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94%(34)Il 94% ha trovato utile questo documento (34 voti)

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Overview

Some will roll their eyes or let out a sigh. They give many reasons,

such as “It's too hard,” “I'm not good at math,” or “why do I even need

math?” Where does this attitude come from? The National Council of

There have been several studies on math anxiety (Ho, H., Senturk, D.,

Lam, A., Zimmer, J., Hong, S., Okamoto, S., Nakazawa, Y., Wang, C.,

2000; Ma 1999; Cates & Rymer, 2003) that have attempted to describe

they are not “math people” (Anderson, 2007). Maybe the student fell

particular grade level (Cates & Rymer, 2003). Maybe the students don’t

Dislike of Math

understand why they will need mathematics and don’t see the real

world connections. This study will focus why some students have such

be able to struggle through the classes and make good grades, but the

long-term effect will probably be that they will not pursue the subject

any more than they have to. They will certainly not pursue a career in

a math related field. If the reasons for this dislike can be determined,

about mathematics and in particular, if they dislike math, what are the

reasons.

manner.

Definition of Terminology

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Limitations

The survey used for this study was created by the researcher, and

was not validated. The students will take the survey during their math

class and may feel some pressure to respond positively. This may be

from their parents, the teacher or from their peers. Since the sample is

eighth grade students their maturity level may prevent them from

minimize this, the researcher will be present and administer the survey

confidentiality.

Summary

collected and chapter V will summarize the findings and give any

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

“I’m not good at math”, “I hate math” or “math is too hard” are

toward mathematics.

Math Anxiety

HO, Senturk, Lam, Zimmer, Hong, Okamoto, Chui, Nakazawa, & Wang

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2000). Several studies have proposed that math anxiety has two

(worry) (Meece, Wigfield, & Eccles, 1990; Wigfield & Meece, 1988; Ho

et al., 2000).

671 sixth grade students from China (211, 92 girls and 119 boys),

Taiwan (214, 106 girls and 108 boys), and the United States (246, 111

girls and 135 boys). The focus in this study was to address the

using a Likert scale and contained items in the cognitive and affective

third of the items were from textbooks, one-third from another cross-

national study, and the other third developed by the researchers. The

anxiety was inconsistent across the samples. China and U.S. samples

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interaction showed only Taiwan had significant effect with girls having

higher affective anxiety (p<.05). Taiwanese and U.S. girls had higher

only the main effect for nation was significant (p<.05). Gender and

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one and two. The Student Attitude Survey (SAQ) was used which

both math and English, and several other items. Most items were

variables were divided into three factors. The perceived math ability

ability and how well they were doing in math. The expectancies

measure consists of two items asking students how well they expected

math and to get good grades. The SAQ also includes an item asking

students to indicate whether they would take more math classes in the

was collected on each student for both years from school records. The

final grade for each year was used. The study suggests those students'

have the strongest direct effect on their anxiety and are stronger

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reactions to achievement.

71st percentile” (Ma, 1999, p. 528). This study suggests that there is a

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The learning hierarchy suggests that there are four stages of learning:

and divided into a low anxiety group and a high anxiety group. These

groups were then given a timed math probe with multiple operations

fluency between high and low anxiety groups. “Students with lower

anxiety completed more digits correct per minute an all probes. There

through high school and classes become more complex their anxiety

Motivation

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study included 108 freshman and sophomores from two suburban high

provides the subject a pager and throughout the day whenever the

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for mathematic ability, better grades for the first four years, and a

higher course level than those talented in other subjects. The results

1995, p. 173). This study suggests that teachers should create more

interest in mathematics.

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students not taking a mathematics course that year. All of the students

had taken the two required and any elective high school mathematics

in the same high school. “One teacher taught most of these courses.

fit into the big picture), alignment (how the curriculum fits with future

plans), and nature (abilities we’re born with). From the interviews, the

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students and teachers must discount the nature face and build

professionals to visit the classes and share how they use mathematics

Stipek, Salmon, Givvin, & Kazemi (1998) ask the question: What

diverse area. Three groups were formed. Two groups had expressed a

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participated. Each teacher was videotaped for at least two periods and

questionnaire twice: once before the intervention and once after the

were given at the beginning of the year and after the fractions unit.

the positive affective practices of the teacher. The effects were also

improvement and mastery over grades. The study suggests that the

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Jaime Escalante, the real-life hero of the film Stand and Deliver,

insists that he must teach his students for three years if they are

care and trust with each student. He shows steady concern for

English, how their home lives are going, what jobs and sports

we’d like it to be or when they have low moments (as we all do),

teacher. “Okay, if you say so. I’ll do it - just for you” (p. 191).

mathematics are developed early, are highly stable over time, and are

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Attitude

the study. The students were given the Inventory of Affective Aspects

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changes in science theory over time cause more good than harm). The

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results, there was an indication that junior high may be the most

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Summary

and attitude all play important roles in whether or not students will

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CHAPTER III

METHOD

Introduction

and how data will be collected and analyzed. It will state the purpose

of the study and the research question. Also discussed will be any

limitations of the procedure that may affect the outcome and how the

Purpose

suggests that students who dislike math will avoid taking higher level

math classes and may not seek careers in a math related field or any

field that will require math. The purpose of this study is to determine,

Research Question

Procedures

Subjects

northeast Tennessee school. The school has about 800 students and is

K-8. The school consists of mostly white (98%) low to middle income

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Tests/surveys

math class time. The survey did not ask for names or any other

request to sign. Once consent was obtained the survey was given. It

in the appendix.

Data Collection

The researcher collected data on the same day the survey is given.

Data Analysis

Debriefing

Limitations

The survey will be conducted during the normal math class time

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validated.

Summary

they dislike math and why. The survey will allow the reasons to be

math.

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CHAPTER IV

Introduction

The data are analyzed using various statistical methods and presented

Results

consent forms and were given the survey. The survey consisted of 14

Likert scale questions and three open-ended questions. The Likert scale

also indicates a strong negative attitude toward math for that specific

think you will make in this class?” which indicates the students

The students mean score for the 14 Likert scale questions was

with a negative attitude toward math expect worse grades than those

the need to change negative attitudes toward math. The results are

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Scatter Graph

100

90

80

70

Expected Grade

60

50

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Mean of Scores (df=47, r=.704, p<.001)

Graph 1

Like vs Dislike

37%

63%

Graph 2

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Answer Comparison

3 Dislike

Answer Like

Agree

2 = 1, Disagree = 6

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Question

Graph 3

those students’ answers are now considered. For the students who

dislike math, there were many answers that were correlated. Some of

dislike math. The correlations are for each question compared to every

other question. For example, the first column shows the correlation of

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Questio

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1 1

2 0.129 1

3 0.487 0.233 1

-0.04 -0.01

4 2 0.508 8 1

-0.30 -0.40 -0.11

10 0.179 1 0.174 9 0.076 0 0.130 0.036 0.371 1

11 0.153 0.387 0.052 0.322 0.536 0.135 0.453 0.600 0.189 0.098 1

12 0.346 0.170 0.215 0.589 0.348 0.107 0.194 0.422 0.697 0.273 0.595 1

-0.00 -0.28

13 0.166 5 0.234 5 0.484 0.355 0.223 0.338 0.223 0.343 0.365 0.183 1

-0.12

14 0.025 0.159 0.280 0.354 0.261 0.068 0.311 0.111 0.342 0.196 0.282 0.401 5

-0.17

15 0 0.197 0.261 0.311 0.257 0.213 0.523 0.410 0.061 0.154 0.408 0.395 0.352

Table 1

(df=34, p<.05=.331, p<.01=.428. p<.001=.527)

research are discussed. First, “I don’t like math” had highly significant

hard”, “When taking a math test, I usually feel nervous and uneasy”

only take math courses that are required” (highly significant). Lastly, “I

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will only take math courses that are required” had significant

more advanced math”, and “I’m afraid to ask questions in math class.”

taken of the questions for which the students strongly agreed (1 on the

math

“I’ve had at least one year I fell behind in math” 5

“I’m not good at math” 4

“I will only take math courses that are required” 4

“When taking a math test, I usually feel nervous and uneasy” 3

“Math is too hard” 3

“Math is boring” 2

“I dread having to do math” 2

“I’m afraid to answer questions in math class” 1

Table 2

answers to the last two open-ended questions. For this analysis, all

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Less homework – 4

answers are:

on an important test”

we do algebra”

exam”

Summary

This chapter analyzed the data from the surveys. These results

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CHAPTER V

Introduction

Summary of Findings

The finding of this study was that 37 percent of the eighth grade

students who took the survey disliked math. This is a large percentage

and indicates how widespread the problem may be. Wilkins and Ma

math when they leave middle school and they get even less positive in

math.

students who did not like math and those that indicated they weren’t

students say they’re not good at math is may be that they had at least

one year they fell behind. Table 2 shows that 5 of the 18 students who

dislike math agreed strongly with that statement. Also, answers on the

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dread, or tension (Ho et al., 2000). The two questions: “I dread having

like math.”

to “Math is too hard”, “When taking a math test, I usually feel nervous

class”, and “I will only take math courses that are required” (highly

role in the students’ affective anxiety, future plans of the students, and

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attitudes will avoid taking math classes that are not required or

college and possibly to elect careers in a math related field” (p. 177).

The definition of dislike for this study is the desire to avoid math

question: “I will only take math courses that are required” had

were play more math games, have some fun activities, make it

and less homework. All of these suggestions address the results of this

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students seemed to like the idea and it would help them envision

where math fits in the “big picture.” The students were asked whether

they would like and/or use a homework “chat room” where the teacher

students seemed very receptive and excited about the idea. Since

popular with the students this may be an innovative way to get them

increased greatly over sixth or seventh grades. Thus, she felt she

students at all grade levels, but since a negative attitude toward math

motivation. The results of this study agree with the findings of Stipek et

toward math were higher when there was a focus on improvement and

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students feel comfortable and know they won’t be looked down upon

by the teacher or other students if they get the answer wrong or don’t

aren’t good at math and therefore don’t like math, teachers should

tutoring during class time or group work may help those students who

are falling behind. Math skills build on earlier skills and understanding

Limitations

The survey was conducted at only one school and only 49 of the

providing no diversity.

Summary

The results suggest that the reasons students dislike math are

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effectiveness.

Conclusion

With the widespread dislike of math and focus of government and the

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