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HORTICULTURE NOTES

OF

NARENDER RAO SAINENI

http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/org_farm/orgfarm_panchakavya.html

Mango Plantation Notes

Magnifera indica/Mango ( Benishaan/Banginapally)

National fruit of india

Growth: Tropical tree, easy to grow, grows upto several metes height, Pests: Mealy bug, scales, leaf hopper, anthracnose

Uses: fruit is very tasty, this variety is cut and ate when ripe, inhibits prostate and skin cancer,

Mangoes are full packed with vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants and contain like all fruits very few proteins, fats and calories. They are perfect to replenish salts, vitamins and energy after physical exercise.

It is a mineral packed chemical free food that has amazing benefits for our health. The mango-milk cure is an ideal treatment for loss of weight. Mangoes are thought to help stop bleeding, to strengthen the heart, and to benefit the brain. Taking Mango regularly makes the complexion fair and the skin soft and shining.

Nutrients: phytochemicals, vitamins, anti oxidants, dietary fibre, potassium,

Harvesting: Starts bearing from 4th year, Flowers from February, fruit ripen in Last week of May

Why grafting is done for mango plants: Mango is Cross pollinated , so father plant is not known hence grafting is employed for consistent known results. Seed to be used within 40 days after cleaning for root stalk.

Watering: 100 ltrs/wk until setting, in sandy soils regular small qty watering better as it will be fully used by plant, if over watered there will be wastage of water.

Manure & Fertilizer: 10kg FYM, 2.5kg bonemeal, 1kg Potassium sulphate NPK to the plant 1 yr 100gm each, 2 yr 200gm each, 5 yr 500gm each

For the correction of micronutrient deficiency, spraying of ZnSO4 5 g , Boran 2 g


and 10 g urea per liter of water is recommended at the onset of monsoon. Spraying of KNO3 @ 10 g/l during November helps in opening of the flower bud and uniform flowering.

Trunk care: limewash to protect against sun scald. Bordeaus paste( copper sulphate, quick lime: water 1:1:30) Orchard should be free from dead and damaged wood.

Pests in Mango Plantation


Pest Image Effects Control/Prevent ion

Leaf Hopper/Man go hopper, Tene Manchu purugulu

3..4 lifecycles during flowering stage sucks flowers and flower shoots, Drops honey dew ,soot mold develops on leaves Sticks to branches and sucks plant juices, secrets honey dew

2 time spray : Prior to flower open


imidacloprid (Confidor 200 SL) 0.2 ml/lt

Mealy Bug, Pindi Nalli

, after fruit set 1.6ml mono crotophos + 1gm carbandizam, Sulfur(Karathan e) , 400 gauge alkathene bands 20cm,methyl parathion powder at base set up in december

Scales, Polusu prugulu

Parathion 0.025% spray.

Trunk borer

Affects neglected trees with under nutrition and water

Leaf miner Shoot borer

if damage is extensive before onset

Dichlorvos(0.1 %), inject petrol/crude oil, soaked cotton Monocrotophos spray at monthly intervals. Neem or acephate Monocrotophos 0.04% or quinalphos or carbaryl 0.2% , 2.. 3sprays with 2wks gap

Anthracnos e fungi , machha tegulu

Blitox 0.125% or 3g/ltr copper oxycloride 2 times spray or during flowering carbandijim mancojeb

Fruit Fly

Termites ants

5% BHC or aldrin dusting at base Borax mix with ants food like sugar

Mango Monthly Maintenance Schedule


January Smoking control against Frost, N 100g,P 100g, K 120g/per ageyr February Harrow/Tilling Thiodin 0.2% against mango hopper Sulphur(karathane) 60g in 100ltrs against powdery mildew March Thiodin Sulphur second spray against mango hopper Cleaning of tree basins April Metasytox 0.1% against shoot gall maker Blitox 0.125% first spray against anthracnose May June Watching against birds Watching against birds Collection of dropped fruits July Harrowing ( smoothing surface after ploughing) Harvesting fertilizer application after harvest 500g N First spray blitox against anthracnose August Sept Blitox second spray against anthracnose Metasystox and Blitox second spray against shoot gall maker and anthracnose, Another spray after 15 days Basin cleaning Irrigation Irrigation Pruning of dead and deceased wood, digging of basins BHC dust around the trunk against mealy bugs Smoking against frost Irrigation Irrigation Irrigation Irrigation

Oct Nov Dec

During growing the plant , Pruning and training , watering, fertilizer , non humid conditions NAA 200ppm sprays for growth hormone problems like abnormal shoot growth.

Pesticides Notes
Organochlorides:
persistent , non degrading, DDT,aldrin,dieldrin, endosulfan

Organophosphates:
Highly toxic to non target oranganism parathion, malathion, methyl parathion , chlorpyrifos( safer to humans claimed), diazinon, dichlorvos(volatile) ,phosmet, tetrachlornvinphos,azinphos mehtyl,monochrotophos,phorate
Parathion more potent than methyl parathion Monocrotophos is banned in US:

Acephate : slightly toxic to plants, mainly used on aphids, moderately persistant

Carbamate:
The development of the carbamate insecticides has been called a major breakthrough in pesticides.The carbamates do not have the persistence of chlorinated pesticides. Although toxic to insects, carbaryl is detoxified and eliminated rapidly in vertebrates. These are used when pests develop resistance to organophospates Aldicarb , carbaryl(syvin),carbendazim

neonicotinoid
imidcloprid , nicotine based pesticide
Biorational pesticides:

Boric Acid: Natural Insecticide, Biocide, Fungicide to Control Gardening Pest in homes. It in excess is toxic to plants.
pyrethroid insecticides are modeled after pyrethrins, which are natural, plant-derived poisons that have been used as insecticides for hundreds of years.

Herbicides:
2,4-D exhibits relatively good selectivity, meaning, in this case, that it controls a wide number of broadleaf weeds while causing little to no injury to grass crops at normal use rates

Fungicides:
Karathane, sulphur based preventive fungicide, fungicide carbendazim a wide spectrum

Blitox is a 50% WP formulation of Copper Oxychloride, a very effective Fungicide Blitox Sulfex

Bordeaux

Identification of plants Drum stick/Moringa Oleifera/Munaga-kaya/Sahajan

http://www.moringafarms.com/growing_it.htm

Fertilizers

Bio-Fertilizers
http://agritech.tnau.ac.in/org_farm/orgfarm_biofertilizertechnology.html#10

Azospirillum Phosphobacteria Rhizobium Azotobacter VAM

Rs.40/Kg Rs.40/Kg Rs.40/Kg Rs.40/Kg Rs.30/Kg

Professor and Head Department of Agricultural Microbiology Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore - 641 003 Phone: 91-422-6611294 Fax: 91-422-2431672 Email: microbiology@tnau.ac.in

The Rhizosphere is the zone surrounding the roots of plants in which complex relations exist among the plant, the soil microorganisms and the soil itself. The plant roots and the biofilm associated with them can profoundly, influence the chemistry of the soil including pH and nitrogen transformations.

Phosphobacteria

Per Plant: Phosphobacteria 40gm ( fixes phosporous) Azospirillum 40gm ( fixes nitrogen & improves resistance) Trichoderma viride 40gm ( antagonistic fungus ,prevents root rot) Pseudomonas 15gm ( systemic action improves resistance to viral and bacterial infestation) VAM( vesicular arbuscular mycoriza fungi) 100gm (improves root growth, uptake of ions)

Bio fertilizer prices

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Prices of similar products in India may be lower than those listed depending on quality, sources and warranty offered . Price list for bio fertilizers in India supplied by Lokmangal Agro Ind. Ltd., India - July 24, 2005 You can list your product prices for reference by Indian buyers or request a quote from multiple suppliers. For further details or specific requirement, please send an email , use our feedback form with your address, phone no. and complete specifications. Prices for Bio-fertilizer, Bio-compost, Vermi-compost & Bio-pesticides Following are the products & its price list Name of Product Packing Price (in Rs.) 1.Azotobactor 100 gram 120/Kg. 2.Rizhobium 100 gram 60/500 gram 3.P.S.B. 100 gram 60/500 gram 4.D.C. 100 gram 60/500 gram 5.K.S.B. 100 gram 60/500 gram 6.Bio-compost 40 Kg 600/Bag 7.Vermi-compost 40 Kg 650/Bag 8.Tricho-derma 1 Kg. 300/Kg. 9.Verticellium 1 Kg. 400/Kg. Above prices are Ex-Factory site

SOIL SCIENCE
Soil
Soil is the outer covering of the planet, and the basis of our gardens. What our soil is like affects what we can grow and how well plants do in our particular garden. Unless we grow all our plants in containers where we can choose what we grow them in, we have to adapt our expectations to the soil we find in our gardens.

WHAT IS SOIL MADE OF?


Initially, all over the planet, small pieces of rock broke off mountains and fell, breaking into smaller pieces as they went, so that at the bottom of mountains, heaps of rocks, stones and dust formed. Plants were able to take root in this, and when these plants died and decayed they added to the pockets of soil. Eventually, much of the planet was covered in soil, its exact composition determined partly by the type of rock in the area and by the local weather conditions. So all soil is composed of small pieces of the local rock and decayed vegetable or animal matter. The rock particles are classified on the basis of their size:

CLAY is the smallest particles of broken rock in soil, less than .0002mm in diameter, so it is a fine dust. When wet, the individual particles stick together to form a solid mass. When they dry, they can bake to a hard crust. Clay holds water which does not drain away. SILT is slightly larger pieces of rock than clay. It is also soft and smooth, with individual pieces close together. It too holds a lot of water, but the slightly larger particles make it a little better at draining than clay. Silt is often found in river estauries, because the fine particles are washed downstream and deposited when the water flows more slowly. SAND is small pieces of rock (2mm to .05mm diameter) such as quartz or sandstone. Sand particles are large enough to allow water to drain easily, but they do not hold water and are easily blown around when dry. STONES, ROCKS AND BOULDERS are larger pieces of rock which are too big to form part of the soil but are found in many gardens. Under the surface layer of soil, they can help drainage. As well as rock, soil contains organic material, formed from decayed plants or animals. There are two main types of vegetation in soil: HUMUS is completely decayed matter. It forms a soft, crumbly material, uniformly dark brown in colour. It is the most useful component of soil from the plant's point of view, as it contains the nutrients necessary for growth and also holds water which enables these nutrients to be taken up by the plant. It has a light, open structure which holds air and drains well.

PEAT is partially-decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses and sedges. It is fibrous, so helps give body to soil, but it contains few nutrients, is easily waterlogged and badly drained. Soil also contains various minerals which are needed by plants: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, and smaller quantities of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum and chlorine.

TYPES OF SOIL
The soil we garden on is usually the topsoil, the surface layer, and it is only this layer that we can attempt to alter. The levels of plant nutrients and air pockets decrease as we get further from the surface. The underlaying rock is the substrate, which has a bearing on the composition of our topsoil, its drainage and acidity. An underlying layer of clay will promote acidity and bad drainage in the topsoil, and an underlying bedrock of chalk will make our topsoil free-draining and alkaline, as well as providing a physical barrier to roots. Soils are classified into different types, from the gardener's point of view, depending on the amounts of the various components they contain. The three main types are heavy soils, medium soils and light soils.

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HEAVY SOILS

Heavy soils are those with a large component of clay in them, because the clay particles bind together to form a heavy, sticky lump which is difficult to dig. Because it is composed of so many fine particles which stick together easily, it is liable to compaction. It holds a lot of water and easily becomes waterlogged, so it is cold and wet in spring, and takes a long time to warm up. On the plus side, clay soils are usually fertile and contain plenty of plant nutrients, and hold sufficient water to make these available to plant roots. Clay soils are usually acidic. Heavy clay soils can be improved by adding humus or other organic matter and sharp sand for better drainage. Tree Lupin grows well in clay soils

MEDIUM SOILS A soil with a mixture of clay, silt, sand and humus is often referred to as a loam. It contains the nutrients necessary for plants, holds sufficient water to make them available to the plant roots, with air pockets between the particles to allow good drainage, and it holds together well. Perhaps the easiest soil for gardening in, these fertile loamy soils are suitable for almost any type of plant without alteration. Medium soils are suitable for most plants

LIGHT SOILS There are several types of soil which can be called light. Sandy soils contain a very high proportion of sand, which contains few plant nutrients. They easily dry out, when the surface layer is easily blown away. Sandy soils drain quickly and do not hold water. They are often acidic. Sandy soils can be improved by adding plenty of organic matter in the form of garden compost or farmyard manure to give body and encourage moisture retention.

Some plants thrive on sand and shingle beaches

Peaty soils are also light. They often comprise almost solely peat, and often cover large areas of land, as in the New Forest or Dartmoor. Like sandy soils, they contain few plant nutrients. They are easily waterlogged, but can also dry out quickly. Peat soils may also contain a high percentage of fine sand, and they are acidic, supporting a small number of plant species that prefer these conditions. Peat forms the basis of soil-less composts, but needs the addition of fertilisers to provide plant nutrients. Peaty soil can be improved by the addition of garden compost or farmyard manure, and gravel or grit will help drainage.

Heath and heather on moorland in the New Forest

Chalky soils are also light. They are sometimes called basic soils. They are often very shallow, and they are always very alkaline. Chalk is a solid, soft rock which breaks down easily. It is very free draining, and chalky soils hold little water and dry out easily. They also tend to contain pieces of chalk, and often large flints, which should be treated with care, as they split easily and have very sharp edges. Chalky soils are fertile, but many of the nutrients are not available to plants because of the high alkalinity of the soil, which prevents the absorption of iron by plant roots. Chalky soils can be improved in so far as their physical structure is concerned, by the addition of humus to help retain water, but the alkalinity is almost impossible to alter, although sequestered iron sprinkled around individual plants may help them obtain the A bluebell wood on the chalk of the North Downs

nutrients they need. Although we might like to provide the perfect soil for every plant in our garden, it is not feasible to change the soil we have. Although there are some plants which grow naturally in a particular soil, most plants will grow in a wide variety of conditions. It is useful to know roughly what sort of soil you have to work with, and there's a simple test to check your soil composition on this webpage. Kits to test your soil's pH are available at garden centres, and a book listing plants suitable for particular soil types will convince you that whatever your soil you have a huge variety of plants to choose from. Two which have photos and descriptions of hundreds of plants are Right Plant, Right Place by Nicola Ferguson (Simon & Shuster) and Choosing the Perfect Plant for every part of your Garden (aka Best Plants for Your Garden) by Susan Berry & Steve Bradley. The RHS also publish one called Plants for Places.

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Alluvial soil , river deposits rich in potash ,poor in N,P good for all crops

Black Soil , forms cracks in summer, moisture retentive,highly suitable for cotton. Ok for sugarcane,groundnut,millets,rice,wheat,oilseeds Rich in iron,lime,calcium,magnesium,carbonates and alumina,poor in phosphorous,nitrogen and organic matter.

Red Soil : formed due to weathering of old crystalline rocks, more sandy less clay, rich in iron, small amounts of humus, poor in phosphorus,nitrogen and lime. Slightly acidic and do not retain moisture

As a tree grower we should have some basic knowledge about the chemical composition of our farm soil enabling us to select correct plant that suits our soil type. Some basic soil types, some problematic soils and their remedy methods are listed here. Those who have already tested their farm soil and got test reports can verify their soil status with the following 'Soil quality parameter chart.'

S.No. ........ Parameter 1. pH range

Acidic : Below 6.5 Neutral : 6.5 to 7.5 Alkaline : above 7.5 2. E.C Electrical Conductivity should be less than 1. 3. Carbonate status: P.E - Profuse effervescence M.E - Medium effervescence N.E - No effervescence 4. N.P.K HighStatus ... MediumStatus........... LowStatus N 148 ............ 113 to 148 .......... Below 113 Kgs per acre P above 9 ...............4.5 to 9 .............Below 4.5 Kgs per acre K above 113 ............ 48 to 113 .............Below 48 Kgs per acre N Nitrogen Essential for life P Phosphate P2O5 Phosphate Pentoxide ( Key to yield)

K Potash K2 O Potassium oxide ( Chemical Policeman) ( Na Sodium is the thief.) 5. O.C Organic Carbon 0.5 Good, 1 Excellent 6. O.M Organic Matter Always double of O.C Soil weight of 6 depth x 1 Acre area = 10 Lakh Kgs. In that mass if you add 200 tons of dry matter,You will get 20 tons of Organic matter (OM), that will give 10 tons of Organic Carbon (OC) thats called 1% OC

7. C.E.C Cationic Exchange Capacity. It should be above 50. Achieving100 is a must. Heavy dose of organic input and Humic acid will enhance CEC considerably.

8. Essential elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen (available from air & water) 9. Major Nutrients: N P K 10. Secondary Nutrients: Ca, Mg and S Ca Calcium is the king among the nutrients. Among Ca, Mg, Na & K, more than 50% should be Ca. Ca content should be 1/3 to 1/2 of C.E.C. In other words Ca should be 50% of CEC. If Ca is low, then apply Calcium Carbonate. Application of Mono calcium Phosphate and Super Phosphate should be increased. Mg - Magnesium should be 25% of CEC. Ca and Mg should be in the ratio of 3:1. If Mg is low, then apply MgSo4. Na, K and other Mineral balance 25% of CEC.

10 a) Micro Nutrients: Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Boron, Chlorine, Fluorine Etc., Cu - above 1.2 ppm or Kgs / Acre. If lower, then apply Cu So4. Zn - above 1.2 ppm or Kgs / Acre. If lower, then apply Zn So4. Mn - above 3.8 ppm or Kgs / Acre. i.e half the value of Fe. If lower, then apply Mn So4. Fe - above 6 ppm or Kgs / Acre. i.e double the value of Mn. If lower, then apply Fe So4.

11. B.S.P: - Base Saturation Percentage should be above 80%.

Ratio between (Ca + Mg + Na + K / (CEC) x 100 = 80% 12. E.S.P - Exchangeable Sodium Percentage. Safe level below10 Moderate level 10 to 15.

Toxic level >15. ( Na / CEC) x 100 = below 10%

13. Types of Soil : Sand, Loamy Sand, Sandy Loam, Sandy Clay Loam, Clay loam, Sandy Clay, Silty Clay and Clay. 14. Ideal Soil Texture : Sand 33% : Silt 33% : Clay 33% 15. Acidic soil and its remedies: ( in Tamil) Acidity due to Lower Ph because of low Ca. pH range below 6.5 is Acidic. Apply recommended dose of Calcium 10 days before applying any basal fertilizers then plough well to properly mix the Ca in the soil and irrigate. 16. Alkaline soil and its remedies: ( ' in Tamil) Alkalinity due to higher pH because of the presence of Na. Soil pH above 8 to 8.9 is Alkaline. E.C below 4 E.S.P Below 10% (For Sodic Soil above 15%) Growth of sensitive deep rooted crops will be moderately affected. Apply liberal Qty. of FYM, raise Green Manure crops and plough them back into soil to increase O.C thereby increasing the drainage capacity of the soil. Basal application of 300 Kgs of Gypsum per Acre for every crop. Apply more depending upon the alkalinity of the soil. Use only Fertilizers like DAP, Zn So4, Am So4, K2 So4 (Pottassium Sulphate) Etc.

17. Sodic soil and its remedies: Presence of Na above 15 in Alkaline soil.

Soil pH above 9

E.C below 4 E.S.P above 15% (For Alkaline soils below 10%) Sodium Carbonate in the Soil reacts with salts and Fertilizers and the end products get deposited as white patches above the soil. Because of higher pH, nutrients in the soil are less. Since the soil subsurface is harder, plant roots cant able to penetrate it. Remedy for Sodic Soil: Raise Daincha or Sunhemp and plough it back into soil (incorporate). Cultivate Sun Flower Crop every year. It was proved that the Sun Flower plant absorbs Na from the soil and stores them in its parts. After harvest, the total plant with dried leaves should be removed. Apply 5 Tons of press mud from Sugar mill. Use only Fertilizers like DAP, Zn So4, Am So4, K2 So4 (Pottassium Sulphate) Etc. Apply liberal Qty. of M.N nutrients especially Zn. (Zn So4 @ 40Kgs per Hect. as basal is necessary. 25% more N as Basal is necessary. Raise Saline resistant varieties (Such as Trichy 1, Co 43 in Paddy)

For Paddy, transplant only matured plantlings of 35 to 40 days age. Plant 3 to 5 saplings per Kuthu. Sodic condition can be rectified using Chemicals such as Gypsum, Sulphur or Pairates. Role of Gypsum (Ca So4) in the reclamation of Sodic Soil: Contents of Gypsum: S 18% + Ca 23% + P2 O5 5% Regular application of Gypsum (Ca So4) @ 200 Kgs per Acre will give good yields because of its S and Ca contents. It neutralizes the harmful Na in the soil and reduces the E.S.P. For Sodic soil reclamation : 1) Deep plough the field twice especially by Disc plough. It breaks open the hard soil pan lies in the subsurface and brings out the Na rich soil to the surface. 2) Evenly spread Gypsum (Ca So4) 2 Tons leading in good quality water (leaching) puddling by cage wheel ( ) - maintain Water level at 6 and wait for 2 days. - Ca So4 in Gypsum reacts with Na ( Sodium Bicarbonate ) in the soil and becomes Na So4 Drain out the frothy Na So4 solution from the field. Irrigate immediately - puddling by cage wheel ( ) 2nd time Drain out the frothy Na So4solution from the field. 3) Raise Daincha and incorporate. 4) Afetr that raise Horse Gram ( in Tamil) and dont take seeds in the first year allow the seeds to drop and the plant to wither after the rains i.e. in the next season take seeds. Saline soil and its remedies: ( in Tamil) Normal Ph range, but with more E.C, because of Sulphates and Chlorates of Ca, Mg, Na and K. Soil with high soluble salts, hence E.C above 4 Density of the cell sap in the root system is lower than the density of the salts in the soil resulting in reverse osmosis. (i.e) water / cell sap will ooze out of the cell wall and into the soil.

Cultivate Saline (Uvar) tolerant varieties such as Paddy , Ragi, Cotton, Sugar cane and Chillies, Apply liberal Qty. of FYM, raise Green Manure crops and plough them back into soil to increase O.C thereby increasing the drainage capacity of the soil. Level the field evenly - Irrigate Soft water ( free from Bicarbonates) copiously maintain water level then drain out the water completely - the unwanted salts dissolves in the water and flows out. Provide adequate channels to let in rainwater and water from the irrigation tank. Salts will be washed off during heavy rains. Drain out the salt dissolved water from the field. We can reduce the salt content of the soil by increasing the drainage capacity of the field

Moringa Oleifera /Drum stick/Munaga-kaya/Sahajan

LifePeriod: Perennial Growth Characteristics: Grows 2..3 mtr per year, prune continually for low height and bushy shape, grows pods within 8 months after planting, drought resistant, yield period several years 4..5 Uses: All parts of the plant are useful. The nut stick can be used in dishes ( pulses broth) , makes it tasty and nutritious, tender leaves can be used in salad, old dry leaves tea, dry leaves powder as nutrition supplement. has many health benefits like cleansing blood, stomach , boosting immune system, reduces cancer risk, improves sexual function. Nutrition: High protein, calcium, iron, potassium, vitamin-A, amino-acids Harvest: continuous yield of pods with sufficient water and manure.

Anacardium occidentale / Cashew

Growth Characteristics: Tropical climate, grows like weeds, Perennial tree Pests: . Uses:

Seeds are ground into powders used for antivenom for snake bitesFruit is edible , nut
needs roasting to remove poisonous cover , Nutrition: Harvest:

Cross pollinates. Flowers and sets fruit in winter. You can eat cashew apple. But the nut needs careful handling. You can't just shell and eat cashew nuts like other nuts. Their shell is full of a horrible, caustic liquid that will burn holes into you!

Sapodilla/Chikoo/Sapota

Growth: Tropical Plant easy to grow, perennial

Harvesting: Fruits can be picked in in May/June like mango, Pick when the fruit on the plant is little soft and on plucking milk should not come, leave it bunch of leaves, or in container it ripens after 3 days.

Uses:
Sapodilla is rich in dietary fiber, relieves constipation,also helps protect the mucous membrane of the colon from cancer causing toxins by firmly binding to them.The fruit is rich in antioxidant poly-phenolic compound tannin. anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic effects,anti-diarrheal, hemostatic (stops bleeding) and as a remedy for hemorrhoids.

Jambul/neredu pandu

Growth: The tropical perennial tree, fairly fast growing , reaches height of 30mtrs. Uses : The fruit has a combination of sweet, mildly sour and astringent flavour and tends to colour the tongue purple.Seeds , bark, leaves are used in ayurvedic medicine for controlling diabetes, blood pressure etc. ever green shade tree, wood is also useful.

Harvesting: May/June fruits are set likemango

Citrus x Limun/ Lemon

Growth: grows as a bush in 2..3 years , starts fruiting from 3rd or 4th year. Needs more water, use organic manure.

Pests: Many insect pests are common to this family. Uses: its yellow fruit contains citric acid used for culinary purpose, lemon juice is used in summer to protect oneself from the effects of hot sun.

Phoenix dactylifera/Date Palm/ Kajur

Growth: like eetha grows tall in desert climate with underground water. Uses:

"dates may be considered as an almost ideal food, providing a wide range of essential nutrients and potential health benefits." Dates are a very good source of dietary potassium. The sugar content of ripe dates is about 80%; the remainder consists of protein, fiber, and trace elements including boron, cobalt, copper, fluorine, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc. Dates have a high tannin content and are used medicinally as a detersive (having cleansing power) and astringent in intestinal troubles. infusion, decoction, syrup, or paste, dates may be administered for sore throat, colds, bronchial catarrh, and taken to relieve fever and a number of other complaints.[citation needed]. Because of its luxative quality, dates are considered to be good in preventing the Constipation disease. A gum that exudes from the wounded trunk is employed in India for treating diarrhea and genitourinary ailments.
Harvesting: Fruits set after 4th year. There are male and female plants they need cross pollination. For manual pollination rub the flower from the male plant to flower of female plants. Protect the fruits from birds with nets cover to the bunch.

Papaya
How to Grow Papayas from Seeds
Papayas are an excellent fruit to grow, since they fruit pretty quickly and year round.

Growing from Seeds


Papayas can be grown from seeds, and you can actually use the seeds from shopbought papayas! This is certainly the cheapest method, and possibly also the most enjoyable. You should be aware though, that even if papayas are easy to grow, the plant also tends to die easily, so you will need to care for it, especially during its early stages. Papayas are native of tropical climates, so you will obviously have an advantage if you live in a tropical of sub-tropical zone. In general papayas need lots of sunlight, lots of water, fertile soil, and absolutely no frost. If you live in a zone where the temperature drops often below 30F, your plants will likely die.

Planting the seeds


To get the seeds, just cut a store bought papaya in half and take out the seeds. They are usually very abundant and one papaya will likely provide you with enough seeds to fill your garden and even your neighbors'. The seeds should be planted in your garden (pots are no good, especially when you consider the trees grow up to 20 feet in height), in a spot that is sunlit for at least 6 hours a day. Beware the transplanting processes as well: their roots are very fragile and do not respond well to damage, so it is best to plant the seed where you want the plant to grow. Papayas produce lots of fruit, but to do so they also need lots of nutrients from their soil: use a lot of good compost and soil, possibly a meter across, and plant

about 20-30 seeds in your patch. Cover the seeds with half an inch of compost, then mulch them well, and wait a couple of weeks. You will notice that not all the seeds produce healthy plants: some of them will inevitably be stronger and larger, and those are the ones you want to keep! You should keep about 6-8 plants, since papaya plants can be either male, female or bisexual: the male gender does not produce fruit, so you want to be sure you're keeping at least one or two females and bisexuals.

Date of Planting : Febraury 2008 ,20 Months old, Date of Harvest : November 2009 , Weight: 70 Kg per tree 47 cm girth High Yielding Clones Capable of producing

50 tonnes/acre/year to 60 tonnes/acre/year

Dry weight after 15 days of the 47 cm gbh tree has become 67 Kg from 70 Kg recorded at the time of harvest.(under unirrigated condition) In a farmers field, under irrigated condition, at 3m X 3m espacement with interplanting of casuarina, Melia dubia tree has grown to 45 cm gbh with a total weight of 55kgs in one year.

Melia Dubia One Farmer Success Story

Introduction
I started off as a farmer 20 years ago I have grown everything from banana, papaya, coconuts, sugarcane and horticulture trees like chikku. Over a period of years I have zeroed in on melia dubia as the most economically feasible tree to grow on a large scale without much maintenance and market rate risks. the only drawback being the harvest starts only after 10 years the farmer can do multiple crop cultivation for the first 3 years after which the canopy of melia dubia does not allow anything to grow under it. This tree had always fascinated me by its lush growth after years of market research on this tree I realized the value of the timber is growing at a faster pace than even real estate and the supply and demand gap is widening by the day.

My plantation
As I knew the requirements to grow melia dubia was rich soil and rainfall of above 1000mm I headed towards kollegal as I knew this area would be best suited to grow this tree I found a wonderful place at foot hills of the BRT wildlife sanctuary in 2002.

My methods
My personal experience of earlier farming drove me to plant only 40 tree per acre so that there would not be competition for sunlight and growth would be optimum which the tree themselves are speaking off now. The entire plantation is drip irrigated and fertilized.

Results so far
The average size of my 5 year old trees are about 100 cms circumference at chest height and the bole length is 9 meters my plantation is in phased manner as I have 5 years old trees to 1 year old trees. I am looking at a harvest in the next 4 years with a girth of 200cms and 9 meter bole which I am very confident of attaining seeing the growth year on year. Location: kollegal taluk, chamrajnagar district, Karnataka state India.

Blogs/Discussions of Melia Dubia

http://agrowmania.blogspot.com/2011/03/book-on-melia-dubia-malai-vembu.html

Dear farmer friends, Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding Institute (IFGTB), Coimbatore, in collaboration with Tamilnadu Forest Dept. (Extension), has organized a Tree Growers Mela on Feb, 24 & 25, 2011 with an objective to familiarise farmers with modern and improved tree farming methods and market opportunities. At the inagural function IFGTB has released a nice looking, very informative book titled "Melia dubia" (Malai Vembu) with about 55 pictures in both Tamil and English version. It was authored by Mrs.Rekha R.Warrier with active support from fellow scientists and the Director of IFGTB, Dr.N.Krishna Kumar,IFS.

Though this magic tree has caught the attention of farmers due to its fast growth and high economic returns they have been left in the lurch as there is dearth of information and authentic source to know about its growth performance, yield, log quality, pulping details and above all its basic cultivation technique. IFGTB has brought out this book at a right time and information provided in this booklet will be of great use for all those concerned with the cultivation of Melia dubia (Malai vembu). Some excerpts from the book: (Especially for farmers who seek details to improve germination rate of Melia seeds). Fruit collection: It is best to adopt ground collection of fallen fruits than obtain them by climbing and shaking of the branches. .... Care should be taken to collect only the ripe yellow or brown fruits. Green fruits indicate immaturity and should not be collected. Processing and handling: After collection, the fruits can be transported to the place of processing in gunny bags or Bamboo baskets. Ripe yellow fruits can be depulped easily if the fruits undergo fermentation and heating as the pulp is difficult to remove. ...... fermentation can be hastened by soaking the fruits in slightly acidified water (pH 5.5 - 5.6) or in lime water (diluted Calcium Hydroxide solution). Once fermented, the fruits are macerated in Bamboo baskets and thoroughly washed under running water so that even a small quantity of pulp is not adhered to the seeds. Sand can be used as an abrasive to remove the pulp thoroughly. ..... If the pulp is not thorougly removed, the drupes are susceptible to fungal infestation. Storage and viability: The drupes thus extracted have to be sun-dried for ten days in shade. Cleaned and dried drupes can then be stored in gunny bags or sealed tins for one or two years without losing viability. Seed Processing and pretreatments: Reports state very poor germination in Melia. ..... Various pretreatments like:

hot water soaking (60-70 degree C), boiling water treatment (100 Degree C), roasting drupes at 60 degree C for 5-10 minutes, storing of drupes in farm yard manure, treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid, drupes collected from the spittings of goats, soaking of drupes in cow dung slurry for two to fifteen days, cutting the hard endocarp of drupes and soaking drupes in cold water for a week have been suggested to improve the germination rate of Melia dubia. ..... The major constraints in germination identified in the species at IFGTB are the source of collection, time and medium of sowing. (Seeds stored for a min of one year show better germination over fresh ones). NURSERY: (Seed sowing) The drupes should be graded in water to remove floating drupes prior to sowing. Cleaned and dried drupes should be sown in the open raised nursery beds, in drilled lines, 5cm apart. About 6-7 kgs of dried drupes containing about 1500 numbers are required for one standard nursery bed (10x1m). The drupes sown need to be watered regularly. The content of the book also includes 1.Maintenance of seedlings 2. Vegetative propagation 3. Plantation methods 4. Silvicultural characteristics 5. Planting space 6. Pests and diseases 7. Recommended intercrops 8. Wood properties 9. Timber characteristics 10. Wood processing 11. Uses 12. Growth statistics 13.Economics 14. Problems in identification of Melia dubia and Melia azedarach.

The above book is available in both Tamil and English version and can be purchased from: The Director, IFGTB, PB:1061, Forest campus, Coimbatore - 641 002, Tamilnadu. Price Rs.100/"Plant Melia for prosperity" Regards,

You may go for MELIA DUBIA. Please go through the details, Sudhir Pai

EARN MILLIONS WITH MELIA DUBIA.......... Melia Dubia is the fastest growing tree and the wood from this tree is used in Plywood Industry. 400 trees can be planted in an acre that fetch 15-20 lakhs in 6 - 7years. Sudhir 9242730215 e-mail; sudhir_vpai@yahoo.com

Melia dubia Synonym : Melia composita ;Melia candollei ? ;Melia linnaeus ? Melia azedarach L. var australasica (Different from Melia azedarach ) English: White cedar,Tulip cedar ,Chinaberry ,Marking Nut, Malabar Neem, Persian lilac Pride-of-India, China tree, Vernacular names : Tamil: Malay vembu; Masaveppu ;Malai vembu Malayalam: Aryaveppu; Malaveppu ; Valiyaveppu; Kattuveppu Kannada: Betta bevu; Heb bevu ;Olle bevu Thur bevu Telegu :Arcini karra Hindi:Bakain; Bakayan Bengali:Ghoranim;Ghoraneem Marathi:Limbara

family Meliaceae, mahogany family MELIA DUBIA - It is called as MALAI VEMBU in Tamilnadu. It is considered as the fastest growing tree.It can be done in two ways. One by taking seeds but it takes about 5/6 years to fully grown tree. The other way is by cloning and it will take 3/4 years only. The quality of the wood by seed germination process is very good. It is used for multipurposes,vz. Bio-Mass for power generation, Veneers for Plywoods, Boat and Catamarine building, House contruction work and furnitures *** The timber is very light & easily attacked by termite/white ant. Melia seedlings best planted in June-July...seedling about 6'' to 8". Will grow to 3 feet very quickly and thereafter it is difficult to transport 2nd year thinning can fetch Rs. 75000 ( per acre...match industry can pay even twice the cost per tonne 1000/tonne at farm...delivered at Erode etc. about Rs.1500/tonne... around Rs. 50000 per acre High calorific value...very suitable for energy plantation?! Melia dubia contacts/resources Pugazhendi, President South Karnataka Tamil Sangam Federation Gundalpattu Near Chamrajnagar growing Melia for plywood industry in partnership with Balakrishnan. Per cubic foot Rs. 200/5th year 15 Cubic feet per tree 100 km from Sathyamangalam via Chamrajnagar Planted 5' by 5'..1750 trees per acre..check..2nd year thinning to 10' by 10'...2 lakhs per acre for firewood Seedlings from Mysore Ravindra Shenoi 6" seedling grew to 15' in 8 months. Pits 1.5' by 1.5' by 1.5'.. drip irrigated...no fertilizer Shri N.L Chandkumar, Deputy Conservator of Forest, Kolar Shri Manjunath, DFO, Assistant Silviculturist, Karnataka Forest Service Experienced in clonal propagation of Melia dubia seedlings Residence about 30 Km from Hosur Pharmadig

Plantations for Timber/Wood


Melia dubia
sir, The melia dubia (malai vempu/konda Vepa) and gmelina arborea (kumil are the fast growing spices among timber varieties in the universe.The minimum cultivation period is 6 years onwards.The spacing dimension is as follows like 10'x10,9'x8' & 8'x8' .One farmer growing the melia dubia in Bhavani sagar,Tamilnadu .The age of the tree is 9 yrs .So many person trying to purchsae that tree & fixed the price Rs 15000/- .But the farmer is denying to sell and he wants to keep it for some more years. we are having the good quality melia Dubia & Gmelina arborea seedlings are availiable for planting.

For more details plz contact us: A Sivakumar Priya Nursery Garden KARAIKUDI-630001,TN 09843080275 priyagar06@yahoo.co.in

Melia dubia tree holds promise of good returns for ryots


M. J. Prabu

The Hindu REMUNERATIVE: G. Kumaravelu with some high yielding yielding tree varieites. Photo: M.J. Prabu

About Rs.2 lakhs per acre can be expected from sixth year of planting One of the main problems that farmers face today is decreasing income from an acre per year against sudden increase in the value of agricultural lands due to newly formed rural roads, mushrooming of industries, and concrete dwellings. This forces several small farmers to sell their lands and settle in urban concrete jungles.
Low income

Diminishing income from an acre against increasing land value, forces many farmers to sell their lands. A family of 4 members need a monthly income of Rs.40,000 from an acre if they have to survive. But today from an acre one gets anything between Rs.10,000 to Rs.12,000.

How is this enough? Naturally he prefers to sell his lands than continue farming. If we are keen that farming lands should not be sold then we must ensure income generation of at least Rs.20,000 to Rs.30,000 from an acre a year, explains Dr. G. Kumaravelu, Member, Tamil Nadu Planning Commission and former Chief Conservator of Forests, Tamil Nadu.
Easy method

The easiest way to increase income from an acre is by planting certain tree varieties such Melia dubia (Malai Vembu in Tamil) which fetch a handsome price in the market, assured buyback, and require low maintenance expenditure. In addition, the trees also aid the planet by preventing temperature rise and checking gas emission into the atmosphere as the trees are naturally endowed to absorb maximum CO{-2}.
Money spinner

Melia is a money spinning tree of short duration. Even if planted as a single row along the field bunds, about 60 trees can be planted per acre, which will fetch an income of about Rs.2 lakhs in the sixth year of planting. Since there is a total mismatch between demand and supply for wood and veneer, block planting of 300 to 400 trees per acre can ensure a minimum profit of rupees one lakh per year from an acre. Under good maintenance and controlled irrigation from sixth year onwards, depending on the soil depth and quality trees of 80 to 100 cm gbh(girth at breast height) with a clear bole of 5 metres height can fetch Rs.4, 000 at today's price (7 per cent escalation can be added per year for the sale price). Intercultivation can be done with annual crops in the first three years and then spices such as pepper can be grown.
Single row planting

Even if planted in a single row along the field bunds, about 60 trees can be planted at six feet spacing which will fetch an income of about Rs.2 lakhs in the sixth year. Under high density planting with 1,000 to 1,500 trees in an acre, a yield of 40 to 50 tonnes is possible from the second and third year of planting. As the demand for Melia wood is quite high, minimum profit of about Rs.40,000 per year from an acre can be ensured for the farmers today, says, Dr. Kumaravelu.
Pest infestations

Regarding pest infestations affecting this tree Dr. Kumaravelu says, the variety is susceptible to root rot. Only optimum irrigation is required . While planting the seedlings application of 2-3 kgs of vermicompost, 40 gms of Phosphobacteria, Azospirillum and Trichoderma Viride each in addition to 10-20 gms of

Pseudomonas and 100 grams of VAM (vesicular arbuscular mycoriza) helps in promoting good growth.
Buy back

Interested farmers who want to buy the seedlings can contact our office and we are willing to guide them right from purchasing the seedlings to buy back, assures Dr. Kumaravelu. For information contact Dr. G. Kumaravelu, State Planning Commission, 5th floor, Ezhilagam, Chepauk, Chennai: 600005, email: drgkumaravel@gmail.com, Phone: 044-28545482 (Off).

Melia dubia 5 yr old bund planting

GMelina Arborea

Kumiz

tree 1y ear old 40cm gbh

Casuarina ( River Oak,Sarugudu)

Ailanthus Excelsa; Penu Vepa/Pedda Manu

Albizia procera/white siris

muli bamboo (Melocanna baccifera)

Grewia Tiliaefolia ;Cahrachi

Kadambam

m aram . Anthocephaluscadamba 6year old 105cm gbh 15cft Value 5000 rs per tree

Silver Oak

Timber Plantations Comparison Table


Plant Name Eucalyptus Melia Dubia Gmelina Arborea/Kumil/Gumarte k Furniture,
For furniture, Paper mills, particle boards, match boxes, match sticks and craft paper

Uses Plywood

Harvest Yr

Properties

10 12 Drought tolerant,excellent wood, prone to insect pests pathogens

Casuarina Junghuhniana/sarugudu

Paper,rayon ropes, mirror frames

6..5

Desease free

Rs 3500/ton, 5 tons/acre/yr

Ailanthus Excelsa Grewia Tiliaefolia Dalbergia Sissoo/Indian rosewood Teak 18 20

Vegetables

Garlic

Floriculture

Gerbera jamesonii

LIVE FENCING OPTIONS


We suggest the following system of live fencing. Which we recommended and many farmers are following. The purpose of live fencing is arresting the intruders both humans and animals into the farm by natural way. Plant Gachhakaya (Caesalpinia crista), Linn. The seeds of this plant is used as an vermifuge. This very thorny plant is good as a fencing where it will deter any intruder. Once entangled in the thorns one has no other choice but to back up. For every two feet put one plant. Pinch it at 2feet height, once it attains 3 ft growth. Then it spreads and flushes with good vegetation. Plant bamboo for every 10 feet and irrigate it regularly. You can find thorny bamboos for this purpose. Plant along with border/boundary of your farm land and irrigate it. Bamboo responds very well with irrigation Regards Raghu Ram