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VYSTYMO BENDRIJA NUGALK PRIKLAUSOMYB

ENGLISH FOR COOKS

Dst. Vilma iatkut

Vilniaus kooperacijos kolegija 2006

CONTENTS
1. Introduction 1.1.The ABC 1.2.Reading rules 2. At work: place and time 2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions 2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals 3. Kitchenware. Crockery and cutlery 3.1. Kitchenware 3.2. Crockery and cutlery 4. Food and drink 4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food 4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes 4.3. Vocabulary. Names of drinks 4.4. Do you like and would you like 5. Breakfast 5.1. Meals of the day 5.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast 5.3. Past Simple Tense 6. Lunch and Tiffin 6.1. Lunch 6.2. Tiffin 6.3. Future Simple Tense 7. Tea. Dinner. Supper 7.1. Tea 7.2. Dinner 7.3. Supper 8. Healthy food 9. National food and cuisine 10. Methods of cooking and preparing food 10.1.Present Continuous Tense 10.2. Past Continuous Tense 10.3. Methods - cooking and preparing food 11. Recipes 11.1. Christmas pudding, Omelette with cheese, Roast leg of lamb 11.2. Present Perfect Tense 12. Revision References 3 3 3 4 4 6 8 8 11 13 13 13 15 16 17 17 17 18 21 21 21 22 24 24 24 27 28 30 32 32 33 34 35 35 37 39 40

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. The ABC There are 26 letters in the English Alphabet. Remember that this type of pronunciation is valid for sole letters in the ABC only. Letters will be pronounced in a different way when standing in syllables. Pronounce the ABC letters.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg

Hh

Ii Jj

Kk Ll Mm

[ei] [bi:] [si:] [di:] [i:] [ef] [d3i:] [eit ] [ai] [d3ei] [kei] [el] [em]

Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr

Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww [en] [u] [pi:] [kju:] [a:(r)] [es] [ti:] [ju:] [vi:] [dblju:] Xx Yy Zz

[eks] [wai] [zed]

1.2. Reading rules Pronunciation of vowels mostly depends on the kind of the syllable they appear in an open syllable ends with a vowel while a closed one with a consonant (e.g. name open; stop closed). Vowels standing in an open syllable are usually pronounced in the same way as in the ABC and they are shortened in closed syllables. Vowel Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Yy ei i: ai au ju: wai Open syllable Closed syllable , , e:, o: e (not pronounced if the word ends with e) i o u, i

PRACTICE 1. Pronounce the following words correctly: Make, cake, cut, salad, fat, no, my, five, bit, ten, pot, dot, nut, put, fall, lady.

Combinations vowel + vowel , vowel + consonant , consonant + vowel, consonant + consonant etc. make different sound structures: 3

ar [a:(r)] bar, far ck [k] bucket, luck ur/ ear [:] blur, turn, burn ea [i:] tea, sea our [o:] pour, four ou [u] could ue, oo [u:] blue, food ow, ou [u] now, out er, air [e] where, air ear, er [ie] dear, here oy, oi [oi] boy, join ur, our [u] pure, tour y at the beginning [j] yes ng [] sing, bring gh is usually silent [ ] light, bright ss [s] miss, kiss tt [t] getting ch [t] catch, match th [] think, both th [ ] that PRACTICE 2. Pronounce the given words and transcribe them. Blanch Braise Chill Chop Deep-fry Dice Dry-fry Grill Stew Sweat Boil Minced Poach Roast Sear Simmer Stock Steam Stir-fry Marinade

2. AT WORK: PLACE AND TIME


2.1. Describing work place: Present Simple Tense, there is/ are, prepositions. Singular I am, have, do, like, go, can You are, have, do, like, go, can He, she, it is, has, does, likes, goes, can We You They Plural are, have, do, like, go, can are, have, do, like, go, can are, have, do, like, go, can

We use the Present Simple to talk about things in general. We are not thinking only about now. We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly (sometimes, often, usually, rarely, seldom), or that something is true in general. Remember that we say: he/she/it -s. 4

I work... but He works...


Sent. type Question word Auxiliary Verb/ to be

They like... but my sister likes...


Subject I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake Auxiliary Verb Verb love make bring write taste smell am are, is love make bring write taste smell am not are, is not love make bring write taste smell Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place

Time

Positive

___

do not (dont) does not (doesnt)

me you him her them us my dog a letter

nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly

at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the caf on the table

in the morning in the evening in the afternoon during the day at night in summer in winter at 8 oclock

Negative When Why Where How What (kas,k?) Whom (k?) Who (k?)

do does

Question

am are is

I you we they he, she, it my brother her friend the cake

____

_____

PRACTICE 1. Insert given words into the gaps: bake, cook, like (2). 1. My mum __________ cakes every Saturday. 2. I often __________ soup because I like it. 3. My friend ______ ______ fish. 4. _____ you _________ fish? When we describe places where we find things we use There is. / There are .. like in the example below:
There is . + There is a cup on the table. - There is not any cup on the table. ? Is there a cup on the table? There are + There are some cups on the table. - There are not any cups on the table. ? Are there any cups on the table?

NOTE! * When we use some, we are not interested in the exact number. I have ten fingers (NOT I have some fingers). I have some friends in Great Britain. * We use any in questions and negatives. Are there any photographs? There arent any people. 5

PRACTICE 2. Tell your friends and ask questions what they can see in the kitchen. Use such words as cupboards(s), washing machine, a fridge (a refrigerator), a cooker, a dishwasher, a radio, plates, cups, sink, a table, a chair, glasses. Do not forget prepositions near, on, next to, in front of, behind, in, under. Describe what is there in your kitchen. Is it different from the one in the picture?

PRACTICE 3. Fill-in the gaps using a, some, any. Its ___ modern kitchen, nice and clean with a lot of cupboards. Theres __ washing machine, __ fridge, and ___ cooker, but there isnt __ dishwasher. There are _______ lovely pictures on the walls, but there arent _____ photographs. Theres ___ radio next to the cooker. There are _____ flowers, but there arent _____ plants. On the table there are ______ apples and oranges. And there are _______ cups and plates next to the sink.

2.2. Indicating Time: prepositions, ordinal and cardinal numerals. All events are usually connected with certain dates, seasons and daytimes. On every special occasion we should be able to provide our clients with necessary information about our working hours as well as other events taking place at our restaurant or caf. E.g. The caf opens at 9 oclock each morning and closes at 7 oclock in the evening. We do not usually work on Sundays and the caf is never open on the first Christmas day. So to be ready to give our clients all the necessary information we should revise the names of weekdays, holidays, months as well as ordinal and cardinal numbers. We will also have a look and remember how to indicate what time it is. Look at the tables below. Remember the usage of prepositions.

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

ON holidays

the weekend

AT Christmas Easter

night January midnight February March April May June July August September October November December

IN winter the morning 1957 spring the evening 2008 summer the afternoon autumn

PRACTICE 4. Translate: per Kaldas vakare per ventes iem 1980-aisiais ryt sekmadien gegu vidurnakt vasar

PRACTICE 5. Using the table say the following numerals in their cardinal (kiekiniai) and ordinal (kelintiniai) forms: 8, 698, 14, 40, 15, 59, 129, 3325, 45,89,78,77,17, 1998, 2004, 158:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two the twentieth the twenty-first the twenty-second the first the second the third the fourth the fifth the sixth the .. + th 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 130 285 300 415 678 1000 twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty thirty-one forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred one hundred and thirty two hundred and eighty five three hundred four hundred and fifteen six hundred and seventy eight one thousand the twenty-third the twenty-fourth the twenty-fifth the twenty-sixth the twenty-seventh the twenty-eighth the twenty-ninth the thirtieth the thirty-first

the twelfth

the ..+ th

the ..+ th

PRACTICE 6. Say the phone numbers. a 43816 b 933672 7

c (041)2287153 d (0923)4828661 e (0225)69026 What is your phone number? PRACTICE 7. Tell the time using the questions and answers in the table below: Whats the time? What time is it? Could you please tell me the time? Do you have the time?

It is (its)

1.______________ 2.____________ 3._____________ 4.______________

5._____________ 6._____________ 7.Its a quarter past four. 8.Its a quarter to nine.

3. KITCHENWARE. CROCKERY AND CUTLERY


3.1. Kitchenware

Coffee & Hot Chocolate Maker

Blenders & Smoothie Maker

Waffle Maker

Deep Fryer

Skillets & Griddle

Juicer

Mixer

Food Processor

Can Opener

Toaster

Toaster Oven

Sandwich Maker

Wok

Pot

Kettle

Rotisserie

Rice Cooker

Frying pan

Roasting tin (pan)

Jar opener

Pasta Maker

Contact/Foreman Grill

Bread maker

Ice Cream Maker

Popcorn Poppers/Maker

Countertop Range & Burner

Water Purification

Pizza Oven

Microwave Oven

Food Dehydrator

Iced Tea & Lemonade Maker

Pot Rack

Corkscrews

Vegetable Peeler

Ladle

Spatula

Cheese Grater

Tongs

Whisk

Flask

PRACTICE 1. Work in pairs. Try to solve the crossword inserting the names of kitchenware. W W S K F R K K

A P N

T E

10

3.2. Crockery and cutlery

Plates

Platter

Bowls

Salt and pepper shaker

Salt-cellar, pepper-caster

Sugar basin

Butter dish

Teapot

Cup

Mug

Beer mug

Glass

Margarita glasses

Pitcher

Table spoon, tea spoon

Fork and knife

11

PRACTICE 2. Compose word- groups from the words given in column A and B: A. Salt and pepper Margarita Tea Table Beer Sugar Salt Pepper Butter B. pot basin shaker dish caster glasses cellar mug spoon

PRACTICE 3. Insert missing letters and write the names of kitchen equipment. Remember them. 1. C _ n O _ _ _ _ r 2. W _ _ _ _ e M _ _ _ r 3. P _ _ _ a O _ _ n 4. W _ _ _ r P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n 5. C _ _ _ _ e & H _ t C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e M _ _ _ r 6. R _ _ e C _ _ _ _ r 7. F _ _ d D _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r 8. M _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e O _ _ n 9. V _ _ _ _ _ _ _ e P _ _ _ _ r 10. C _ _ _ _ e G _ _ _ _ r 11. F _ _ d P _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r 12. S _ _ _ _ _ h M _ _ _ r

PRACTICE 4. Complete sentences using is/ are and making plural forms of the words in brackets:

NOTE! In the English language there are nouns having irregular plural forms. They are such as: childchildren; foot-feet; tooth-teeth, mouse-mice; fish-fish; sheep-sheep; person-people etc.

12

4. FOOD AND DRINK


4.1. Vocabulary. Names of food
Meat beef veal lamb mutton pork bacon (fat/lean) liver kidney tongue ham hamburger sausage (s) beefsteak; chop cutlet Vegetables aubergine tomato cabbage cauliflower spinach cucumber carrot garlic onion lettuce radish potatoes pulses beans peas Poultry chicken chicken broth duck egg egg in its shell hard / soft - boiled egg scrambled egg (s) bacon and eggs to shell an egg white /yolk [jouk] of an egg goose (plgeese) omlet (te) pheasant turkey (s) Fruit apple apricot banana lemon orange melon peach pear pineapple plum cherry pomegranate tangerine grapefruit watermelon Fish cod plaice herring sardine trout salmon carp eel pike stuffed fish tinned fish Seafood prawn/shrimp crab lobster crayfish oyster caviar(e) Dairy products butter cheese cheese sandwich cheeseburger cream sour cream curds/cottage cheese yoghurt milk skimmed milk whole milk sour milk Confectionery chocolate bar of chocolate ice-cream jam honey marmalade sweet biscuit cake doughnut pie cornflakes tart Cereals corn wheat rice buckwheat cereal grain

Berries cranberry currant black / red / white currant; gooseberry grapes raisin raspberry strawberry bilberry wild strawberry

Nuts almond peanut walnut hazelnut

Herbs and spices parsley thyme dill mint cinnamon ginger nutmeg pepper mustard vinegar horse radish basil

4.2. Indicating likes and dislikes You can use the following expressions to indicate your likes and dislikes: My favourite food is fish. I (really) like apples but I dont like bananas. I dont like bananas very much. I dont like tomatoes. I dont like tomatoes at all! I hate onions. What is your favourite food? Do you like grapefruit? Yes, I do, but I prefer pears to grapefruit. Dont you like bananas? Do you really hate onions? 13

What food do you like? Why do you like watermelons? We like different kinds of food because of some nutrients or taste. We can use such questions to find out the taste of a product or food: How does it (your salad) taste like? Do you like the taste of it (this cake)? Would you like to taste it (this pie)? To describe the taste we can use: Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, hot / spicy, bland, mild, tasty, tasteless, greasy: too much oil / fat, overcooked / overdone, undercooked / underdone, done to a turn, just perfect, not overdone, delicious, artificial additives. Food always has nutrients: minerals, proteins, vitamins, fats, carbohydrates, fibre, starch. NOTE! A Noun can be countable or uncountable. Compare:

14

PRACTICE 1. Tell your likes and dislikes. Complete the table below:
Type of food Meat and poultry Fish and seafood Dairy products Confectionary Fruit and vegetables Berries and nuts My favourite is I like I dont like I hate

PRACTICE 2. a) Find the pairs of antonyms. 1 ripe 8 stale 2 sweet 9 fattening 3 raw 10 sour 4 fresh 11 mild 5 slimming 12 cooked 6 spicy 7 tender 13 unripe 14 tough

b) Complete the sentences using some of the adjectives given above. 1. I can not eat this cake - it's too.....and I'm on a diet. 2. The curry burns my mouth, it is so...... 3. Could you pass me the sugar, please, I'll put some in this lemon juice, it's too...... 4. This steak is so ...... I can't even chew it! 5. I can't cut this bread, it's so...... 6. These apples are green and not very....., I suppose. 7. This fish is almost....., you have to cook it for fifteen minutes more.

4.3. Vocabulary. Names of drinks


Drinks Still juice still mineral water milk-shake Fizzy sparkling mineral water soda water Coca-Cola (coke) lemonade Beverages (alcohol) Beer cider wine cocktail champagne whisky vodka tequila Hot drinks coffee (black, with milk ) to make coffee to grind coffee tea hot chocolate cocoa

We usually say: A cup of A glass of A mug of tea, coffee, cocoa, hot chocolate juice, mineral water, soda water, coke, lemonade, beer, wine, whisky, champagne tea, beer 15

For example: My favourite drink is orange juice. I (really) like coffee but I dont like tea. I dont like tea very much. I dont like vodka. I dont like beer at all! I hate milk. What is your favourite drink? Do you like beer? Yes, I do, but I prefer apple juice to beer. Dont you like milk? Do you really hate vodka? What cocktails do you like? Why do you like champagne?

PRACTICE 3. Move around the classroom and ask about your friends favourite drinks. Complete the table below:
Favourite drink? Why? Students 1 Students 2 Students 3 Students 4

4.4. Do you like and would you like: Would is the same in all persons. We use would like in offers and requests: I would like a drink. My friend would like a cup of tea and a sandwich. Would you like anything to eat? Yes, please. Id like some fish. I am hungry. Would you like anything to drink? No, thank you. I am not thirsty. PRACTICE 4. Choose the correct sentence. 1) A Do you like a drink?/ Would you like a drink? B Yes, please. Some Coke, please. 2) A Can I help you? B Yes. I like a packet of cigarettes./ Yes. I'd like a packet of cigarettes, please. 16

3) A What sports do you do? B Well, I'd like swimming very much./ Well, I like swimming very much. 4) A Are you ready to order your meal, sir? B Yes. Id like a steak, please./ Yes. I like a steak.

5. BREAKFAST
5.1. Meals of the day breakfast; lunch; dinner; supper; snack / bite; to have a snack meal: the food taken at one time She eats three meals a day. dish: food prepared for the table course: a division or part of a meal What's the main course ? There are five meat and three fish dishes. dessert starter/hors d'oeuvre refreshments substantial meal NOTE! We say:

to have

breakfast lunch dinner supper a meal a snack a bite a drink a smoke

5.2. Continental Breakfast and English Breakfast As a general trend, traditional breakfasts are less substantial and less elaborate in the warmer, more southern countries bordering the Mediterranean, while breakfasts are traditionally larger, with a greater variety of dishes and greater prevalence of hot dishes in the cooler northern- and central-European countries. An institutional meal plan based on lighter Mediterranean breakfast traditions and served in hotels world-wide is known as a European "Continental breakfast". It is a light snack meant to tide one over until lunch. It consists mainly of coffee and milk (often mixed as Cappuccino or latte) with a variety of sweet cakes such as brioche and pastries such as croissant, often with a sweet jam, cream, or chocolate filling. It is often served with juice. For example, the typical German breakfast consists of bread rolls or toast with butter, honey, jam, ham or sausage, a soft-boiled egg, and coffee. However, cereals have become popular, and regional variation is significant. A traditional Dutch breakfast consists of a combination of poached eggs, bacon, sausage, breakfast cake, and cold sliced meat such as smoked horse or smoked beef. In Eastern European countries with cold climates, such as Russia, breakfasts tend to be substantial. Zavtrak may consist of hot oatmeal, eggs, cheese, cured meats or sausage, rye breads with butter, and coffee or tea. 17

Yoghurt or, especially in central and eastern Europe, kefir may be consumed. In France a typical domestic breakfast will consist of bowls (rather than cups or mugs) of coffee, often caf au lait, or hot chocolate with slices of baguette spread with jam - to be dunked. Croissants are also traditional. A full English breakfast, or traditional fry-up, is a traditional breakfast meal in England. While weekday breakfasts in England often consist of a brief meal of cereal and/or toast, the fry-up is commonly eaten in a leisurely fashion on Saturday or Sunday mornings. Whether the fry-up is accompanied by orange juice and usually an abundant supply of tea or coffee, or only bacon, eggs, and toast, it is regarded as a ritual comfort and a wholly satisfying start to a day of work or leisure. The ingredients of a fry-up vary according to region and taste. At its heart, the meal it consists of bacon and eggs, but to earn the title of a "Full English" a number of other ingredients are expected. The bacon and eggs are traditionally fried, but grilled bacon and poached or scrambled eggs may be offered as alternatives. Some of the additional ingredients that might be offered as part of a Full English breakfast include: toast, fried bread, or bread and butter; sausages; fried, grilled or tinned tomatoes; mushrooms; black pudding; baked beans; kidneys; potatoes, chips, hash browns or bubble and squeak; condiments such as ketchup and brown sauce Common beverages at breakfast worldwide include fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grapefruit juice, etc.), milk, tea, and coffee. Cultures around the world commonly shun or restrict alcoholic beverages at breakfast. PRACTICE 1. Compare Continental and English breakfast meals filling-in the table below. Discuss your answers with your friend.
Meal Yoghurt Toast and jam Latte Bacon and eggs Poached eggs Croissant Savoury pastries Breakfast cereal Smoked beef Fruit juice Kidneys Fry-ups Continental breakfast English breakfast My breakfast

5.3. Past Simple Tense We use the Past Simple Tense to indicate past time events. We know the time of the event. E.g. yesterday, last month/ year/ summer, in 1980, on holidays, at Christmas etc. Study this example: My grandfathers neighbor was a famous cook. He lived from 1922 to 1992. He opened his first restaurant at the age of seventeen. He had five famous Italian restaurants when he was forty. 18

Lived/opened/had/was are all Past Simple. Very often the Past Simple ends in -ed (regular verbs): We invited them to our party but they decided not to come. But many verbs are irregular when the Past Simple verb does not end in -ed. For example: have had - He had five famous Italian restaurants. see - saw - We saw Rose in town a few days ago. go went - I went to the cinema three times last week. shut shut - It was cold, so I shut the window. For a list of irregular verbs, see the table below:
Infinitive be become begin bite break bring burn buy catch choose come cost cut do drink eat fall feed feel find freeze get give go grind have lend lose make put shake smell speak spend spill take tell think throw Past was, were became began bit broke brought burnt bought caught chose came cost cut did drank ate fell fed felt found froze got gave went ground had lent lost made put shook smelt spoke spent spilt/ spilled took told thought threw Participle been become begun bitten broken brought burnt bought caught chosen come cost cut done drunk eaten fallen fed felt found frozen got given gone ground had lent lost made put shaken smelt spoken spent spilt/ spilled taken told thought thrown Translation bti tapti prasidti ksti sudauyti, sulauyti atneti (nu)degti pirkti pagauti pasirinkti ateiti kainuoti pjaustyti daryti, veikti gerti valgyti kristi maitinti jausti(s) rasti sualti gauti duoti eiti malti turti paskolinti pamesti pagaminti padti kratyti, plakti uuosti, uostyti kalbti praleisti, ileisti ipilti paimti pasakyti galvoti mesti

In questions and negatives we use did/didn't + infinitive (enjoy/see/go etc.):


A.:

Did you go out last night? 19

B: Yes, I went to the cinema but I didn't enjoy the film much. The past of be (am/is/are) is was/were. NOTE! We do not use did in negatives and questions with was/were: I was angry because they were late. Was the weather good when you were on holiday? They weren't able to come because they were so busy. Did you go out last night or were you too tired? Study the table:
Sent. type Question word Auxiliary Verb/ to be Subject I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake When Why Where How What (kas,k?) Whom (k?) Who (k?) did I you we they he, she, it my brother her friend the cake ____ Auxiliary Verb Verb, II f. loved made brought wrote tasted smelled was were love make bring write taste smell was not were not love make bring write taste smell Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time

Positive

___

Negative

did not (didnt)

me you him her them us my dog a letter

nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly

at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the caf on the table

in the morning in the evening in the afternoon during the day at night in summer in winter at 8 oclock

Question

was were

_____

PRACTICE 2. Make dialogues using the examples below: What do you usually have for breakfast? What is your favourite breakfast dish? What did you have for breakfast yesterday? What do you have for breakfast at weekends? What did you have for breakfast on Sunday? Do you like cooking breakfast? 20

And what about you? PRACTICE 3. Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative. 1) It was warm, so I off my coat. (take) 2) The film wasn't very good. I . enjoy it very much. (enjoy) 3) I knew Sarah was very busy, so I.............................................her. (disturb) 4) I was very tired, so I.............................................to bed early. (go) 5) The bed was very uncomfortable. I.............................................very well. (sleep) 6) Sue wasn't hungry, so she.............................................anything. (eat) 7) We went to Kate's house but she.............................................at home. (be) 8) It was a funny situation but nobody..............................................(laugh) 9) The window was open and a bird.............................................into the room. (fly) 10)The hotel wasn't very expensive. It.............................................very much. (cost) 11) I was in a hurry, so I.............................................time to phone you. (have) 12) It was hard work carrying the bags. They.............................................very heavy. (be)

6. LUNCH AND TIFFIN


6.1. Lunch Lunch is a meal that is taken at noon or in the early afternoon. The term is short for "luncheon". Lunch is a newer word for what was once invariably called "dinner," a word nowadays only sometimes used to mean a noontime meal in the British Isles, and in parts of the United States, Canada and Australia. In parts of India a light lunch is known as tiffin. Lunch food varies. In some places, one eats similar things both at lunch and at supper - a hot meal, sometimes with more than one course. In other places, lunch is the main meal of the day, supper being a smaller cold meal. German and Scandinavian lunch mostly is large and cooked (as opposed to, say, a sandwich).
Lunch from Karnataka served on a plantain leaf.

6.2. Tiffin Tiffin is an Indian and British English dialect word meaning a light meal eaten during the day. The word became popular in British India, deriving from tiffing, an old English dialect or slang word for taking a little drink or sip. In modern day India, the word mostly is used for light lunches prepared for working Indian men by their wives after they have left for work, and forwarded to them by Dabbawalas (people who 21

carry boxes) who use a complex system to get thousands of tiffin-boxes to their destinations. The lunches are packed in tin boxes, also sometimes called tiffins or tiffin-boxes. A common approach is to put rice in one box, dal in another and yet other items in the third or fourth. The other items could be breads, such as naan, vegetable curry and finally a sweet. In Chinese cultures, the stacked porcelain or metal round trays with handles are called tiffin carriers. People also refer to cups of tea as "a cup of tiffin".

PRACTICE 1. Group the meals into the following categories:


Dishes/ drinks A cup of tiffin; sausages; pastries; seafood; tea; coffee; bacon; ham; fruits; pastries; biscuits; vegetable curry; buns; dumplings; sweets. Breakfast Second breakfast Elevenses Brunch Lunch Tiffin

6.3. Future Simple Tense. Future Simple is used to describe future actions and events. We use I'll (- I will) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. E.g.: Oh, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it. What would you like to drink? Ill have an orange juice, please.' In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (- will not. E.g.: I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long. We often use will in these situations:

Offering to do something: That bag looks heavy. Ill help you with it. Agreeing to do something: A: You know that book I lent you. Can I have it back if you've finished with it? B: Of course. I'll give it to you this afternoon. Promising to do something: Thanks for lending me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. I won't tell anyone what happened. I promise. Asking somebody to do something (Will you..-?) Will you please be quiet? I'm trying to concentrate. Will you shut the door, please?

Shall I...? Shall we...? Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I...? / shall we...? We use shall I...? / shall we...? to ask somebody's opinion (especially in offers or suggestions)- Shall I open the window? Where shall we go this evening?

We often use will ('ll) with: probably expect (I'm) sure (I) think I'll probably be home late this evening. I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this evening. Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass. Do you think Sarah will like the present we bought her? 22

(I) don't think I wonder

I don't think the exam will be very difficult. I wonder what will happen.

I shall... / we shall... Normally we use shall only with I and we. You can say I shall or I will (I'll), we shall or we will (we'll): I shall be tired this evening, (or I will be...}. We shall probably go to Scotland for our holiday, (or We will probably go...) In spoken English we normally use I'll and we'll: We'll probably go to Scotland. The negative of shall is shall not or shan't: I shan't be here tomorrow, (or 1 won't be...) Do not use shall with he/she/it/you/they: She will be very angry, (not 'she shall be')
Study the table Sent. Question type word

Auxiliary Verb/ to be

Subject I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake You They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake I We We I you we they he, she, it my brother her friend the cake

Auxiliary Verb

___

Will/ shall + Verb love make bring write taste smell be love make bring write taste smell was not were not love make bring write taste smell

Object

Adverbial Modifier Manner Place

Time

Positive

will not (wont)

shall not (shant)

Question

When Why Where How What (kas,k?) Whom (k?) Who (k?)

me you him her them us my dog a letter

nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly

at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the caf on the table

in the morning in the evening in the afternoon during the day at night in summer in winter at 8 oclock

Negative

shall will

____

_____

PRACTICE 2. Put in will ('ll) or won't. 1) Can you wait for me? I hope I wont be very long. 2) There's no need to take an umbrella with you. It................................rain. 3) If you don't eat anything now, you................................be hungry later. 4) I'm sorry about what happened yesterday. It................................happen again. 5) I've got some incredible news! You................................never believe what's happened. 6) Don't ask Margaret for advice. She................................know what to do. 23

7. TEA. DINNER. SUPPER


7.1. Tea Tea is the afternoon/evening meal, called that even if the diners are drinking beer, cider, or juice. It traditionally takes place at sometime around 6pm (though these days, it often takes place as late as 9pm). In Scotland, Northern England, a significant part of the English Midlands, New Zealand, and sometimes in Australia and Northern Ireland, tea as a meal is synonymous with dinner in Standard English. Under such usage, the midday meal is sometimes termed dinner, rather than lunch. 7.2. Dinner Dinner is a term with several meanings. Around North America in general, dinner may be a synonym of supper that is, a large evening meal. However, in parts of Canada and the United States, dinner can be a synonym of lunch, with the evening meal in turn called supper. For the most part these terms only persist in rural areas, particularly in the Southern United States and among older Americans. In the United Kingdom, dinner traditionally meant the main meal of the day. Because of differences in custom as to when this meal was taken, dinner might mean the evening meal (typically in the higher social classes) or the midday meal (typically in lower social classes, who may describe their evening meal as tea). There is sometimes snobbery and reverse snobbery about which meaning is used. "Dinner", especially outside North America, is any meal consisting of multiple courses. The minimum is usually two but there can be as many as seven. Possible dinner courses are: 1) Hors d'oeuvres (also known as appetizers, starters) refer to the food served before or outside of the main dishes of a meal. Hors d'oeuvre might include canaps, snack foods, cheeses, sausages. 2) Soup course. Traditionally, soups are classified into two broad groups: clear soups and thick soups. 3) Fish course. Some commonly harvested and eaten fish species include: salmon, cod, anchovy, carp, tuna, trout, mackerel, snapper, dogfish. Other water-dwelling animals such as mollusks, crustaceans, and shellfish are often called "fish" when used as food. 4) Salad course. A salad is a food item generally served either before or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. Salad also commonly refers to a blended food item often meat, seafood or eggs blended with mayonnaise, finely chopped vegetables and seasonings which can be served as part of a green salad, but is often used as a sandwich filling. Salads of this kind include egg, chicken, tuna, shrimp, and ham salad.

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5) Main course (also known as meat course) A main course is the featured or primary dish in a meal consisting of several courses (a full course dinner can consist of ten or even twelve courses). The main course can also be called the entre; however, in some menus the main course follows the entre course, and the salad course. It is sometimes called the meat course. The main course is usually the heaviest, heartiest, and most complex or substantive dish on a menu. The main ingredient is usually meat, fish or fowl; in vegetarian meals, the main course sometimes attempts to mimic a meat course. 6) Cheese course. Cheeses are eaten raw or cooked, alone or with other ingredients. As they are heated, most cheeses melt and brown. 7) Dessert Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a dinner, usually consisting of sweet food but sometimes of a strongly flavored one, such as some cheeses. Common types of desserts: biscuits or cookies, cakes, crumbles (a dish of typically British origin containing stewed fruit topped with a crumbly mixture of fat, flour, and sugar), custards (made from a combination of milk or cream, egg yolks, sugar, and flavourings such as vanilla), fruit, gelatin desserts, ice cream, meringue (a type of dessert, originally from France, made from whipped egg whites and caster sugar), pastry pies or tarts, pudding sorbet (is a frozen dessert made from iced fruit puree and other ingredients), souffl (a light, fluffy baked dish made with egg yolks and beaten egg whites combined with various other ingredients), trifle (an English dessert dish made from thick (or often solidified) custard, fruit, sponge cake, fruit juice or, more recently, gelatin dessert and whipped cream, usually arranged in layers with fruit and sponge on the bottom, custard and cream on top. Some trifles contain a small amount of alcohol). Dinner is generally followed by tea or coffee, sometimes served with mint chocolates or other sweets, or with brandy or a digestif. When dinner consists of many courses, these tend to be smaller and to be served over a longer time period than a dinner with only two or three courses. Dinners with many courses tend to occur at formal events such as dinner parties or banquets. This formal version of the meal is generally served in the evening, starting some time between 7.30 and 8.30 (in the Netherlands typically at 6.00). It may be served at midday or shortly afterwards. However this tends to be more common practice in Scotland than in other countries. PRACTICE 1. Summarize the texts read filling-in the table below:
Dinner courses starter soup fish salad main cheese dessert

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PRACTICE 2. Can you recognize the following desserts? Use the hints: meringues, Christmas pudding, cake, cherry ice cream, gelatine dessert, American honey biscuits, custard, pie, pastries.

PRACTICE 3. Study the examples below and compose your own menu for dinner. Ask your friends: whats on the menu today/ what was on the menu yesterday.

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7.3. Supper Supper is the evening meal - ordinarily the last meal of the day. In the United Kingdom, supper is a small meal just before bedtime, often preceded by high tea; what a Canadian or American would refer to as supper, then, would be called dinner. However, "dinner" can be used to refer to lunch in Britain and parts of the United States and Canada. In English-speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, and the United States, the evening meal is usually served in the early evening, sometime between five and nine p.m. However, supper customs vary in European cultures. In Spain, supper can be as late as ten or eleven p.m. In Britain and Ireland, the understanding of "supper" is typically a meal taken in the evening (between 6pm and midnight) when one's main meal or "dinner" has been eaten during the day; in place of "dinner", when the main meal of the day is usually taken in the evening, or distinct from "dinner" in that it is another light meal taken several hours later on the same evening. "Supper" is typically a lighter meal, often served cold and unlikely to involve either elaborate preparation or more than one or two courses. PRACTICE 5. Answer the following questions: 1) What type of a meal is supper? 2) What is there in common among lunch, dinner and supper in Britain, Canada and the United States? 3) What do like for supper?

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8. HEALTHY FOOD
Some people can keep slim without any effort, but a lot of people do put on too much weight and don't like it. Some of the people put their faith in exercise, but the problem here is that you can sweat off a couple of pounds playing tennis or jogging but you put it all back again with a big plate of macaroni, cheese or stake and chips or bread and jam. The only reliable solution is dieting. Some people stick to milk and bananas. Others keep to the theory that if you eat things like hard-boiled eggs, apples with their skins on, and lean meat, you get thinner because they are hard to digest. This is because you use up the fat in your body to get the energy to digest the food. For most of us these methods are too eccentric. The simplest system is to cut down on the carbohydrates or, if possible, to cut them right out, That means avoiding bread, potatoes, cake, biscuits, jam, sugar, rice, spaghetti, macaroni and so on. Still others like to be more scientific. They are the calorie-counters. They get a table which tells them that, for example, lOOg of roast leg of lamb gives you 330 calories and a 50g helping of Yorkshire pudding gives you 130. lOOg of raw cabbage is only 15, a 100ml glass of wine is 75 and a pint (568ml) of beer is 160. A fried egg will cost you 145 calories, but a boiled one will give you only 65. The calorie-counter will then allow himself say 1000 calories a day. A well-balanced diet should provide all the vitamins we normally require. Vitamins are vital for growth, good health and maintenance of the normal functions of the body. Modern methods of preserving, freezing and long-term storage of food, together with overcooking, destroy many of the vitamins, Everybody knows that vitamins A, B, C, D are essential for our body. Dairy products, vegetables, margarine, liver, fruit contain a lot of vitamin A; meat, milk, fish, whole cereals contain vitamin B and fresh green vegetables, fruit, potatoes, tomatoes contain vitamin C. People who are overweight are more likely to become ill as they get older. Poor diet has also been linked with heart disease, cancer, blood pressure and strokes. A healthy diet is one, which gives us all the nutrients we need to stay fit and well. To get all the nutrients we need we should eat a balanced diet containing a range of different foods. Most people eat too much fat, salt and refined sugar. In order to improve our health we should: try to avoid becoming overweight increase out intake of dietary fibre and starch eat less fat, sugar, salt and alcohol Here is a list of some foods, which are good for us: Cereal foods. These are a good source of starch and protein as well as a good source of vitamins and minerals. Cereals include: wheat, rice, oats, barley, maize and rye. Bread is the main product made from wheat. Breakfast cereals are made from a variety of different cereals. Starchy vegetables. These contain a lot of starch. Examples are potatoes and sweet potatoes. Fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetables are important for good health because of the dietary fibre and vitamins they contain. It is important to eat at least three portions of vegetables or fruit a day. Pulses and nuts. These are a good source of protein.

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Here is a list of some foods which are bad for us: Sugar, sugary foods and drink. These foods provide very little in the way of useful nutrients. They have a damaging effect on teeth and should only form a small part of our diet. Examples are: cans of fizzy drinks, sweets and sweet cakes. Fats. Although we do need some types of fat in our diet we do not need very much. Fat is found in chocolate, butter, cream, cakes, cheese, some meat (often in beef burgers and sausages). More and more teenagers (and indeed whole families) are eating fast food or convenience food rather than food cooked from fresh ingredients. If you would like to have a healthier diet here are some simple, positive steps you can take:

Cut down on fizzy drinks, sweets and chocolate. Eat a healthy breakfast before you leave for school in the morning. Eat fresh food when you want a snack. Don't eat chips and hot-dogs every day.

PRACTICE 1. Discuss the following points with your friends. 1) What food is good for us? Bad? 2) What would you advise a person who wants to lose weight? 3) What are your eating habits: how much meat or fish you eat on a typical day what you eat a lot of what you eat a little of how much you drink whether you think you have a healthy diet (give reasons)? PRACTICE 2. Study the Vegetarian food pyramid and compose a vegetarian food menu.

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9. NATIONAL FOOD AND CUISINE


PRACTICE 1. Read the text. Rye bread is one of the oldest and most fundamental Lithuanian food products. Two kinds of bread are traditional, plain fermented and scalded. Soup is the main dinner and supper food. Most popular are sour soups, sauerkraut, beet and sorrel, with smoked meat stock as the base. Sauerkraut soup is also made with goose pieces. Meat cooked in soup is often eaten as a second course. Meatless soups are eaten on fast days. Most soups are served with bread or potatoes. Cold beet soup with hot potatoes is a very popular summer fare. Cold sweet soups are also popular, especially in summer. In olden times and now, sweet soups made with berries, fruit and tiny dumplings are a treat. Another summer soup, mutinys, made with dried black bread, water, sugar and crushed fruit is very refreshing on hot summer days. Meat. Lithuanians consume a lot of meat and meat by-products. Pork has always been the most widely used meat, fresh, brined or smoked, and continues to be so to this day. Potatoes Many delicious, tasty dishes are made with potatoes. They are eaten alone or as an accompaniment to a main course of soup, meat, fish, mushrooms, eggs and dairy products. The most popular potato dishes are "zeppelins", potato sausages, potato casserole and pancakes. Lithuanian recipes reflect the diversity of potatoes. Milk. Lithuanians eat sweet and sour milk. Milk is used to whiten soups, make cheese, cottage cheese and churn butter. Mushrooms. Lithuania is rich in mushrooms, more than four hundred edible varieties are found in the forests. The most popular are boletes, the kings of all mushrooms. Also collected are chanterelles, blevits, morels and many others. Mushroom season begins early spring and continues till late autumn, autumn being most abundant season. Then entire families go mushrooming and return with overflowing baskets.The most abundant forests are in Dzukija, the south eastern region. Traditionally the inhabitants of this part of the country are the most prolific mushroom gatherers and this region's cooks are known for the most creative mushroom recipes. All over Lithuania mushrooms are used in many dishes, to add special flavor to meat, fish and potato dishes. Mushrooms are used fresh, dried, salted or marinated. Fish. Along with fresh water fish, salt water fish are also popular. Fish are much used for food reserves, small fish are dried, while larger ones are salted. Some salted fish are hot smoked for immediate use. Fish for salting are seasoned with black pepper, powdered bay leaf, crushed juniper berries and ground cardamom. Herring are popular throughout Lithuania. Vegetables. The most popular vegetables have always been cabbages, beets, carrots, cucumbers, onions, turnips, radishes, parsnips and horseradish. Cabbage is eaten fresh and fermented, seasoned with caraway seed, cranberries, apples and salt. Beets are used fresh, fermented and are available all year round. In summer, cucumbers are eaten fresh and in autumn and winter, fermented and pickled. Onion is the 30

traditional, primary, aromatic vegetable. Other popular aromatic plants are dill, caraway, marjoram, garlic and horseradish. Grain. Rye was and still is the most important crop, used mainly for rye bread. Second place goes to barley, which is used to make groats and flour. Wheat is in third place and oats in fourth place. Buckwheat was and is grown in the hilly regions of northern and southern Lithuania. Peas and beans are eaten raw, cooked and are also ground into flour. Among oil crops, hemp and poppy seeds have always been used to make hemp and poppy milk, which replaces cow's milk during fast days and special holidays. Eggs. Chicken eggs are more popular than other eggs. Eggs are boiled and baked. They are the basis of many recipes and are included in meat, fish, vegetable dishes and baked goods. Today the traditional omelette remains a favourite dish among Lithuanian cooks, especially when an unexpected guest arrives. Baked goods and sweets. Lithuanian people do not have a sweet tooth. Baked goods and sweets are not a part of daily eating. However each homemaker does her very best to be creative and to pamper the family especially during holidays and special occasions. At the beginning of this century, many new foods came to Lithuania, among them tortes and the famous baumkuchen from Germany, which now is a must for every special occasion. Today Lithuanian homemakers have many recipes for all occasions. Drinks. Mead and beer are ceremonial and traditional drinks. Mead is the oldest and noblest drink, served during banquets and special occasions. Beer has been brewed in Lithuania since ancient times and even today is a popular, traditional drink. It is always brewed for family celebrations, feast days, barn raisings and funerals. Beer is brewed from sprouted barley malt. The making of home made wine in Lithuania was begun at the beginning of the twentieth century. Most wine was made in the South Western region, from forest and orchard fruits and berries. Another ancient drink is made from birch and maple sap, collected in early spring. Sap is drunk fresh and fermented for summer drinking. To satisfy thirst, Lithuanians brew a semi sour drink, gira - kvass. Much appreciated from ancient times are linden, thyme, caraway seed, mint, raspberry, strawberry, camomile, dill seed and other herb teas, which not only refresh but also have healing properties. PRACTICE 2. Discuss your favourite national food with your friend. What food dont you like? PRACTICE 3. Classify the most popular Lithuanian food filling- in the table. Discuss what particular food is used on special occasions (Christmas, birthday party, wedding etc.)
The most popular Lithuanian National food and drink Bread Soup Meat Potatoes Milk Mushrooms Fish Vegetables Grains Eggs Sweets Drinks

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10. METHODS OF COOKING AND PREPARING FOOD


10.1. Present Continuous Tense Present Continuous Tense is used to describe events, which are in progress now, at the moment of speaking and are not finished. Study the table:
Sent. type Question word To be: am are is Subject To be: am are is am are is Verb Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time

I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake You They We He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake I When Why Where How What (kas,k?) Whom (k?) Who (k?) am are is I you we they he, she, it my brother her friend the cake

making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying me you him her them us my dog a letter nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the caf on the table at 10 oclock during the day at night at 8 oclock

Positive

are not (arent) is not (isnt) am not (Im not)

Negative

____

PRACTICE 1. Complete the sentences with one of the following verbs in the correct form: come happen look make start stay try work 1) 'You're working hard today.' 'Yes, I have a lot to do.' 2) I...................................................for Christine. Do you know where she is? 3) It...................................................dark. Shall I turn on the light?

Question

get

4) They haven't got anywhere to live at the moment. They...................................................with friends until they find somewhere. 5) 'Are you ready, Ann?' 'Yes, I....................................................' 6) Have you got an umbrella? It...................................................to rain. 7) You................................a lot of noise. Could you be quieter? I................................to concentrate. 8) Why are all these people here? What...................................................?

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10.2. Past Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense is used to describe events, which were in progress in the past at a certain time. Study the table.
Sent. type Question word To be: was were Subject I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake You They We He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake I I you we they he, she, it my brother her friend the cake To be: was were was were was Verb Object Adverbial Modifier Manner Place Time

making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying making bringing writing tasting smelling cleaning crying me you him her them us my dog a letter nicely beautifully tasty loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at work in the kitchen at home at the restaurant at school in prison in the caf on the table at 10 oclock during the day at night at 8 oclock

Positive

were not (werent) was not (wasnt)

Negative When Why Where How What (kas,k?) Whom (k?) Who (k?)

was were was

PRACTICE 2. What were you doing at the following times? Write one sentence as in the examples. The Past Continuous is not always necessary (see the second example). 1) (at 8 o'clock yesterday evening) I was having dinner with some friends. 2) (at 5 o'clock last Saturday) I was on the train to London. 3) (at 10.15 yesterday morning) ...................................................................................................................... 4) (at 4.30 this morning)................................................................................................................................... 5) (at 7.45 yesterday evening) ......................................................................................................................... 6) (half an hour ago) ........................................................................................................................................

PRACTICE 3. Put the verbs into the correct form, Past Continuous or Past Simple. 1) Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive). 2) 'What...................................................(you/do) this time yesterday?' I was asleep.' 33

Question

____

3) '................................................... (you/go) out last night?' 'No, I was too tired.' 4) 'Was Carol at the party last night?' 'Yes, she............................(wear) a really nice dress.' 5) How fast........................................(you/drive) when the accident.......................................(happen)? 6) John...................................................(take) a photograph of me while.........................................(not/look). 7) We were in a very difficult position. We...............................................(not/know) what to do. 8) I haven't seen Alan for ages. When I last...................................................(see) him, he .. ................(try) to find a job in London. 9) I.............................................(walk) along the street when suddenly I......................................... (hear) footsteps behind me. Somebody..............................................(follow) me. I was frightened and I .............................................(start) to run. 10)When I was young, I...................................................(want) to be a bus driver.

10.3. Methods - cooking and preparing food. There are a lot of various ways to prepare food. Look at the table and decide which of them are the most familiar, usual to you and which ones you do not use in every day life. Translate the unknown words.
Method of cooking/ preparing food English to steam to simmer to boil to fry to bake to roast to grill to stew to barbecue to smoke to mix to peel to stir to mince to cut to chop to slice to grate to crack to season to sprinkle to dry to pickle to marinate Translation

ways of cooking food

ways of preparing food

PRACTICE 4. Answer the questions: 1) Do you like cooking? 2) Does your friend like cooking? 34

3) What are you cooking on Sundays? 4) What were you cooking yesterday? PRACTICE 5. Match the method of cooking with its definition. 1) baking 2) boiling 3) frying 4) roasting 5) simmering 6) steaming 7) stewing a) cooking in steam; used for puddings, fish, etc b) cooking meat or fruit in a small amount of water and its own juices c) cooking foods in enough water to cover them, at a temperature lower than 100C d) cooking in fat; used for chips, doughnuts, etc e) the food is placed in the oven; used for preparing cakes, breads f) is done by placing the food in the oven or oven coals and cooking until it is tender; used for cooking meats g) cooking foods in enough water to cover them, at 100C PRACTICE 6. Fill in the blanks with the words given on the right. (1).....the crab into large pieces. Then fry black beans, garlic, ginger and (2).....onions very quickly before adding (3)..... meat. (4)..... again for one minute and then (5)..... the crab pieces, half a pint of chicken stock or water, and a little dry sherry or rice sprinkle wine, (6)..... for ten minutes and then add two beaten eggs. (7)..... slowly for one minute and then (8)...... a) minced b) cut c) add d) serve e) fry f) stir g) chop h) heat

11. RECIPES
11.1. Christmas Pudding, Omelette with cheese, Roast leg of lamb. PRACTICE 1. Have a look at the recipes A-C. Which food is the simplest to cook? A. Christmas Pudding Ingredients: 225g (8oz) plain flour 1 tspn cinnamon 1/2 tspn grated nutmeg 1/2 tspn ground all spice (mixed spice) 150g (60oz) candied peel, chopped finely 50g (2 oz) blanched almonds, chopped 225g (8 oz) soft dark brown sugar 225g (8 oz) shredded suet 4 eggs 220ml (6fl. oz) milk 100ml (4fl. oz) brandy (or use milk in non-alcoholic version) Pinch of salt 35

Begin the day before you plan to steam the pudding. Sift the flour, spices and salt into a large mixing bowl. Stir in the breadcrumbs, dried fruits, peel, almonds and sugar. Then add the suet and mix well. Beat together the eggs, milk and brandy separately and then add to the main mixture and ensure that all the ingredients are thoroughly mixed. Usually at this time the family gathers around to stir the pudding and make a secret wish. The mixture should have a sloppy consistency and should be covered and left overnight. When you are ready to steam the pudding, pack the mixture into a lightly greased basin and cover with a non-stick baking paper and then enclose the entire basin in foil and tie with string. Traditionally unbleached calico or muslin was used. Place the pudding on a steam rack or upturned saucer in a saucepan of simmering water for five hours to steam. The water should come half way up the basin. Remember to top up the water in the saucepan as needed during the steaming process. Once the cooking time is over allow the pudding to cool completely. When this is done remove the foil and the nonstick baking paper and replace with fresh ones. The pudding should then be stored in a cool dry place to mature until Christmas day.

B. Omelette with cheese Ingredients: 6 eggs; 5 tablespoons milk 300 g (9 oz) farmer's cheese, sliced thin 50 g (4 tablespoons) butter pinch of salt onion greens and dill, chopped
Melt butter in frying pan, bake cheese slices. Beat eggs with salt and milk. Grease a shallow baking dish, layer baked cheese slices and cover with beaten eggs. Bake in preheated oven at 325F/165C, for about 1015 minutes. Sprinkle with chopped herbs and serve with bread and fresh vegetables.

C. Roast leg of lamb Ingredients: 1 k (2 lbs) leg of lamb; 1 carrot, cut finely 1 onion, cut finely; 1 parsnip, cut finely 6 garlic cloves, 3 cut in half, 3 minced seasonings, bay leaves, salt and pepper to taste 1 l (4 cups) sour milk or buttermilk 30 g (2 tablespoons) fat
Soak meat in sour milk or buttermilk for 4 hours. Blot dry, rub with minced garlic, poke 6 small holes in meat and insert the remaining garlic halves into the meat. Place seasoned meat into greased baking pan, sprinkle meat with pepper and powdered bay leaves, add aromatic vegetables and bake in preheated oven at 350F/180C, basting with pan juices. Bake for about 1 hour. Serve hot with potatoes and dill pickles.

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PRACTICE 2. Fill in the gaps with the words given on the right Irish Stew (enough for 4 people) 1 lb (0. 45kg) stewed lamb; 1.5 Ib (0.68kg) potatoes; 0.5 Ib (0.23kg) onions; 0.5 pint (0.28 litres) water; salt and pepper; 1 teaspoon chopped fresh parsley (1)..... the meat up into fairly small pieces, removing the fat. (2)..... the onions. (3) .....the potatoes and cut them into thick slices. Put the meat and vegetables into a saucepan in layers, finishing with a layer of potatoes. (4)..... with salt and pepper. (5)..... water. Bring to the boil, then cover and (6)..... gently for about two hours. To serve, (7)..... the meat and onions in the centre of the dish, with the potatoes round the edge, and (8).....the sauce over the meat. (9).... the parsley over the potatoes. PRACTICE 3. Tell each other the recipes of your favourite dishes. a) season f) slice b) sprinkle g) peel c) cut d) pour e) simmer h) pile i) add

11.2. Present Perfect Tense. Present Perfect is used when we want to describe that something has happened/ has been done but do not indicate the time of the event - it is only the fact that is important. But the action in the past has a result now:

The present perfect is have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in -ed (finished/decided etc.), but many important verbs are irregular (lost/done/been/written etc.). For a list of irregular verbs, see pages 23 and study the table below.

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Sent. type

Question word

To have: have has

Subject I You We They He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake You They We He, she, it My brother Her friend The cake I

To have: have has have

Verb been made brought written tasted smelt cleaned cried seen been made brought written tasted smelt cleaned cried seen been made brought written tasted smelt cleaned cried seen

Object the cake drunk to me the room them my dog his brother him them

Adverbial Modifier (Manner) Place

Time

Positive

has

at work beautifully in the kitchen tasty at home loudly precisely happily greatly bitterly at the restaurant at school in prison in the caf on the table

have not (havent) has not (hasnt)

Negative When Why Where How What (kas,k?) Whom (k?) Who (k?)

have

has

PRACTICE 4. Read the situations and write sentences with just, already or yet. 1) After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says 'Would you like something to eat?' You say: No, thank you. Ive just had lunch. (have lunch) 2) Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says 'Can I speak to Joe?' You say: I'm afraid........................................................................................................................(go out) 3) You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say: Wait a minute!................................................................................ (not/finish) 4) You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says 'Shall I phone to reserve a table?' You say: No,...........................................................it. (do) 5) You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask her. You say:......................................................................................................................................? (find) 6) Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks Is Ann still at the bank?' You say: No,.............................................................................................................(come back)

Question

I you we they he, she, it my brother her friend the cake

____

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12. REVISION
PRACTICE 1. Work in groups. Choose a topic covered and ask your friends 10 words from the topic you have chosen. Give 1 point/ a word. The winner is the group having received the biggest number of points. PRACTICE 2. Answer the following questions. Pay attention to the structure of the questions. 1) What is the time now? 2) What are your working hours? 3) Do you work full time/ par-time/ shifts? 4) What kitchenware can be found there in your kitchen? 5) Whats on the menu today? 6) How much does cappuccino coffee cost in your caf? 7) Whats your favourite food/ drink? 8) What do you usually like for breakfast? 9) What will you have for lunch today? 10) What did you have for dinner yesterday? 11) What dinner courses do you know? 12) What would you like for supper this evening? 13) What meals are included into traditional English breakfast? 14) What is traditional Lithuanian food? 15) What is healthy food? 16) What methods of food cooking/ preparing can you name? 17) Could you give a recipe of your favourite dish? 18) Do you like eating out? Why?

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REFERENCES
1. B. Imbrasien LITHUANIAN TRADITIONAL FOODS, Vilnius, 1998 2. D. Guiuvien, L.Lenkauskien 14 ENGLISH TOPICS, Kaiiadorys, 1998 3. L.Soars, J. Soars HEADWAY STUDENTS BOOK, Oxford,1999 4. L.Soars, J. Soars HEADWAY WORKBOOK, Oxford,1999 5. R. Murphy ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE, Cambridge, 1997 6. V. Evans, J. Dooley ENTERPRISE 3 COURSEBOOK, Swansea, 1998 7. V. Evans, J. Dooley ENTERPRISE 3 WORKBOOK, Swansea, 1998 8. V. Evans, J. Dooley MISSION COURSEBOOK, Newbury, 2000 9. V. Evans, FCE USE OF ENGLISH, Newbury, 2000 10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki 11. http://www.vegsource.com/nutrition/pyramid.htm 12. www.bicyclegermany.com/german_food_&_drink.htm

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