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STRUCTURAL STEEL DETAILING

TRAINING MANUAL

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INDEX
SECTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 INTRODUCTION STRUCTURAL PRODUCTS AND SHAPES 2.1 2.6 APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS, COADES AND STANDARDS MATERIALS PROPERTY SPECIFICATION 4.1 4.5 MEMBER SECTIONAL PROPERTIES GLOSSARY DETAILING PROCESS FLOW CHART DETAILING PROCEDURES STANDARD SHEET PREFIX DETAILING CAD- STANDARDS DRAWING PRESENTATION STRUCTURAL DETAILING STANDARDS 12.1 12.8 CHECKING PROCEDURES
PROJECT QUALITY SYSTEMS

DESCRIPTION

PAGE NO 3-3 3-4 5-5 5-6 7 - 15 16 - 20 20 - 20 21 - 21 22 - 22 23 - 23 24 - 25 25 - 47 48- 48 49 - 54 55 - 56 57 - 57 58 - 88 89 - 93 94 - 99

ERROR TYPE STANDARD CLIP ANGLES STANDARD CONNECTIONS WELDING STANDARDS BOLTING STANDARDS NOTES

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1.

INTRODUCTION

What is Structural Steel Detailing? Structural Steel Detailing is the process of converting design drawings (engineering drawings / contract drawings) to shop drawings (fabrication drawings) to facilitate easy and speedy fabrication of structural members in shop. What are Design drawings? Design drawings are the drawings generated by the Architects / Engineers. They are generally the floor plan layouts, Elevation of the buildings, & Section details. The design drawing provides all the basic data required for preparation of shop drawings such as Bottom of base plate level, Top of steel elevation, Top of concrete elevation, floor levels, Section sizes of beams & columns, Column & Beam connection details, Type of connection etc. What are Structural Members? Columns, Beams, Channels & Angles are known as structural members. Hence structural steel detailing means detailing of these members for their inter connectivity and assembly so that they can be fabricated in shops with all the necessary connections and shipped to site so that they can be assembled easily. 2. 2.1 STRUCTURAL PRODUCTS AND SHAPES W-, M-, S- and HP- Shapes (These are H- shaped or I- shaped members) W- Shape: This has essentially parallel inner and outer flange surface. M- Shape: These are H- shapes that are not classified in ASTM A6 as W-, S- or HP- shapes S- Shape: They have a slope of approximately 162/3 percent (2 on 12) on the inner flange. (This is also known as American Standard Beams) HP- Shape: These are similar to W- Shape, except their webs and flanges are of equal thickness and the depth and flange width are nominally equal for a given designation. These shapes are designated by mark W, M, S or HP. For example a W24X55. W- shape that is nominally 24-inch deep and weighs 55 lbs/ft. 2.2 Channels C- Shapes: They have a slope of approximately 162/3 percent (2 on 12) on the inner flange. (Also known as American Standard Channels).
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MC- Shape: They have a slope other then 162/3 percent (2 on 12) on the inner flange. (Also known as miscellaneous channels)

These shapes are designated by mark C or MC. For example a C12X25. C- shape that is nominally 12-inch deep and weighs 25 lbs/ft. 2.3 Angles Angles (also known as L- shape) have legs of equal thickness and either equal or unequal leg sizes. Angles are designated by the mark L. For example L4X3X1/2 is an angle with one 4 inch leg, one 3 inch leg and inch thickness. 2.4 Structural Tees (WT-, MT-, and ST- Shapes) WT- shapes: Made from W- shapes. MT- shapes: Made from M- shapes. ST- shapes : Made from S- shapes.

These shapes are designated by mark WT-, MT- or ST-. For example a WT12X27.5 is a structural tee split from W24X55. WT- shape that is nominally 12-inch deep and weighs 27.5 lbs/ft. 2.5 Hollow Structural Sections (HSS) Rectangular (including square) HSS, which have an essentially rectangular (or square) cross section, except for rounded corners, and uniform wall thickness, except at the weld seam Round HSS, which have essentially round cross section and uniform wall thickness except at the weld seam These shapes are designated as HSS. For example HSS 10.000X0.500 is nominally 10 inch in diameter with inch wall thickness. 2.6 Double Angles These shapes are designated by the mark 2L, the size and thickness of the their legs (inches) and their orientation when the angle legs are not equal size (LLBB or SLBB). For example a 2L4X3X1/2 LLBB has two angles with one 4 inch leg and one 3 inch leg and the 4 inch legs are back-to-back a 2L4X3X1/2 SLBB is similar, except the 3 inch legs are backto-back. In both cases, the legs are inch thick.

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3. APPLICABLE SPECIFICATIONS, CODES AND STANDARDS 1. LRFD Specifications: The 1999 AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings 2. HSS Specification: The 2000 AISC Specification for the Design of Steel Hollow Structural Sections. 3. RCSC Specifications: The 2000 Research Council on Structural Connections Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts. 4. AWS D1.1: Structural Steel Welding Code from American Welding Society 5. OSHA Specifications: Occupational Safety and Health Administration Specification for the construction Industry. 4. 4.1 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. MATERIALS PROPERTY SPECIFICATION W- Shapes The preferred material specification for W-shape is ASTM A992 (Fy=50 ksi and Fu=65 ksi) W-shapes with higher yield stress can be obtained by specifying ASTM A572 grade 60 or 65, ASTM A913 grade 60, 65 and 70. W- shapes with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering) ASTM A588 grade 50 ASTM A242 grade 42 Other material specification applicable to W-shape include ASTM A36 ASTM A 529 grade 50 and 55 ASTM A 572 grade 42and 50 ASTM A 913 grade 50 M- Shapes, S- Shapes HP-Shapes and Channels The preferred material specification for M- shape is ASTM A36 (Fy=36 ksi and Fu=58 ksi) M-shapes with higher yield stress can be obtained by specifying ASTM A572 grade 42, 50, 55, 60 and 65 ASTM A529 grade 50 and 55 ASTM A913 grade 50, 60, 65 or 70 M- shapes with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering) ASTM A588 grade 50 ASTM A242 grade 50

4.2

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4.3

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1.

4.4

4.5

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2.

Angles The preferred material specification for Angles is ASTM A36 (Fy=36 ksi and Fu=58 ksi) Angles with higher yield stress can be obtained by specifying ASTM A572 grade 42, 50, 55, 60 and 65 ASTM A529 grade 50 and 55 ASTM A913 grade 50, 60, 65 or 70 Angles with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering) ASTM A588 grade 50 ASTM A242 grade 46 or 50 Rectangular (Square) and Round HSS The preferred material specification for HSS is ASTM A500 grade B (Fy=46 ksi and Fu=58 ksi) although ASTM A500 grade C (Fy= 50 ksi; Fu= 62 ksi) HSS-shapes other material specifications applicable ASTM A501 ASTM A618 HSS- shapes with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering) ASTM A847 Structural Plates The preferred material for structural plates is ASTM A36 (Fy= 36 ksi for plate thickness equal to or less then 8 inch; Fy=32 ksi otherwise; Fu=58 ksi) Structural plates with higher yield and tensile strength ASTM A572 grade 42, 50, 55, 60 or 65 ASTM A529 grade 50 or 55 ASTM A514 grade 90 or 100 ASTM A852 Structural plate with atmospheric corrosion resistance (weathering) ASTM A588 grade 42, 46 or 50 ASTM A242 grade 42, 46 or 50

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6.

GLOSSARY SL. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 TERMINOLOGY AISC ANCHOR BOLT BACKING BAR BEARING PLATE CAMBER COPING CONTRACT DRAWING DECK ERECTION PLANS EMBEDMENT PLANS JOIST BEARING JAMBS KNEE BRACE KIP MEANING American Institute of Steel Construction A long bolt which is set in concrete and used to anchor columns or other members to a foundation or other support A welding aid used to prevent melting through of a joint when performing. (for eg. A complete-joint penetration groove weld) The steel plate used to bear on when they are supported by masonry or concrete supports. This plate transfers the beam/joist reaction to the supporting structure. An upward curvature of the chords of a beam induced during fabrication to compensate for deflection due to loading conditions The process of removing certain sections of a structural steel member to allow easier fit up to the supporting structural member All the architectural, structural, mechanical etc. plans that make up a legal set of contract documents to build a building by A floor or roof covering made out of gage metal attached by welding or mechanical means to joists, beams etc. Plan drawings that identify individual marks & components in a detailed manner to permit proper erection Plan drawings showing plate, bolt, stud, or bar cast into a concrete structure, which is used to transmit applied loads to the concrete. The distance that seat of a joist or joist girder extends over its masonry, concrete, or steel support Vertical member at the side of a wall opening A structural brace positioned diagonally between a beam or a column and a joist panel point A unit of weight equal to 1000 pounds

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15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

N S GROUT OSL POUR STOP SHIPMENT OF DRAWINGS STUB DIMENSION GA LLV LLH SLV SLH JBE TOF TOS EOD EOS FV

Non-Shrinking sand cement mixture used under base plates to obtain uniform bearing surface. Outstanding leg, The leg of a structural angle which is projecting toward or away from you when viewing An angle used around the sides of a floor to contain the concrete when it is being poured. Issuing of detail drgs Running Dimension Gauge Longer Leg Vertical Longer Leg Horizontal Short Leg Vertical Short Leg Horizontal Joist Bearing Elevation Top of Footing Top of Steel Edge Of Deck Edge Of Slab Field Verify

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31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

FOW FFE GOSL GOL N/S F/S B/S WP BOM C G LINE SJI SDI SSPC FIN-2-E UNO THK TYP

Face of Wall Finished Floor Elevation Gauge On Single Angle Gauge On Angle Near side Far Side Both Sides

Working Point Bill Of Material Center of Gravity line Steel Joist Institute Steel Deck Institute Structural Steel Painting Council Finishing 2 ends Unless Noted Otherwise Thick Typical

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48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

TYP UN CL H S BOLTS SC2E AISI AWS PIECE MARK SHIP MARK BEVELED WASHERS SLBB LLBB HVAC SQ-2-E SQIE-BIE RD HSS WP/WP

Typical Unless Noted Center Line High Strength Bolts Square Cut 2 Ends American Iron & Steel Institute American Welding Society Individual item mark Total Assembly mark Tapered washers Short Legs Back to Back Longer Legs Back to Back Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning system Square cut 2 ends Square cut at one end, Bevel at one end Running Dimension Hollow Structural Section Working Point to Working Point

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65 66 67 68 69

WP/E BEV CR-2-E S.J. C.J.

Working Point to End Beveled Circular 2 Ends Sawed Joint Construction Joint

7.

Detailing Process Flow Chart


Download Scan Drg Upload INDIA Office Download & Plot

USA office

FTP

Detail Study Time & Cost Estimate Client Order Confirmation Production / Detailing

Quality Checking

Shipment

Quality Assurance

Back Drafting

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8. DETAILING PROCEDURES 1. After study of contract/sample drawings the entire group should decide the drawing pattern & standards to be followed. (If required prototype drawing is prepared) (Ref drafting standards in page. 26). 2. The detailer should approach the project engineer for any clarifications and the point should be freezed. 3. Any modifications or decision taken should be informed to all the members of the group. The Project engineers must check the drawing register to ensure that he has the latest revision of all Contract drawings. 4. Preparation of anchor bolt drawings (A1, AB1.) and erection drawings (E1, E2.) with sections and other miscellaneous items.(But without erection marks) 5. Project engineers will divide the portion to be detailed and assign it to the respective detailers. 6. Detailers will start off with preparation of drawings. Project engineers should check the erection drawing for grid dimension, member shapes, elevations, erection markings and other required details. Also give erection marks.(Shipment mark) 7. Detailers are supposed to incorporate the erection marks. They should check the drawing on screen and enter the check list. These drawings should be submitted along with the checklist to the project engineers/checkers. 8. Project engineers should enter the drawing list (For description, drawn by Etc.) and checks the drawings as per check list . 9. Detailers should incorporate all the comments marked by the checkers and finally checkers should ensure that all the comments are incorporated by manually checking it on the screen. 10. Project engineers should take care that the final drawings are ready for shipment. 11. Material grade should be used as per contract drawing & to be mentioned in the general note. If the material used in the drawing is different from that mentioned in the general note, then it should be called off in remark column of bill of materials.

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9. 9.1

STANDARD SHEET PREFIX. For Mark-up Drawings / Erection Diagram / Marking plan AB = Anchor Bolt (AB1, AB2) E = Erection Drawing (E1, E2) MP = Marking plan drawing (MP1, MP2) EEB = Embed Placement Plans (EEB1, EEB2)

9.2

For Detail Drawings Nos. = Structural Detail Drawings ( 1, 2, . ) EB = Embed Items Detail Drawing (EB1, EB2, .) SK = Sketches (SK1, SK2, .)

9.3

Item Marks

Following Items Mark to be used Description Anchor Bolt Beams Bracing Columns Continuous Angle Lintels Miscellaneous Shipping Marks: AB B BR C CA L M Remarks AB1, AB2. 1B1, 1B2 . 45BR1, 45BR2. 15C1, 15C2 . 20CA1, 20CA2. 40L1, 40L2. 50M1, 50M2.

Prefix Ship mark with drawing number. Description Base Plate Cap Plates Plates Bent Plates Through. Plates Clip Angle Miscellaneous Piece Marks: Bp Cp P B Tp C M Remarks bpa, bpb, .... cpa, cpb, . pa, pb, . ba, bb, . tpa, tpb, . ca, cb, . ma, mb, .

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10.

DETAILING CAD- STANDARDS

Prototype Drawing Creation (A1 Size Border 36 x 24). Dim Variable to follow for 1:1 Drawing Scale DIMTXT DIMASZ DIMTSZ DIMEXE DIMEXO DIMTAD DIMSCALE DIMCLRD DIMCLRE DIMCLRT 1/8 1/8 1/16 1/16 1/16 1 1 3 3 7

If drawing scale varies, dimscale also varies according to the drawing scale (DRAWING SCALE = DIM SCALE). Keeping Drawing Scale 1:1 As Far As Possible. UNITS = ARCHITECTURAL (ROMANS.SHX) (ROMAND.SHX) for general text & dim. for header text like sections, views, etc. (1.5 times general text).

STYLES = ROMANS ROMAND

LAYERS OBJECT CENTER HIDDEN REF. HATCH TEXT DIM

COLORS (Pen Assign.) 2 (0.40) 1 (0.15) 5 (0.15) 8 (0.12) 6 (0.12) 7 (0.35) 3 (0.25)

LINETYPE CONTINUOUS CENTER HIDDEN PHANTOM CONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS

REMARKS
(ALL STRUCTURAL SHAPES) (OBJECT CENTER LINES & GRID) (EXISTING & REF. ENTITIES)

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11.

DRAWING PRESENTATION 1. All drawings should be clear, neat and of good line quality. 2. The number of pieces to be detailed on a drawing is determined by the detailer. However drawings are not to become congested as this creates room for error. 3. Bill of material and the title block should be on the right side of the drawing sheet as per the clients requirement. 4. Sections will be taken on main elevations from the right looking left or top to bottom. Further sections will again be off the main elevation (unless u navoidable) and no sections off sections (unless unavoidable). 5. Slopes to holes or plates should be shown in terms of 12. 6. Simple opposite handing on drawings is acceptable. Give separate ship mark for opposite hand items (do not use x). Opposite hand and Noted is not acceptable and will not be used. 7. All the dimensions should be present in the detail drawing from the fabricators point of view. 8. All welding symbols should be followed as per relevant codes, to be practiced in a given project. 9. Maintain 1:1 drawing scale for details & sections. However some section have to be drawn in a bigger scale for clarity. 10. Follow Section Sizes, Weld size, Bolt & Bolt Holes, Paint & Galvanizing Specification as per contract drawing. 11. Cut length of plates should preferably rounded off to unless avoidable. 12. Plate Description in BOM: The thickness and width are specified as fractional inch dimension and the length is specified in feet and inches. E.g. PL x 8 x 1-4, PL x 18 x 3-0. However this has to be deviated depending on contract sample drawings. 13. Do not duplicate Item Numbers. Keep a tally of last item number allotted. This is very important for Item Number marking. 14. Ensure that Item Numbers for all components are indicated on drawings and covered in BOM and match. 15. Ensure that Diameter of all holes is identified either through general notes or through explicit call-off.

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16. Always follow standard Pen thickness, Colors, Standard Text height. 17. Ensure correct Spelling in the text given in the Drawing. 18. Always give assemblies drawn as = = = AS SHOWN OPP. HAND AS SHOWN & NOTED.

19. While drawing marking plan of beams, do not forget to show the view directions for detailing of beams. (I.e. give the beam mark at bottom left hand of the beam.) 20. Round off the lengths to nearest 1/16 of an inch. 21. Any dimensional ambiguity in contract drawing/design drawing, the dimension or detail is highlighted for verification. 22. Before shipping, Checker/Project Engineer should ensure that all the corrections are incorporated in the final drawings. 12. 12.1 STRUCTURAL DETAILING STANDARDS Anchor bolt and embed drawing (Ref. Page.26) Anchor bolt plan for columns should show the following: 1) Column size and rotation. 2) Grid marking and dimensions 3) Anchor bolt patterns at all columns. 4) Anchor bolt mark and elevation (elevation to top of grout). 5) Direction mark (North arrow). In case project north is used, reference to actual North should be given. 6) Typical detail showing amount of grout and anchor bolt projection above concrete footing or pier is to be given (Ref. Page 24). 7) Sheet notes giving any necessary information such as reference elevations. 8) Beam anchors and bearing plate should be shown in respective floor framing plans (Ref. Page 24).
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12.2

Erection plan Plan should show the following 1) Column size, rotation and marks 2) Beam size, marks and elevations 3) Plan dimensions with grid mark 4) Any shipping mark piece (angles, plates etc.) sizes, marks and elevations. 5) Elevations at all steel 6) Elevations to bearings. 7) Sections necessary for erections should be cut using a letter and sheet number designation (A/E3) unless section is on that sheet, then sheet reference may be dropped. 8) Please note that most miscellaneous structure may be detailed without erection drawings provided that a reference location is given beneath detail referring to architectural or structural contract drawings. 9) Sheet notes should be provided in order to give necessary reference information. 10) Direction mark (North arrow). 11) Sections need only be used in order to show field work (such as field welding), items that cannot be shown clearly on plans (odd conditions) or other information necessary to erect the steel. Remember, erection drawings main function is to aid in the erection of the steel.

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12.3

Embeds

1) Embeds are a) Column anchor bolts b) Beam anchor bolts c) Joist, beam and column bearing plates that are cast in concrete or block walls d) Beam and beam & plate lintels supported by and supporting concrete or masonry e) Angle lintels supported by and supporting concrete or masonry f) Pipe bollards and rail sleeves g) Any item built into concrete or masonry 2) Embeds can often be quickly detailed simply putting a reference to structural or Architectural drawings below detail or in the shop bill 3) Embed items should be picked up quickly in order to get them to the job site before the concrete and masonry begins 4) Embeds in most case will not require paint, especially where they come in contact with concrete or require field weld. 12.4 Columns

1. Columns must be cut square at bottom of shaft and should be noted FIN or finish on details and in bill of material. 2. Stub dimensions a. All hole groups must be stubbed from end of shaft, not from bottom of base plate. b. One stub per hole group is sufficient provided that holes are equally Spaced. c. All pieces welded to column should be stubbed from end of shaft. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Appropriate weld symbols for each condition should be shown at least once on each sheet. North N mark should be shown on the column. If column is butt welded with base plate, edge preparation should be shown. (Ref. Page 39) Reference elevations relating back to erection drawings should be used to help in detailing and checking. Columns are generally to be drawn in vertical position. Grid locations should be noted in ( ) under column mark. In case of vertical bracing gussets dimensions from working point (W.P) to the first hole is to be shown. Single part detail of bracing gusset to be detailed if required. A view as to be taken to show the offset of shear plate from center line (C.L) (Ref. Page 39) Gap between Clip angles welded to column should be equal to beam web thickness plus 1/8. In tubular sections with through plates give slot size with stub dimension.

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12.5

Beams

1. Beams are generally to be drawn in a horizontal position. 2. Reference dimensions relating back to erection drawings should be used to help in detailing and checking. 3. Stub dimensions a) All hole groups must be stubbed from back of framing angle, end plates or end of material. 4. One stub per hole group is sufficient provided that holes are equally Spaced.Normal set back from back of framing angles to end of beam is a) All pieces welded to beams should be stubbed from back of clip, end plate or end of material. 5. Appropriate weld symbols for each condition should be shown at least once on each sheet. Weld size used for connecting clip angles / plates to beam should be 1/16 less than web thickness of beam (UNO).

6. Camber should be noted on details as well as in the BOM. Grinding symbol to be shown wherever required. In case of full moment connection edge preparation details to be shown. 7. Coping dimensions to be given from end of clip. Also cope value to be rounded to nearest . 8. In TS beams with through plates, slot size and stub dimension should be given. Ensure that it is closed by an end or closure plate on either ends. 9. Always coordinate with the bolt holes connecting with the other beams, bracings and columns 10. For bracing gussets give dimension from working point to the first hole with slope. 11. If the end connections are bolted, then field bolts should be sent along with the beams. 12. For standard clip angle marks (Ref. Page 42) 13. In sloped beam with clip angle connections working point and slopes should be mentioned clearly. The working point should be in the same plane. 14. The detailing of beams will always be from bottom to top & left to right. 15. Stub dimensions should be given to centerline for stiffeners and end of plate for shear plates
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12.6

Bracing

1. Bracing locations to be indicated in erection drawing. 2. In Bracing erection drawings the following to be shown. a. b. c. d. e. f. Member size and marking. Working points with dimensions. Triangulation. For Bolted connections Dimensions from WP to first Bolt hole. For Welded connections Dimensions from WP to end of the member Mention field weld symbol, size and weld length if required.

3. Bracing member should be detailed horizontally unless unavoidable. All information regarding bracing member in tubular column is preferable. 4. For tubular section provide closure plate on both sides. 5. For double angle bracings provide spacer plate as per contract drawings. 6. For welded bracings working line is along center of gravity and for bolted bracings it is along bolt line.

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DOUBLE ANGLE BRACING DETAIL

12.7

Miscellaneous 12.7.1 Stairs i. Stairs should be detailed using architectural drawings for concept, while bearing in mind that all job specifications, State building codes and Handicap codes must be used. Stringers should be detailed with enough information to facilitate lay out in the shop.

ii.

12.7.2 Hand rails i. Pipe rail 1-1/4 diameter std. (1-1/2 O.D) shall be typical with the same size post (U.N.O). Post shall be preferably at 6-0 o.c. and 8-0 maximum. Post shall generally be placed at bottom floor stringer. Rails at stairs may be detailed with stringers or separately. Detail post and rails with sufficient information to facilitate shop layout. Rails should be detailed with a heavy single line.

ii. iii. iv. v.

12.7.3 Ladders i. Materials: Stringers 3/8 x 2-1/2 F.B.; a. Rungs diameter rods; b. Connection material 3/8 x 2-1/2 c. F.B. Bent; d. Bolts Diameter (U.N.O) ii. Width = 1-6 inside; rung spacing = 1-0 +/iii. Otherwise detail as shown on contract documents or as noted in contract specifications. 12.8 Other Miscellaneous Items. i. Continuous angles, bent plates, pour stop etc. which are not detailed along with structural members can be shipped loose of 20ft length. These members are cut at site to suit site conditions. Lintel angles, bollard posts, shelf angles, screed angles, Door & Window jambs, bearing plates etc. are detailed as miscellaneous items.

ii.

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WEDGE ANC.)

13.

CHECKING PROCEDURES 1. Project Engineers/Checkers sho uld thoroughly study the contract drawings (structural & architectural), the connection details, scope of work, specifications & other related documents. 2. He should check the drawing register to ensure that he has the latest revision of all drawings. 3. Project Engineers/Checkers should study the sample drawings & guide the detailers to follow the same. 4. He should ensure that the drawing check print is submitted to him along with the detailers checklist. 5. Use yellow pencil for checking & red pen for marking the comments on the drawing sheet. 6. Project Engineers/Checkers should check the drawing & simultaneously tick the items mentioned in the checklist (refer Page ). 7. Check whether all items are detailed as per contract drawing/scope of work & to clients requirement and also cross check with the erection drawings. 8. Check for all dimensions present in the drawing from the fabricators point of view. 9. For any assumptions in dimensions/levels or new connections, mark verify. 10. While calculating bolt quantity, check that the numbers are not repeated. 11. Project Engineers/Checkers should check the drawing presentation & standards as mentioned in Section IV. 12. Bill of materials to be checked for member shapes & length, assembly numbers, item marks & numbers, unit weights, grade of material etc. 13. Check that no item marks/shipment marks are duplicated. 14. Check for the orientation of beams/columns in the erection drawing as per the detail. 15. Coordination of drawings is very important checking procedure. 16. After checking, the check prints to be signed with date by the respective P.E/checker & given to the detailer for correction. 17. The P.E/checkers should explain the comments with reason marked on the sheet to the detailers so that the same mistakes do not occur again. 18. Final corrections to be checked manually on the screen & ensured that all corrections are incorporated. 19. The drawings ready for shipment should be transferred to the respective directories & finally to the master computer (refer page 4).

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14.

PROJECT QUALITY SYSTEMS

14.1
POINT NO. 1

CHECKLIST FOR ANCHOR BOLT DRAWINGS


DESCRIPTION Study of Contract drawings. Is the prototype drawing considered for preparation of drawings? Is the prototype drawing taken from the correct path given by the project engineer? "Are the layers, drafting standards like pen colors, fonts etc. checked in the prototype drawing & followed there by? Description of the project & other information followed as per prototype drawing? Drawing number A N/A

Title Block

Drawing title Drawn by the name & date Checked by name "Notes in title block (like painting specification, bolts, steel grade etc.)

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Grid marking and dimensions North Direction / Project North Symbol. Column size and Orientation. Anchor bolt mark and elevation(elevation to top of grout or U/S of base plate or top of leveling plate whichever applicable) Anchor bolt patterns at all columns. Number of anchor bolts & detail of the same Number of leveling plates & detail of the same Section Marks & Views. Grout thickness. Anchor bolt projection. Anchor bolt diameter & hole diameter. Check if OSHA regulation is complied with (minimum 4 anchor bolts to be provided) General notes. Title below each section or plan. Weld size & symbol. "If any details are to be verified, is that detail marked with in cloud & verification notes marked?" Weld size & symbol. Is the dimensioning pattern followed as per clients standard & as per project technical specification? "If any view, plan or detail is to be stretched (only for representation purpose), check whether the dimensions are edited so that they do not change on stretching. Are all existing structure put in reference layer & shown in light lines? Spell check Is the timesheet entered for this drawing?

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14.2
POINT NO. 1 2

CHECKLIST FOR ERECTION DRAWINGS


DECRIPTION Study of Contract drawings. Is the prototype drawing considered for preparation of drawings? Is the prototype drawing taken from the correct path given by the project engineer? Are the layers, drafting standards like pen colors, fonts etc. checked in the prototype drawing & followed there by? Title Block Description of the project & other information followed as per prototype drawing? Drawing number Drawing title Drawn by the name & date Checked by name Notes in title block (like painting specification, bolts, steel grade etc.) A N/A

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Grid marking and dimensions North Direction / Project North Symbol. Column Mark, Size and Orientation Beam mark, Size & Level. (TOS) Misc. Items Mark & size Section Mark & reference of drawing in which the section is detailed. Bearing plate Size and Elevation. Camber size. Number of Studs. General Notes. Title below each section or plan. Elevation of T.O.S for framing plans. Are field weld symbols shown wherever required? Weld size & symbol. If any details are to be verified, is that detail marked with in cloud & verification notes marked? Is the dimensioning pattern followed as per clients standard & as per project technical specification? If any view, plan or detail is to be stretched(only for representation purpose),check whether the dimensions are edited so that they do not change on stretching. Spell check Is the timesheet entered for this drawing?

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14.3
POINT NO. 1 2

CHECKLIST FOR BEAM DRAWINGS


DECRIPTION Study of Contract drawings. Is the prototype drawing considered for preparation of drawings? Is the prototype drawing taken from the correct path given by the project engineer? Are the layers, drafting standards like pen colors, fonts etc. checked in the prototype drawing & followed there by? A N/A

Title Block

Description of the project & other information followed as per prototype drawing? Drawing number Drawing title Drawn by the name & date Checked by name

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Notes in title block (like painting specification, bolts, steel grade etc.) Beam size, number of Beams Beam ship/assembly mark, (with ""As shown""/""Opp hand"") Beam orientation as per the erection drawing? Beam orientation as per the erection drawing? Is Grid to grid dimension followed as per erection drawing? Are the deduction values w.r.t grid to grid dimension given at either end of the beam & are coordinated with the respective connections? Is the cutting length calculated properly especially in sloped beams and curved beams (i.e. whether a layout is drawn to scale & checked). In sloped and curved beams, care should be taken to give the maximum cutting length required from the fabrication point of view. Check whether coping required at the ends & cope value given as per client's requirements. Is the running dimension ""RD"" indicated as per the client requirement.(i.e. from the end of beam or clip angle) Is the running dimension given correctly for the first hole in the web/flange and for other parts like shear plates, stiffener, misc. plates , angle etc. In RD calculation for the intermediate shear plate connection, is care taken to clear half web thickness of the connecting beam. End connections of beam coordinated with respective column/beam. Are intermediate connections like clip angle holes/shear plates in the beam coordinated with respective beams? Are required sections/views taken in the beam main view properly & marked? Is the sectional detail properly oriented and detailed? Check for the opposite hand section & marking. In sections, are the distance from center line of beam to holes & other cutting dimensions given? Elevation of the beam marked (if required)as per the client's requirement. Item marks given for all items, without any duplication. Descriptions of items are given only at one location.

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Item marking system is followed as per client's requirements & as per project technical specifications. S TEEL DETAILING TRAINING MANUAL

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Item mark is entered in the mark sheet maintained by your project engineer, if the item mark is unique. Is closure plate given in the tubular section beams? Check whether the member is painted or galvanized. Is it indicated correctly for each assembly Is NO PAINT marked with details (for field weld, SC bolts or Fire proofing etc.) If a skew beam/slope beam is connected to column, is the layout drawn to scale & checked correctly? Is the triangulation given? In skew beams connected to column/beam, check for fouling of beam flange and proper provision of coping in the beam. If the hole diameter is different from that mentioned in general notes, is it called off separately? For SC bolts, over sized holes provided in plates (not in beam)? If beams are connected to column web and column flange, check for fouling of bolts and check for the staggered bolting. Are shop weld symbols with weld size shown wherever required? If any details are to be verified, is that detail marked within cloud & verification notes marked? Is the dimensioning pattern followed as per clients standard & as per project technical specifications? Title below each plan & section. If any view, plan or detail is to be stretched (only for representation purpose), Check whether the dimensions are edited, so that they do not change on stretching. Bill of Is the bill of material pattern (i.e way of giving member shape description, materials numbering either alphabetically or nos.) followed per clients requirements? Is the item marks for each assembly arranged in alphabetical order. Is all the ship/assembly mark & numbered entered Is the description & length of assembly coordinated with the details in drawing Is the all the item for each assembly entered Is the numbers, description of item coordinated with the details in drawing Is the item marking pattern followed as per clients requirement. Is the remarks column entered (like assembly steel grade, FITTED stiffeners, SHIP LOOSE etc.) Check whether description for similar items are to be repeated (as per clients requirements) Is the shop bolt quantity calculated correctly & indicated for each assembly Is the field bolt quantity (total or for each assembly as per clients requirement) calculated correctly & indicated.

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Check for the drawing presentation. General notes. Spell Check Is the timesheet entered for this drawing?

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14.4
POINT NO. 1 2

CHECKLIST FOR COLUMN DRAWINGS


DECRIPTION Study of Contract drawings. Is the prototype drawing considered for preparation of drawings? Is the prototype drawing taken from the correct path given by the project engineer? Are the layers, drafting standards like pen colors, fonts etc checked in the prototype drawing & followed there by. Title Block Description of the project & other information followed as per prototype drawing? Drawing number Drawing title Drawn by the name & date Checked by name Notes in title block (like painting specification, bolts, steel grade etc.) A N/A

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Column size, number of columns Column ship/assembly mark, (with ""As shown""/""Opp hand""). Verify marking with all erection drawings. Column orientation & facing / direction(either ""N"",""S"",""A"",""B"" etc) Under side of base plate level, thickness, no of holes, weld size etc. has this been coordinated with anchor bolt setting plan. All connections for beams provided in column. Verify this with all erection drawings. Are the holes for clip angle connection in beam is coordinated? Are the distance from center line of column/face of column to holes in shear plate checked & coordinated with holes in beam web. Are the distance from center line of column/face of column to holes in moment plate checked & coordinated with holes in beam flange. Is the shear plate given in column such that it clears the web of beam. (i.e. away by 1/2 web thickness of beam)

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All elevations are marked in columns & elevations verified with erection drawings. Are all running / stub dimensions given for the bottom hole/connecting member & are they checked? Column overall length & cut length. Column end finishes like ""MILL CUT"" & ""SQUARE CUT" Item marks given for all items, without any duplication Descriptions of items are given only at one location. Item marking system is followed as per client's requirements & as per project technical specifications. Item marking is entered in the item mark sheet maintained by your project engineer, if the item mark is unique. Is the views taken from the main view correctly & drawn separately/clearly? Column cap plate connection provided?. If column is above or below the beam, holes

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co-ordinate with beam. Check whether the member is painted or galvanized. Is it indicated correctly for each assembly Is NO PAINT marked with details (for field weld, SC bolts or fire proofing etc.) If a skew beam/sloped beam is connected to column, is the layout drawn to scale & checked correctly? Is the triangulation given? If the hole diameter is different from the mentioned in general notes, Is it called off separately? For SC bolts are over sized holes provided in plates (not in column)? When beams are connected (with moment plate connection) at all sides of column, especially in circular & tubular, check whether there is no fouling of moment plates. If beams are connected at all four sides of column, check for fouling of bolts. Are shop weld symbols shown wherever required? Weld size & symbol If any details are to be verified, is that detail marked within cloud & verification notes marked? Is the dimensioning pattern followed as per clients standard & as per project technical specification? Title below each plan & section. If any view, plan or detail is to be stretched Bill of Is the bill of material pattern (i.e way of giving member shape materials description, numbering either alphabetically or nos.) followed per clients requirements? Is the item marks for each assembly arranged in alphabetical order. Is all the ship/assembly mark & numbered entered Is the description & length of assembly coordinated with the details in drawing Is the all the item for each assembly entered Is the numbers, description of item coordinated with the details in drawing Is the item marking pattern followed as per clients requirement. Is the remarks column entered (like assembly steel grade, FITTED stiffeners, SHIP LOOSE etc.) Check whether description for similar items are to be repeated (as per clients requirements) Is the shop bolt quantity calculated correctly & indicated for each assembly Is the field bolt quantity (total or for each assembly as per clients requirement) calculated correctly & indicated. Check for the drawing presentation. General notes. Spell Check Is the timesheet entered for this drawing?

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15.
SL.NO.

ERROR TYPE
ERROR TYPE REASON / EXPLANATION / REMARK 1. Due to copying & pasting member sizes and forgetting to edit the same. 2. Wrongly assumed, since size was not available in one drawing (might have been available in another drawing and missed referring to it). 3. Assumed member size not corrected back in all the drawings after receiving the query reply.

Member size

Spelling

1. Auto cad spell check not used. 2. Distraction at the time of editing. 3. Prototype title block not followed consistently in all the drawings.

Cut Lengths

1. Offset values considered wrongly at the time of marking layouts. 2. For sloping beams long point to long point dimensions not considered. 3. For Curved beams outer circumferential length not considered. 4. Due to copying & pasting cutting length description and forgetting to edit the same.

Dimensions

1. Dimension not changed after changing scale. 2. Dimension editing mistake. 3. Forgetting to change back the edited dimensions after stretching. 4. Forgetting to change back the dimensions after stretching.(Stretched esp. for representation purpose). 5. Due to copying & pasting running dimensions and forgetting to edit the same.

Marking

1. Ship mark in E-drawing is not coordinated. 2. Piece mark not followed as per sample drawing. 3. For some client item mark should reflect drawing number, which is not followed. 4. Ship mark should reflect drawing number, which is not considered. 5. Ship/ Item mark remains same for member / items having same properties and connection detail, which is not followed consistently. 6. As shown and Opp. Hand concept not followed consistently.

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Quality

1. Not considering members of same details. 2 Calculation mistakes 3. Items added during the time of shipment and forgot to change quantity.

Coordination

1. Due to non coordination with other drawings 2. Forgetting to change end connection after discussion with teammates. 1. Item number in the bill of materials and that in the body of the drawing do not match. 2. Number of items mentioned is incorrect 3. PL (Plate) used instead of FB (Flat Bar) 4. Ship loose items not given a major mark 5. Revision mark indicated in the body of the drawing, is omitted against the corresponding item in the bill of materials. 6. Total in the weight column entered wrongly 7. Bolt quantity incorrect 8. Shop and field bolt quantity not called out separately 9. Mismatch in member length or dimension or thickness between item detailed in the drawing and the same mentioned in the BOM 10. Item number given does not reflect the drawing number as required for some clients and projects 11. Drawing number mentioned at the top of the bill of materials (required for some projects) not matching with the actual drawing number mentioned in the title block 1. 2. Painting note indicated where galvanizing should have been indicated and vice versa Bolt dia and holes note copied from another drawing not edited in the current drawing Irrelevant notes (copied from another drawing and valid in that drawing) not erased. An additional relevant note not added to the current drawing after copying all other standard notes from previous drawing

Bill of Materials

Notes

3. 4.

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Drawing Number

1. Inconsistent drawing number followed, sometimes job number included & sometimes excluded.

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SKEWED, SLOPED AND CANTED BEAM CONNECTIONS

SKEWED, SLOPED AND CANTED BEAM CONNECTIONS

SKEWED, SLOPED AND CANTED BEAM CONNECTIONS

SHOP WELDED, FIELD BOLTED CONSTRUCTION

SHOP WELDED, FIELD BOLTED CONSTRUCTION

MOMENT CONNECTIONS

19. 19.1

BOLTING STANDARDS Nominal Bolt Hole Dimensions Bolt Dia 5/8 7/8 1 >= 1 1/8 Standard (Dia.) of Bolt hole 9/16 11/16 13/16 15/16 1 1/16 (d + 1/16) Short Slot (Width x Length) 9/16 x 11/16 11/15 x 7/8 13/16 x 1 15/16 x 1 1/8 1 1/16 x 1 5/16 (d + 1/16) x (d + 3/8)

19.2

Anchor/Foundation Bolt Hole Dimensions Anchor bolt dia 7/8 1 1 1 1 2 2 Dia of Bolt hole (as per AISC) 1 1/16 1 3/16 1 1 2 2 2 3

Note: These bolt hole dimensions are standard Unless Otherwise Noted in the Design/Contract drawings. 19.3 Anchor bolt material specification

Material specification for Anchor Bolts is A307/A36. As per AISC standard (Page. No. 4-131) Anchor Bolts to 1- 5/16 oversize Anchor Bolts 1 to 2- oversize Anchor Bolts over 2- 1 oversize
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