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DAM &

Barrages
across
Rivers

Applying the
findings of
geologic
studies to
construction Hoover arch-gravity dam on the
engineering Colorado River
and to
problems of
land use.

Grand Dixence Dam


Grand Dixence Dam (height 285 m) in the
Swiss Alps is one of the tallest dams in the
world. Waterpower generates the majority
of Switzerland’s domestic electricity and is Shasta concrete gravity Dam impounds
the nation’s most important natural the Sacramento River in northern
resource. California.
CONSTRUCTION OF A DAM

The engineering properties


of geologic materials,
including their strength,
permeability, and
compactability, and with the
influence of these properties
on the selection of locations
for buildings, roads and
railroads, bridges, dams,
and other major civil
features.
Irrigation Canals

Roman aqueducts made of stone blocks held


together with cement.

Stability of sites for buildings and other civil features, sources of


water supply, contamination of waters by sewage and chemical
pollutants, selection of sites for burial of refuse so as to
minimize pollution by seepage, and locating the source of
geologic building materials, including sand, gravel, and crushed
rock.
Channel Tunnel Drill An immense
road-header machine drills out clay
during the construction of the
Channel Tunnel. The tunnel runs
beneath the English Channel

Tunnelling Today
ROAD CONSTRUCTION

Cross section of 18 th century Roads

Appian way constructed of Cross section of Modern Roads


basalt stone, more than 2200
years ago as the primary route
from Rome to Greece.
Modern Road Construction

Asphalt Paver spreads


asphalt evenly on the road.
Asphalt is a black, cement
like material derived from
crude oil.
Megane Bridge, Isahaya Japan

Concrete bridges (Sand – stone chips


and cement). Durable Mega
structures use light weight and
durable concrete reinforced with steel
bars and mesh.