriate massbalance equation is Eq, (4.3):
3.
Calculate
mass in = mass out
(i) Calculation table
The mass of NZ accompanying 18 kg 02 in air can be calculated from the known composition of air.
kg 02 to molar units:
ISkg02 = ISkg0 _{2} ·
1 32.0kg kgmOll
1
=0.563kgm o10 2
Converting 18
Therefore, 79/21 x 0563 kgmol = 2.118 kgmol NZ enter in the air stream. Converting this to mass units:
2,118kgmo1N2 = 2.118kgmoIN2·
lkgmol 2S.0kg I
1
= 59.30kg N2
The calculation tables below show all known quantities in kg. The total mass of offgas is denoted G; the total mass of product is denoted P. The In side of the massbalance table is complete,
Solutions: Chapter 4
25
59.30 kg NZ in ::::: NZ out
NZ out::::: 59,30 kg
Glucose balance 60 kg glucose in + 0 kg glucose generated ::::: 0.002 P kg glucose out + glucose consumed
Glucose consumed ::::: (60  0.002 P) kg
Converting the glucose consumed to molar tenus:
Glucoseconsumed ::::: (60  0.002 P) kg.
1
1 kgmOll
180.2 kg:::::
Glucoseconsumed ::::: (0.3331.11 x 10 ^{5}
(60 0.002 P)
180.2
p) kgmol
kgmol
From the reaction stoichiometry, conversion of this amount of glucose· requires the same number of kgmol OZ. Converting this molar quantity to mass of Oz:
(0.333 1.11 x 10 ^{5} p) kgmo102 = (0.3331.11 x 10 ^{5} p) kgm01.1 ;~~~11 = (10.656 3.552x 104 p) kg 02
02 balam.:e
18 kg Oz in +·0 kg Ozgenerated :::::{)Z out + (10.656  3.552 x 104 P) kg Oz consumed
02 out = (18  (10.656  3.552 x 10""P») kg
02; out::::: (7.344 + 3.552 x 104 P)
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