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Colour of ions in aqueous solution Ions All Group I, II & III metal ions NH4+ Pb2+, Zn2+ Cu2+

Fe2+ Fe3+ Co2+ Ni2+ Cr3+ Mn2+ All halide ions: F-, Cl-, Br-, IMost anions except MnO4-, CrO42-, Cr2O72MnO4CrO42Cr2O72-

Colour of ions in aqueous solution Colourless Colourless Colourless Blue or green Green Yellow or brown Pink Green Green Very pale pink or colourless Colourless Colourless Purple Yellow Orange

Colour of halogens and halides Free elements In aqueous solution Cl2(g) greenish Greenish yellow yellow gas Br2(l) dark red liquid Brown I2(s) black solid Brown

In organic Halide ions in solvent aqueous solution Greenish yellow Colourless Red-orange Purple

Silver halides ppt AgCl white AgBr AgI creamy yellow

Colour of metal oxides Metal oxides All metal ions that is colourless in aqueous solution except PbO CuO Cu2O HgO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 (iron (II) iron(III) oxide) PbO FeS

Colour of metal oxides White Black Red Red Black Black Yellow Black

Solubility of salts in aqueous solution Soluble Insoluble + + + All common K , Na and NH4 All NO3- and NO2All HCO3All Cl-, Br- and I- except AgCl, AgBr, AgI All sulphate except CaSO4, BaSO4, PbSO4 K2CO3, Na2CO3, (NH4)2CO3 All other common carbonate 2S of Group I and Group II metals All other sulphides KOH, NaOH All other common metal hydroxides

Ca(OH)2 is slightly soluble

Flame test Metal ions contain Sodium Potassium Copper Calcium

Flame colour Golden yellow Lilac Blue or green Brick red

Testing of gases Gases Test with positive result Oxygen Relights glowing splint Hydrogen Burns with pop sound Carbon Turns lime water milky dioxide Turns hydrogencarbonate indicator from red to yellow Chlorine Turns moisten blue litmus blue than bleaches it Sulphur Turns filter paper soaked with acidified potassium dichromate from orange to green. dioxide Turns filter paper soaked with acidified potassium permanganate from purple to colourless. Ammonia Turn moisten red litmus paper blue.