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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Bioprocess Engineering Principles

Pauline M. Doran  tI !iI~'.!.~.!

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4

if'

402·751 Rll!laIlN lit•••• til

TEl:1032l88O-7518 FAIl_

E-mail: I••co.tnha.ao.ki. -~ --

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Bioprocess Engineering Principles

Pauline M. Doran

University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

ISBN 0 7334 15474 Page

 Chapter 2 Introduction to Engineering Calculations 1 Chapter 3 Presentation and Analysis ofData 9 Chapter 4 Material Balances 17 ChapterS Energy Balances 41 Chapter 6 Unsteady-State Material and Energy Balances 54 Chapter 7 Fluid Flow and Mixing 76 Chapter 8 Heat Transfer 86 Chapter 9 Mass Transfer '98 Chapter 10 Unit Operations 106 Chapter 11 Homogeneous Reactions 122 Chapter 12 Heterogeneous Reactions 139 Chapter 13 Reactor Engineering 151

NOTE

All equations, tables, figures, page numbers, etc., mentioned in this manual refer to the textbook,

Bioprocess Engineering Principles.  Introduction to Engineering Calculations

2.1 Unit conversion

(a)

From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1 cP::::: 1O~3 kg m- I k 1 1 m= lOOcrn

Therefore:

1.5 x10-6 cP ::::: 1.5 x 10-6 cP ,1 10 - 3 k t g ;-1 s-ll.ll~~mI= 1.5 x 10- 11 kg s-1 cm- 1

Answer: 1.5 x 10- 11 kg s-1 em- t

(b)

From Table A.S (Appendix A): 1 bp (British)::::: 42.41 Btu min-I Therefore: (e)

From Table A.S (Appendix. A): 1 mmHg:= 1.316 x 10- 3 attn

From Table A.I (Appendix A): 1 ft = 0.3048 m

From Table A.7 (Appendix A): 11 atm =9.604 x 10- 2 Btu

From Table A8 (Appendix A):

Im=lOOcm

11= lOOOcm 3

Ih=60min

Therefore:

1 Btu min-I::::: 2.391 x

to- 2 metric horsepower

670mmHgft 3 = 670 mmHg ft3 .11.316X10- 3 atml.19.604X1O-2Btul.I°.3048m1 3

1 mmHg

llatm

2 .391 x 10- 2 metric horsepowerI I I h

1 1Btu min-

1

.

-60.

mm

1 it

I

956

= ,

Answer: 9.56 x 10-4 metric horsepower h

(d)

From Table A.7 (Appendix A): 1 Btu =0.2520 kcal

From Table A.3 (Appendix A): Ilb = 453.6 g

Therefore:

x

1 100 em 1 3

1 m

10-4

metric

.

1

11

lOOOcm3

I.

h

orsepower

h

345 Btu Ib- 1 = 345 Btulb- 1 .1o.2i~~Call·14;3~: g I = O.192kcal g-l

2.2 Unit conversion

Case 1

Convert to units of kg, m, s.

From Table AJ (Appendix A), lIb = 0.4536 kg

2

Solutions: Chapter 2

From Table A.2 (Appendix A): 1

From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1 cP::: 10- 3 kg m- l s·l

1 rn= tOOcm= lOOOmm

Therefore, using Eq. (2.1):

tt3 =: 2.832 x 10- 2 m 3

Dup

Re::: -p-

=

(

3

2mm.1 1m n(3cms-l.l~n(251bfC3I0.4536kgl.1 Ift

l000mmU

l00cmU

I

.

10

-3

kgm

1cP

10 -6 P c

1

s

-11

lIb

2.832 x 10 2 m 3U _

~

- 2.4 x 10

ease 2

Convert to units of kg, m, s.

From Table Al (Appendix A): 1 in.::: 2.54 x 10- 2 m

From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1

Ih=3600s

Therefore, usingEq. (2.1):

Ibm ft-I h- 1 ::: 4.134 x 10-4 kg m-t s·t 13~sl

=

1.5 x 10 4

7

2.3 Dimensionless groups and property data

From the Chemical Engineers' Handbook, the diffusivity of oxygen in water at 2S"C is 2.5 x 10- 5 cm 2 s·l. Assuming

this is the same at 28"C, !lJ= 2.5 x 10- 5 cm 1 s·t, Also, from the Chemical Engineers' Handbook, the density of water

at 28"e is PL ::: 0.9962652 g cm- 3 , and the viscosity of water at 28"C is JlL::: 0.87 cPo The density of oxygen at 28°C and 1 atm pressure can be calculated using the ideal gas law. As molar density is the same as n,V, from Eq. (2.32): Temperature in the ideal gas equation is absolute temperature; therefore, from Eq. (2.24):

T = (28 + 273.15) K = 301.15 K

From Table 2.5, R "" 82.057 cm 3 atm K-I gmol~l. Substituting parameter values into the density equation gives:

Pa

""

L

RT

""

latm

(82.057cm 3 almK:""1 gmol 1)(301.15K)

"" 4.05 x 10- 5 gmolcm- 3

From the atomie weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of oxygen is 32.0. for Pa to mass tenns:

Converting the result

Pa "" 4.05 x lO- 5gm olem- 3 ·1 i~~~ll "" l.30XlO- 3 gcm- 3

From Table A.9 (Appendix A): 1 eP "" 10- 2 g cm~l s-l; from Table A.l (Appendix A): 1 ft "" 0.3048 m "" 30.48 cm. The parameter values and conversion factors, together with Db "" 2 mm "" 0.2 em, can now be used to calculate the dimensionless groups in the equation for the Sherwood number. Solutions,' Chapter 2

3

Therefore:

S_J1.L_

c -

PrJ) -

0,87eP.

1'0

-2

-1 -11

s

gem

leP

-349

(0.9962652g cn,-3)(2.5 x 10 5 em 2 s I) - From the equation for Sh:

k

_Sh:lJ_(ll.21(2.5xl0-5cm2s-I)_I·A

02

L----

D1J

-,<tUX

.

em

10-3

-I

ems

2.4 Mass and weight

From the definition of density on p 16, mass is equal to volume multiplied by density, Therefore: From p 16, weight is-the force with wrncha body is attracted to the centre of the earth by gravity.

Newton's law(p 15), this force is equal to the mass of the body multiplied by the gravitational acceleration.

According to

(a)

From pIS, at sea level and 45° latitude. gravitational acceleration g = 32.174 it s-2. Therefore:

Weight:::: 624 Ibm (32.174 ft s-2) = 2.008x 104 Ibm it s·Z

Converting these units to lbj' from Eq. (2.16), 1lbf= 32,174 Ibm it s·2; therefore:

4

Weight = 2.008 x 10

lbmfts-

2

,

llbf

32.174Ib m ft s

2

.= 6241b f

Answer: 624lbI When g :::: 32.174 ft s·2, the number of lb mass is equal to the number of lb force,

(b)

From Table A.I (Appendix A): 1 m= 3.281 ft. Using the same procedure as in (a):

Weight = 624 Ibm (9.76 m s-Z .13.2~ft~= 1.998 x 10 4 Ibm fts- Z

 Converting to Ibf 4 Weight = 1.998 x 10 lbmfts- 2 llbf = 6211bf . 32.1741b m ft s-2 Answer: 621lbf

2.5 Dimensionless numbers

First, evaluate the units of the groups cCP J.ll k ) and (D G1p):

(ep ")

Umtsof --

.

::::

(Bmlb-

I

'1'1) Ibh-

I

ft-

I

= 1

k BIUh-1 ft-2('Pft-1tl

UnilsOf(DG) = (ftllbh- 1 ft- 2 = 1

J1.

Ibh1ft1

4

Solutions: Chapter 2

Therefore, these groups are dimensionless. For the equation to be dimensionally homogeneous, (hIC p G) must also be

dimensionless; the units of h must therefore cancel the units of C p G.

Unitsofh "'" unitsofCpG "'" (Btulb- 1 "p-l)(1bh- 1 fr 2 ) "'" Btu "F-l h- 1 ft- 2

The dimensions of h can be deduced from its units.

From Table A.7 (Appendix A), Btu is a unit of energy with

dimensions "'" L2Ml2. OF is a unit of temperature which, from Table 2.1, has the dimensional symbol E>. h is a unit of time with dimension"'" T; ft is a unit of length with dimension"'" L. Therefore:

Dimensions of h = L2M'l2 a-I 1'"1 L-2 = MT" 3 e- 1

Answer: Units = Btu opi h- 1 ft-2; dimensions =Ml 3 e- 1

2.6 Dimensional homogeneity and Cc

From Table A8 (Appendix A), dimensions of P = L2MT"3 Dimensions of g = LT-z Dimensions of p =ML·3

Dimensions of Di "'" L

From p 11, the dimensions oirotational speed, Nj =T-!; from p 15, the dimensions of gc= 1. Therefore: As Np is a dimensionless number, equation (i) is not dimensionally homogeneous and therefore cannot be correct. Equation (ii) is dimensionally homogeneous and therefore likely to be correct

2.7 Molar units

From the atomic weights in Table Rl (Appendix B), the molecular weight of NaOH is 40.0.

(a)

FromEq. (2.19):

lb moles NaOH =

20.0 lb

4O.0lblbmol 1

= 050 lbmol

(b)

From Table A.3 (Appendix A): lIb =453.6 g. Therefore:

From Eq. (2.18):

20.01b = 20.0Ib. -lib 453.6gl

1

= 9072 g

gram moles NaOH =

9072g

4O.0g gmol-

I = 227 grool

(c)

From p 16, 1 kgmol::::: 1000 gmot. Therefore, from (b):

.-----

Solutions: Chapter 2

5

kg molesNaOR = 227 gmol.

1

1000 1 kgmol gmol

I

= 0.227 kgmol

2.8 Density and specific gravity

(a)

From p 16, the density of water at 4°C can be taken as exactly 1 g cm- 3 . Therefore, for a substance with specific gravity L5129i~,the density at 20°C is 1.5129 g cm*3,

(I)

lkg=l000g

1 m: 100cm Therefore: (il)

From the atomic weights in Table 8.1 (Appendix B), the molecular weight of nitric acid (RN03) is 63.0. RNO" from Eq. (2.18)0

gram moles :

LS129g

1

:

0.0240 gmot

63.0ggmor

In 1 cm 3

Therefore, the molar density is 0.0240 gmol cm- 3 . From the definition of specific volume on p 16:

Molar specific volume

:

1

mo ar

d 1

.

:

enslty

.,-

0.0240 gmol em 3

,,-1-:--:::;- :

41.67cm 3 gmor 1

(b)

(I)

From p 16, as density is defined as the mass per unit volume, the mass flow rate is equal to the volumetric flow rate multiplied by the density: (ii)

From the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weight of carbon tetrachloride, CC14, is 153.8. Using the mass flow rate from (a):

Molar flow rate :

80 g min- l .l :5~0~1 = 0.52gmolmin- 1

2.9 Molecular weight

From p 17, the composition of air is close to 21 % oxygen and 79% nitrogen. For gases at low pressures, this means 21 mol% 02 and 79 mol% NZ. Therefore, in 1 gmol air, there are 0.21 gmot Oz and 0.79 gmol NZ From the atomic weights in Table B.l (Appendix B), the molecular weights of Oz and NZ are 3Z.0 and 28.0, respectively. The molecular weight of air is equal to the number of grams in 1 gmol:

1 gmolair = 0.21 gmOlOz·1 ;~~ll+ 0.79 gmol NZ ·1 ;~;ll= 28.8g

6

Solutions.' Chapter 2

2.10 Mole fraction

The molecular weights can be obtained from Table B.7 (Appendix B): water 18.0; ethanol 46.1; methanol 32.0;

glycerol 92.1; acetic acid 60.1; benzaldehyde 106.1.

In 100 g solution, there are 30 g water, 25 g ethanol. 15 g

methanol, 12 g glycerol, 10 g acetic acid, 8 g benzaldehyde, and no other components. Therefore:

Moles water = 30 g _I ~r:;~ll= 1.67 gruol

Moles ethanol:: 25 g.1 ~~~ll :: 054 gmol

Molesmethanol:: 15 g _I ;~~ll = 0.47 gmol

Molesglycerol = 12g.

.

IIgmaII

92.1g

= O.13gmol

Moles acetic acid = 10g.1 ~~~II= 0.17 gmol

Moles benzaldehyde: 8 g _I :~o~I = 0.08 gmal

The total number of moles is 1.67 + 0.54 + 0.47 + 0.13 + 0.17 + 0.08:: 3.06 gmal. From Eq. (2.20):

Mole fraction water = ;:~~= 0.55

Mole fraction ethanol = ~:~= 0.18

Mole fraction methanol = ~:~~= 0.15

Mole fraction glycerol = ~:~ = 0.04

Mole fraction acetic acid = ~:~::::: 0.06

Mole fraction benzaldehyde ::::: ~:: ::::: 0.03

Answer: 0.55 water; 0.18 ethanol; 0.15 methanol; 0.04 glycerol; 0.06 acetic acid; 0.03 benzaldehyde

2.11 Temperature scales

From Eq. (2.27\

From Eq. (2.25),

-40 ::::: 1.8 T(0C) + 32

Tee) = -40

T (OR) ::::: -40 + 459.67

T(°R) = 420

From Eq. (2.24) and the result for T ("C); T(K) = -40+273.15

T(K) = 233

2.12 Pressure scales

(a)

Assume that the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi. From Eq. (2.28):

Absolute pressure ::::: 15 psi + 14.7 psi::::: 29,7 psi

Solutions: Chapter 2

7

From Table A.5 (Appendix A): 1 psi = 6.805 x Hy2 atm. Therefore:

Absolutepressure = 29.7psl.

.

16.805 x 1 psi 10-

2 atm 1

= 2.02atm

(b)

From p 19, vacuum pressure is the pressure below atmospheric. If the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi:

Absolutepressure = 14.7psi-3psi = IL7psi

2.13 Stoichiometry and incomplete reaction

(a)

The molecular weights are calculated from TableB.l (Appendix B): penicillin = 334.;4; glucose = 180.2. The maximum theoretical yield from the stoichiometric equation is 1 gruol of penicillin for every 1.67 gruol of glucose. 'This is equivalent to 334.4 g penicillin per 1.67 x 180.2 = 300.9 g glucose. or 1.1 g g-l.

(b)

The maximum theoretical yield in (a) is obtained when all the glucose consumed is directed into penicillin production according to the stoichiometric equation. If only 6% of the glucose is used in this way, the actual yield of penicillin from glucose is much lower, at 334.4 g penicillin per (300.9 x 100/ 6 ) g glucose, or 0.067 g g~l.

(c)

From the atomic weights in Table B.I (Appendix B), the molecular weight of phenylacetic acid is 136.2.

(I)

The only possible limiting substrates are glucose and phenylacetic acid. Using a basis of II medium, if (50 - 5.5) = 44.5 g glucose are consumed but only 6% is available for penicillin synthesis, the mass of glucose used in the penicillin reaction is 44.5 x 6/ 100 =2.67 g. 'This is equivalent to 2.67 g/180.2 g gmol-1 =1.48 K 10- 2 gmol glucose available for penicillin synthesis. At the same time, 4 g or 4 g/136.2 g gmol-1 =2.94 x 10~2gruol phenylacetic acid is available which, according to the stoichiometric equation, requires 1.67 x 2.94 x 10- 2 =4.91 x 10- 2 gruol glucose for complete reaction. As the gmol glucose required is greater than the gmol glucose available after growth and maintenance activities, glucose is the limiting substrate.

(il)

Of the 44.5 g I-I glucose consumed, 24% or 10.7 g I-I is used for growth. In a H~)-litretank. the total mass of glucose consumed for growth is therefore 1070 g or 1.07 kg.

(iii)

From (i), 1.48 x 10- 2 gmol glucose is used in the penicillin reaction per litre. According to the stoichiometry, this produces 1.48 x 10- 2 /1.67 = 8.86 x 1O~3gmol penicillin per litre. Therefore, in a l00-litre tank, 0.886 gmol or 0.886 gmol x 334.4 g gmol-1 =296 g penicillin are formed.

(iv)

IT, from (i), 1.48 x 10- 2 gmol [1 glucose is used in the penicillin reaction, 1.48 x 10- 2 /1.67 = 8.86 x 10- 3 gmoll-l phenylacetic acid must also be used. This is equivalent to 8.86 x 10- 3 gmoll-l x 136.2 g gmol-1 = 1.21 g t I phenylacetic acid. As 4 g I-I are provided, (4 - 1.21) = 2.79 g I~Iphenylacetic acid must remain.

8

Solutions: Chapter 2

2.14 Stoichiometry, yield and the ideal gas law

(a)

Adding up the numbers of C, H, 0 and N atoms on both sides of the equation shows that the equation is balanced.

(b)

The molecular weights are calculated from Table B.I (Appendix B).

Cells: 91.5

Hexadecane: 226.4 From the stoichiometry, as 1 gmol of hexadecane is required to produce 1.65 gmol of cells, the maximum yield is 1.65 gmol x 91.5 g gmol-l =: 151 g cells per 226A g hexadecane, or 0.67 g g-I,

(e)

From the atomic weights in Table RI (Appendix B), the molecular weight of oxygen is 32.0. From the stoichiometry, 16.28 gmol of oxygen is required to produce 1.65 gmal of cells which, from (b), is equal to 151 g cells.

The maximum yield is therefore 151 g cells per (16.28 groal x 32.0 g groot-I) =: 521 g oxygen, or 0.29 g g-1.

(d)

Production of 2.5 kg cells is equivalent to 2500 g =: 2500 g/91.5 g gmoI-l = 27.3 gmol cells. The minimum amounts of substrates are required when 100% of the hexadecane is converted according to the stoichiometric equation.

(I)

From the stoichiometry, production of 27.3 gmol cells requires 27.3/1.65 =16.5 gmol =16.5 gmol x 226.4 g gmol-I = 3736 g = 3.74 kg hexadecane.

(il) From the answer in (d)(i), the concentration ofhexadecane required is 3.74 kg in 3 m 3 , or 1.25 kg m- 3 .

(ill)

According to the stoichiometric equation, production of 27.3 gmol cells requires 27.3 x 16.28/1.65 =269.4 gmol oxygen. As air at low pressure contains close to 21 mol% oxygen (p 11), the total moles of air required is 269.410.21 = 1282.9 gmot The volume of air required can be calculated using the ideal gas law. From Eq. (2.32):

V = nRT

p

Temperature in the ideal gas equation is absolute temperature; from Eq. (2.24):

T = (20 +273.15) K = 293.15K

From Table 2.5, R "" 82.057 cm 3 atm K-I gmol-I. Substituting these values into the equation for V gives:

v= (1282.9gmolj(82.057cm 3 atmK- 1 gmol-l)(293.15Kj 1 atm

.

1-.!

"'

1

l00cm

3 = 31

3

m Presentation and Analysis of Data

3.1 Combination of errors

c~ "" 0.25 mol m- 3

±4%"= 0.25 ±O.OlOmol m- 3

CAL

= 0.183

OTR = O.Qll

mol

mol

m- 3

m- 3

± 4% =: O.183±O.OO73molm- 3

s-1 ± 5%

For subtraction, absolute errors are added. TherefOre:

C~ -CAL"'" (O.25-0.183)±{O.OlO+0.0073)molm- 3 "'" O.067±O.0173molm- 3 =: 0.067 molm- 3 ± 25.8%

For division, relative errors are added. Therefore:

kLa =: o.OllmOlm-3~-1 ±{25.8 + 5)% =O.16s- 1 ±31% = O.16± 0.05 s-l

O.Q67molm

This example illustrates how a combination of small measurement errors can result in a relatively

large uncertainty in the final result.

3.2 Mean and standard deviation

(a)

The best estimate is the mean, X. FromEq. (3.1):

x = 5.15+5.45+5.50+5.35 = 5.36

(b)

Calculate the standard deviation from Eq. (3.2):

(5.15 - 5.36)' + (5.45 - 5.36)' + (5.50- 5.36)' + (5.35 - 5.36)'

4-1

= 0.15

Answer. The standard deviation is 0.15. Note that standard error, which can be calculated from the standard deviation, is a more direct indication of the precision of a mean.

(c)

x = 5.15 +5.45 = 5.30

2

Standard deviation is not appropriate for expressing the accuracy of a mean evaluated using only two samples. In this case the maximum error, Le. the difference between the mean and either of the two measured values, might be used instead. The maximum error in this example is (5.30 - 5.15) =0.15.

Answer. 5.30; an indication of the accuracy is ± 0.15

(d)

x= 5.15+5.45+5.50+5.35+5.15+5.45+5.50+5.35 = 5.36

10

Solutions: Chapter 3

2 (S.lS -S.36f + 2(S.4S-S.36)~+ ~(S.50-S.36f +2(S.3S -S.36)2

= 0.14

Answer: The best estimate of optimal pH is unchanged at 5.36, but the standard deviation is slightly lower at 0.14.

This example illustrates that although the standard deviation decreases as the number of measurements is increased, (j is not strongly dependent on n. The best way to improve the reliability of the mean is to ensure that the individual measurements are as intrinsically accurate as possible, rather thanrepeat the measurement many times.

3.3 Linear and non-linear models

(a)

Xl = 1; Yl =10

X2=8;Y2=0.5

A straight line plot of y versus x on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq. (3.6).

Eqs (3.7) and (3.8),

A = (Yz-Y1) = 0.5-10 =-136

Answer: y = -1.36 x + 11.4

 (h) Xl = 3.2; Yl =14.5

(x2

Xl)

8-1

.

B = YI-Axi

= 10-(-1.36)1 = 11.4

From

);2 = 8.9; Y2 = 38.5

A straight line plot of y versus x Ih on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using the equation:

with A and B given by the equations:

A

=

Y=Axlh+B

YrY1

112_

x2

112

Xl

 = 38.5-14.S = 201 89Ih_32'k . . ,

B = YI-Axi h = 14.5-20.1(3.2 112 ) = -21.5

(0)

'k

-21.5

Xl=5;Yl=6

X2= l;Y2=3

A straight line plot of Ity versus xl on linear coordinates means that the data can be represented using the equation:

with A and B given by the equations:

A

lly = Ax 2 +B

= lin - Ity}

2

2

x2-xl

1/3 -lI6

 = 2 2 =-6.9xlO 1 -5

-3

B = 1/ y1 -Ax; = 1/6-(-Mx 1O- 3 )<S2) = 0.34

Answer: l/y = -6.9 x 10- 3 xl + 0.34

(d)

Xl=0.5;Yl=25

x2 =550; Y2 =2600

A straight line plot of y versus x on log-log coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq, (3.10).

From Eqs (3.13) and (3.14),

Solutions: Chapter 3

11

A = (lnY2- ln Yl) = ln2600-ln25 = 0.663

(lnx2-lnxI)

ln550-1nO.5

lnB = InYI-Alnxl =ln25-(0.663}ln0.5 = 3.678

Answer: Y= 39.6 x O .

663

B = e 3 . 678

= 39.6

(eJ

Xl = 1.5; YI = 2.5 X2 = 10; Y2 = 0.036

A straight line' plot of y,versus X on semi·log coordinates means that the data can be represented using Eq. (3.15).

From Eqs (3.17) and (3.18):

A = (lnY2- ln YI) = lnO.036-ln2.5 =-0.50

(x2 - xl)

10 -

1.5

 In B = In Y1 - A Xl = In 2.5 - (-o.50J 1.5 = 1.666 B = el. 666 = 5.29

3.4 Linear curve fitting

(aJ

The results determined using Eqs (3.1) and (3.2) are listed below.

 Sucrose concentration (g l~l) Mean peak area Standard deviation 6.0 56.84 1.21 12.0 112.82 2.06 18.0 170.63 2.54 24.0 232.74 1.80 30.0 302.04 2.21

(bJ 35
30
-
-
.
25
.9
0
••
20
~
g
15
8
~
10
g
"'
5
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Peak area

12

Solutions: Chapter 3

(e)

The linear least squares fit of the data is:

y ::: 0,098 x + 0,83

Answer: y "'" 0.098 x + 0.83, where y is sucrose concentration in g 1-1 and x is peak area.

(d)

For x::: 209,86, the equation in (c) gives a sucrose concentration oi2IA g I-I.

3.5 Non-linear model: calcnlation of parameters

(a)

The proposed model equation has the general form of Eq. (3.15); therefore, if the model is suitable, a plot of a versus

lIT on semi-logarithmic coordinates will give a straight line.

As T in the equation is absolute temperature, "'c must

first be converted to degrees Kelvin using Eq. (2.24). The data are listed and plotted below.

 Temperature (0C) Temperature (K) IIT(K-l) Relative mutation frequency. a 15 288.15 3.47 x 10- 3 4.4 x 10- 15 20 293.15 3.41 x lO w3 2.0x 10- 14 25 298.15 3.35 x leT 3 8.6x 10 14 30 303.15 3.30 x lfr·3 3.5 x Jer I3 35 308.15 3.25 x 10- 3 lAx }0"'12 10- 11 r---~--.,
--~----r--~---.
"
[
10- 12
"
f
c
10- 13
.Q
lii
"E
~
10. 14
= -ll
lJ:
10-'5 L
l
J
~~_--'
~
~
3,2 x 10-3
3.3x 10-3
3.4x 10-
3 3.5 x 10-3
1ITemperature (K-1)

As the data give a straight line on semi~logarithmiccoordinates, the model can be considered to fit the data well.

(b)

The equation for the straight line in (a) is:

y =: 9.66 x 10 24 e- 26 ,12lx

where y is relative mutation frequency and x is reciprocal temperature in units of K~l. For dimensional homogeneity the exponent must be dimensionless (p 12), so that -26,121 has units of K, and EIR in the model equation is equal to 26,121 K From Table 2.5, R =: 8.3144 J gmol-l K·1; therefore:

E =: (26,121 K) (8.3144 J gmol~l K*l) =: 217,180.4 J gmol-1 =: 217.2 kJ gmot 1

Solutions: Chapter 3

13

(c)

From the equation in (b) for the straight line, ao is equal to 9.66 x 10Z4.

3.6 Linear regression: distribution of residuals

(aJ 16
-
-
,
14
• •
!'!l
c
••
12
i'!
C
10
g
0
0
8
~
• • •
6
~
••
••
4
m
~
2
.i1
0
0
12345
6

Decrease in medium conductivity (mS cm- 1 )

The linear least squares fit of the data is:

y =: 1.58 + 2.10x

where yis increase in biomass concentration in g r 1 and xis decrease in medium conductivity in mS cm~l.

(b)

The residuals are calculated as the difference between the measured values for increase in biomass concentration and the values for y obtained from the equation in (a).

Decrease in medium conductivity (mS

Residual

 o -1.58 0.12 0.57 0.31 -!l.23 0.41 0.36 0.82 1.20 1.03 1.36 lAO 1.28 1.91 0041 2.11 0.19 2.42 -0.46 2.44 -!l.50 2.74 -!l.73 2.91 -1.69 3.53 -1.99 4.39 -1.00 5.21 1.48 5.24 0.02 5.55 1.37

14

Solutions: Chapter 3

These results are plotted below. 3.-_-,
.,-_-,
.,
,-_-,
2
1
·2
·3 '-_-'-
-'-_---'
'-_-'
o 1
2
3
4
5
6
Decrease in medium conductivity (mS em- 1 )

The residuals are not randomly distributed: they are mainly positive at low values of decrease in medium

conductivity, then negative, then positive again. Therefore, the straight line fit of the data cannot be considered a very

good one.

3.7 Discriminating between rival models

(aJ

The results are plotted using linear coordinates below. 0.11
0.10
~ '"
.§.
os'
0.09
.~
0.08
~
." " 'E
0.07
1l.
,
0.06
~
~
0.05
::J
0.04
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
Gas superficial velocity, uG (m s-1)

The data are reasonably well fitted using a linear model. The linear least squares equation for the straight line fit is:

y = 0.054 + 0.466 x

where y is liquid superficial velocity in m s-l andx is gas superficial velocity in m s·l.

The sum of the squares of the

residuals between the measured values for liquid superficial velocity and the values for y obtained from the above equation is 8.4 x 10- 5 ,

Solutions: Chapter 3

15

(b)

The proposed power law equation has the same form as Eq. (3.10). Therefore, if the power law model is suitable. the data should give a straight line when plotted on log-log coordinates.     0.01

om

0.1

Gas superficial velocity, u G (m s·1)

The data are reasonably well fitted using a power law- modeL The equation for the straight line in the plot is:

y

= 0.199 x O

.

309

where y is liquid superficial velocity in m s·l andx is gas superficial velocity in m s·l. The sum of the squares of the residuals between the measured values for liquid superficial velocity and the values obtained from the above equation is 4.2 x 10- 5 .

«)

The non·linear model is better because the sum of squares of the residuals is smaller.

3.8 Non-linear model: calculation of parameters

(a), (b) The proposed model equation has the same form as Eq; (3.15). Therefore, if the model is suitable, the data should give a straight line when plotted on semi-logarithmic coordinates. 10' .,.--.,
-
,--,----,----,,--
---.
10 3
10 1
100 '--
1-_-'-_-'-_-'-_-L_----'-_---'
o
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Time (min)

16

Solutions: Chapter 3

(c), (d)

The equation for the straight line in the figure is:

y =. 2.13 x 104 e-O.353x

where y is the number of viable cells and x is time in min.

As the exponent must be dimensionless to preserve

dimensional homogeneity (p 12), the dimensions of kd are T-t; therefore k(! =. 0353 min-I, The dimensions of No are the same as N, i.e, No is dimensionless and equal to 2.13 x 104.

Answer: kd =. 0.353 min-I. No =. 2.13 x 104; the dimensions of ka. are T"l, No is dimensionless Material Balances

 4.1 Cell concentration using membranes L Assemble (i) Flow sheet

Buffer solution in

80 kg min- 1

Cell concentrate

6% bacteria I I I I I Hollow-fibre membranes I Buffer solution out I I Fennentation broth I I 350 kg min- 1 1% bacteria 99% water

(li) System boundary

The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.

(iii) Reaction equation

No reaction occurs.

 2. Analyse (i) Assumptions

-no leaks

- only water passes across the membrane

(ii) Extra data

No extra data are required.

(ill) Basis

1 min, or 350 kg fennentation broth

(iv) Compounds involved in reaction

No compounds are involved in reaction.

(v) Mass-balance equation

As there is no reaction, the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq. (4.3):

3.

Calculate

mass in = mass out

(i) Calculation table

The calculation table below shows all given quantities in kg. The total mass of cell concentrate is denoted c; the total mass of buffer out is denoted B. The columns for water refer to water originating in the fermentation broth.

18

Solutions: Chapter 4

In

Out

 Stream Water Bacteria Buffer Total Water Bacteria Buffer Total Fermentation 346.5 3.5 0 350 broth Buffer solution in Cell concentrate 0 0 80 80 ? O.06C 0 C Buffer solution ? 0 80 B out Total 346.5 3.5 80 430 ? 0.06C 80 C+B

(li) Mass-balance calculations

 Bacteria balance 3.5 kg bacteria in "'" 0.06 C kg bacteria out C = 58.3 kg Total mass balance

430 kg total mass in = (C + B) kg total mass out

Using the result for C:

Water balance

B

"'" 371.7 kg

346.5 kg water in = water out

Water out = 346.5 kg

These calculations allow completion of the mass~balance table with all quantities in kg.

 Stream In Out Water Bacteria 814fer Total Water Bacteria Buffer Total Fennentation 346.5 3.5 0 350 broth Buffer solution in 0 0 80 80 Cell concentrate 54.8 3.50 0 58.3 Buffer solution 291.7 0 80 371.7 out Total 346.5 3.5 80 430 346.5 3.50 80 430

(iii) Check the results

All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.

4.

(a)

After rounding to three significant figures, the total flow rate of buffer solution out of the annulus is 372 kg min-I.

Finalise

(b)

The total flow rate of cell concentrate from the membrane tubes is 58.3 kg min-I.

Solutions: Chapter 4

19

4.2 Membrane reactor

t.

 Assemble Flow sheet s ystem boundary~ Feed - -- - -- - 1 40 kg h- 1 I I Aqueous residue 10% glucose I I 0.2% glucose 90% water I Membrane system I 0.5% ethanol Solvent I I Product 40 kg h- 1 I I

(i)

(li)

System boundary

The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.

 (iii) Reaction equation 2. Analyse (i) Assumptions -no leaks

- yeast cells do not grow or dislodge from the membrane

- no evaporation

- all C02 produced leaves in the off~gas

- no side reactions

(li) Extra data

Molecular weights (Table B.t, Appendix B): glucose = 180.2 ethanol =. 46.1

(iii) Basis

1 h, or 40 kg feed solution

CO, =44.0

(iv) Compounds involved in reaction

Glucose, ethanol and carbon dioxide are involved in the reaction.

(v)

Mass~balanceequations

For glucose, ethanol and carbon dioxide, the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq. (4.2):

mass in + mass generated =. mass out + mass consumed

For water, solvent and total mass, the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq. (4.3):

 3. Calculate (i) Calculation table

mass in =. mass out

The calculation table below shows all given quantities in kg. The total mass of aqueous residue is denoted R; the total mass of product out is denoted p; the total mass of carbon dioxide out is denoted G.

20

Solutions: Chapter 4

Stream

In

Out

 Glucose Ethanol CO, Solvent H,O Total Glucose Ethotwl CO, 4 0 0 0 36 40 0 0 0 40 0 40 0_002R 0.005 R 0 0 ? 0 0 0 ? 4 0 0 40 36 80 0.002 R ? ?

Solvent

H2 O

Total

-------

Feed

Solvent

Aqueous

residue

Product

Off-gas

 0 ? R ? 0 P 0 0 G ? ? R+P
 Total (ii) Mass-balance calculations

Solvent balance

Solvent is a tie component.

40 kg solvent in ::::: solvent out

Solvent out ::::: 40 kg

Water balance

Water is a tie component.

36 kg water in ::::: water out

Water out::::: 36 kg

As water appears on the Out side of the table only in the aqueous residue stream:

0.002 R + 0.005 R + 36 kg

:::::

R

R = 36.254 kg

Therefore, the residual glucose in the aqueous residue stream.::::: 0.002 R ::::: 0.073 kg; the ethanol in the aqueous residue

stream::::: 0.005 R::::: 0.181 kg.

Glucose balance

4 kg glucose in + 0 kg glucose generated ::::: 0.073 kg glucose out + glucose consumed

Glucose consumed ::::: 3.927 kg

Converting the glucose consumed to molar terms:

3.927 kg glucose ::::: 3.927kg.

1

1 kgmOll

180.2kg

::::: O.0218kgmol

From the reaction stoichiometry, conversion of this amount of glucose generates 2 X 0.0218 = 0.0436 kgmol ethanol and 2 x 0.0218 = 0.0436 kgmol COZ. Converting these molar quantities to mass:

0.0436kgmolethanol = 0.0436kgmOI·1 iZ:~~11= 2.010kg

0.0436kgm o1CO z = OJM36kgmOLI ~:~ll= 1.92kg

C02 balance

okg COZ in + 1.92 kg C02 generated = C02 out + 0 kg C02 consumed

Ethanol balance

C02 out = 1.92 kg

= G

okg ethanol in + 2.010 kg ethanol generated = ethanol out + 0 kg ethanol consumed

Ethanol out = 2.010 kg

Ethanol leaves the system only in the product and aqueous residue streams. Therefore:

Solutions: Chapter 4

21

Ethanol out in the product stream = (2.010 - 0.181) kg = 1.829 kg

As the product stream consists of ethanol and solvent only:

P = (1.829 + 40) kg = 41.829 kg

These calculations allow completion of the mass~balancetable with all quantities in kg.

 Stream In Out Glucose Ethanol CO, Solvent H,O Total Glucose Ethanol CO2 Solvent H,O Total Feed 4 0 0 0 36 40 Solvent 0 0 0 40 0 40 Aqueous - 0.073 0.181 0 0 36 36.254 residue Product 0 1.829 0 40 0 41.829· Off-gas 0 0 1.92 0 0 1.92 Total 4 0 0 40 36 80 0.073 2.010 1.92 40 36 80.00 (iii) Check the results

All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.

4.

(0)

1.829 kg ethanol are contained in 41.829 kg of product stream. The ethanol concentration is therefore 1.829/41.829 x

Finalise

100%:::: 4.4%.

(h)

The mass flow rate ofCOz is 1.92 kg b- 1 .

 4.3 Ethanol distillation 1. Assemble (i) Flow sheet

System boUnda'l'\.

-t---,

 r I I I I I I I Distillation I Feed column I 50,000 kg h-l I 10%e thanal I I 90%w atar I I I I I I

- - -+- - -

Distillate 5,000 kg h- 1 45% ethanol 55% water

Bottoms

22

SolutilJns: Chapter 4

(li) System boundary

The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet.

(ill) Reaction equation

No reaction occurs.

2. Analyse

(i) Assumptions

-no leaks

(ll) Extra data

No extra data are required.

(ill) Basis

1 h, or 50,000 kg feed

(Iv) Compounds involved in reaction

No compounds are involved in reaction.

(v) Mass¥balance equation

As there is no reaction, the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq. (4.3):

mass in ::::: mass out

3. Calculate

(i) Calculation table

The calculation table shows all given quantities in kg.

 Stream In Out Ethanol Water Total Ethanol Water Total Feed 5,000 45,000 50,000 Distillate 2,250 2,750 5,000 Bottoms ? ? ? Total 5,000 45,000 50,000 ? ? ? (li) Mass-balance calculations

Total mass balance

50,000 kg total mass in ::::: total mass out

Total mass out ::::: 50,000 kg

Therefore, from the total column on the Out side of the table:

Bottoms out::::: (50,000 - 5,000) kg ::::: 45,000 kg

Ethanol balance

5,000 kg ethanol in ::::: ethanol out

Ethanol out ::::: 5,000 kg

From the ethanol column of the Out side of the table:

Water balance

Ethanol out in the bottoms := (5,000

, 2,250) kg := 2,750 kg

45,000 kg water in := water out

Water out := 45,000 kg

From the water column of the Out side of the table:

Water out in the bottoms == (45,000 - 2,750) kg == 42,250 kg

These calculations allow completion of the mass~balancetable with all quantities in kg.

Solutions: Chapter4

23

Stream

In

Out

Water

Water

Ethanol

Total

Ethanol

Total

Feed

Distillate

Bottoms

Total

5,000

5,000

45,000

45,000

50,000

50,000

2,250

2,750

5,000

2,750

42,250

45,000

5,000

45,000

50,000

(ill) Check the results

All columns and rows of the completed table add up correctly.

4.

(a)

The bottoms contains 2,750 kg ctha,")l and 42,250 kg water in a total of 45,000 kg. Therefore, the composition is

2,750/45,000 x 100% = 6.1 % ethanol. and 42,250/45,000 x 100% = 93.9% water.

Finalise

(b)

Directly from the table, the rate of alcohol loss in the bottoms is 2,750 kg h- I .

4.4 Removal of glucose from dried egg

1.

(i)

Assemble

Flow sheet Off-gas
System boundary
r\.
-------,
I
1
I
I
1
Egg slurry -----L.o-l
Enzyme reactor
I--.L1---_- Product
3000 kg h· 1
I
I
0.2% glucose
2% glucose
20% water
78% egg solids
I
1
I
--t--
I
Inlet air
18 kg h- 1 02

(n)

System boundary

The system boundary is shown on the flow sheet

 (ill) Reaction equation 2. Analyse (i) Assumptions - air and off-gas are dry

- gases are at low pressure so vol% = mol%

- H202 remains in the liquid phase

24

Solutions: Chapter 4

(ti)

Extra data

Molecular weights (Table B.I, A.ppendix B):

glucose::::: 180.2

02=32.0

NZ::::: 28.0

H20 = IS.0

gluconic acid::::: 196.2

HZOz::::: 34.0

Composition of air (p 17): 21% 02, 79% Nz by volume

(ill)

Basis

1 h, or 3000 kg egg slurry

(iv) Compounds involved in reaction

Glucose, 02, water, gluconic acid and HzOz are involved in the reaction.

(v) Mass-balance equations

For glucose, 02, water, gluconic acid and HZOz,the appropriate mass~balanceequation is Eq. (4.2):

mass in + mass generated ::::: mass out + mass consumed

For egg solids. Nz and total mass, the appropriate mass-balance equation is Eq, (4.3):

3.

Calculate

mass in = mass out

(i) Calculation table

The mass of NZ accompanying 18 kg 02 in air can be calculated from the known composition of air.

kg 02 to molar units:

ISkg02 = ISkg0 2 ·

1 32.0kg kgmOll
1

=0.563kgm o10 2

Converting 18

Therefore, 79/21 x 0563 kgmol = 2.118 kgmol NZ enter in the air stream. Converting this to mass units:

2,118kgmo1N2 = 2.118kgmoIN2·

lkgmol 2S.0kg I
1

= 59.30kg N2

The calculation tables below show all known quantities in kg. The total mass of off-gas is denoted G; the total mass of product is denoted P. The In side of the mass-balance table is complete,

Solutions: Chapter 4

25

59.30 kg NZ in ::::: NZ out

NZ out::::: 59,30 kg

Glucose balance 60 kg glucose in + 0 kg glucose generated ::::: 0.002 P kg glucose out + glucose consumed

Glucose consumed ::::: (60 - 0.002 P) kg

Converting the glucose consumed to molar tenus:

Glucoseconsumed ::::: (60 - 0.002 P) kg.

1

1 kgmOll

180.2 kg:::::

Glucoseconsumed ::::: (0.333-1.11 x 10- 5

(60 -0.002 P)

180.2

p) kgmol

kgmol

From the reaction stoichiometry, conversion of this amount of glucose· requires the same number of kgmol OZ. Converting this molar quantity to mass of Oz:

(0.333 -1.11 x 10- 5 p) kgmo102 = (0.333-1.11 x 10- 5 p) kgm01.1 ;~~~11 = (10.656- 3.552x 10-4 p) kg 02

02 balam.:e

18 kg Oz in +·0 kg Ozgenerated :::::{)Z out + (10.656 - 3.552 x 10-4 P) kg Oz consumed

02 out = (18 - (10.656 - 3.552 x 10""P») kg

02; out::::: (7.344 + 3.552 x 10-4 P)