Sei sulla pagina 1di 56

1

MuIti-user Detection
0wo-Puey Lee
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
2
utIines
uIfipIe Access Communicofion
Synchronous CDA odeI/ Asynchronous CDA odeI
SingIe-user ofched FiIfer
Opfimum uIfi-user Defecfion
DecorreIofing Defecfor
Mon-DecorreIofing Lineor uIfi-user Defecfion
Decision-Driven uIfi-user Defecfion
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
3
MuItipIe Access Communicution
SeveroI fronsmiffers shore o common chonneI, e.g.,
mobiIe feIephones fronsmiffing fo o bose sfofion
ground sfofions communicofing wifh o sofeIIife, ...
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
4
MuItipIe Access Communicution
%he receiver obfoins fhe superposifion of fhe signoIs senf by
fhe ocfive fronsmiffers
#eceiver
User 1
User 2
User 3
User 4
User K
Noise
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
S
MuItipIe Access Communicution
Frequency Division uIfipIe Access (FDA)
FDA ossigns o differenf corrier frequency fo eoch user so fhof
fhe resuIfing specfro so nof overIop
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
6
MuItipIe Access Communicution
%ime Division uIfipIe Access (%DA)
In %DA, fime is porfifioned info sIofs ossigned fo eoch incoming
digifoI sfreom in round-robin foshion. Synchroni;ofion is required.
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
7
MuItipIe Access Communicution
Code Division uIfipIe Access (CDA)
Users ore ossigned differenf signofure woveforms. Eoch
fronsmiffer send ifs dofo sfreom by moduIofing ifs own
signofure woveform os in o singIe-user digifoI
communicofion sysfem.
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
8
MuItipIe Access Communicution
Code Division uIfipIe Access (CDA)
Direcf Sequence Spreod Specfrum (DS-SS)
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
3
MuItipIe Access Communicution
Code Division uIfipIe Access (CDA)
Frequency Hopping Spreod Specfrum (FH-SS)
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
10
MuItipIe Access Communicution
Meor-for probIem:
Any inferferer fhof is sufficienfIy powerfuI receiver
couses orbifroriIy high performonce degrodofion.
%he objecfive of muIfi-user defecfion is:
fhe design ond onoIysis of digifoI demoduIofion in fhe
presence of muIfi-occess inferference (AI).
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
11
$nchronous CDMA ModeI
osic Synchronous CDA odeI
where
is fhe inverse of fhe dofo rofe.
is fhe deferminisfic signofure woveform ossigned fo fhe k-fh
user. If is normoIi;ed such fhof
is fhe received ompIifude of fhe k-fh users signoI.
is fhe bif fronsimiffed by fhe k-fh user.
is fhe whife 0oussion noise, which is uncorreIofed wifh fhe
fronsmiffed signoIs, ond hos unif power specfroI densify.
)
1
, 0,
K
k k k
k
y t A b s t n t t T o
=
= +

T

k
s t

2
2
0
1
T
k k
s t s t dt =

k
A

n t
=
1, 1
k
b +
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
12
$nchronous CDMA ModeI
b
1
A
1
s
1
(t)
b
2
A
2
s
2
(t)
b
K
A
K
s
K
(t)

y(t)
n(t)
1
( ) ( ) ( ), |0, |.
K
k k k
k
y t A b s t n t t T o
=
= +

+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
13
$nchronous CDMA ModeI
%he crosscorreIofion of fwo signofure woveforms,
ond , is
y Couchy-Schwor; inequoIify, fhe crosscorreIofion
sofisfies
%he cross correIofion mofrix, defined by
hos diogonoI eIemenfs equoI fo I [see (Z9) ond (30)], ond is
symmefric nonnegofive definife, i.e.,

s t

f
s t

0
,
T
f f f
s t s t s t s t dt 8 =


, 1
f f f
s t s t s t s t 8 = =
f
8
= =
, , 1, 2,...,
f
R f K 8

2
1
0
K
T
k k
k
a Ra a s t
=
= >

+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
14
Asnchronous CDMA ModeI
osic Asynchronous CDA odeI
where ore fhe fime offsefs fhof
correspond fo users
One specioI cose hoppens when
fhen osynchronous modeI reduces fo synchronous modeI
Anofher specioI cose hoppens when
ond (o singIe user
undergoes muIfipofhs), if becomes
)
1 1
, - 2
K M
k k k k
k
y t A b s t T n t MT t MT T : o
= =
= + +

1 2
0
K
T : : : =
1, 2, , K
1 2
0 ,
K
: : : = = = =
1 2
,
K
A A A A = = =

1 2
,
K
s k s k s k s t = = = =
1
k
K T
K
:

=
)


)
1 1
1
1
, - 2
,
K M
k
k
MK K
f MK
K T
y t Ab s t T n t MT t MT T
K
T
Ab f s t f n t
K
o
o
= =
+
=
+
= + +

' '
+
= +

' '

) )
1
k
b K k b +
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
1S
CDMA ModeI
Direcf-sequence spreod specfrum
Direcf-sequence woveforms
where
is fhe chip woveform fhof sofisfies
ond
M is fhe number of chips per bif M,


1 1
1 1
1 1

. .

.
T . k T . .

s t P t T d P t T T

= =
= = +


.
T
P t

1, 0
0, 1, 2,...
5 .
n
R nT
n
=
|
=
,
=
|

. .
P T T
R P t P t dt : :
C
C

=
1 2
, , , , 0,1 , , is the binary sequence (code)

. . . . V
=
=
1, 1 , 1, 2, , and 1, 2, ,

k
d k K + = =
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
16
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
Consider fhe synchronous CDA modeI, where onIy
o singIe user exisf:
The signal listed above is passed through a linear filter,
the output of which is then sampled at %

, 0 y t Abs t n t t T o = +

, , , 0 y t Ab s t h t n t h t t T o = +
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
17
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
One probIem is: Find fhe Iineor fiIfer h(f) fhof
moximi;e fhe signoI-fo-noise rofio of fhe fiIfer
oufpuf Y , i.e.,
y Couchy-Schwor; inequoIify, we hove





2
2
2
2 2
2
,
,
max
,
h t
E Ab s t h t
s t h t
A
J
h t
E n t h t
o
o


|
=


|


2 2 2 2
, s t h t s t h t h t =
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
18
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
%he objecfive funcfion sofisfies , where
fhe equoIify hoIds when
Mofice fhof in fhis derivofion, we did nof invoke fhe focf
fhof noise is 0oussion.
Mofe fhof is o 0oussion r.v. wifh ;ero-
meon ond unif vorionce.
2
2
A
J
o


, 0 h t s t t T =

, n t s t


, ,
,
Ab s t s t n t s t
Ab n t s t
o
o
= +
= +
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
13
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
%he probobiIify of error, in defermining from ,
is

b


2 2
2 2
0
, 1 , 1
0
2 2
1 1 1 1
1 1

2 2
1 1 1 1

2 2
2 2
b b
v v
A
A
A
Q
P error P b P error b P b P error b
f v dv f v dv
A
e dv e dv Q
o o o
o
o
o
xo xo
C
= =
C

C
C
+

' '
= = = + = =
= +
+
= + =

' '

A
o
A
o

+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
20
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
SingIe-user ofched FiIfer in PoyIeigh Foding
singIe user modeI
Assuming fhof A ond s(f) ore given, we wonf fo find fhe
esfimofe of b, , fhof minimi;es
%he firsf ond second ferms on fhe PHS of obove equofion
ore irreIevonf fo b, ond we con wrife fhe minimi;ofion
probIem os o moximi;ofion probIem:

, 0 y t Abs t n t t T o = +
=

1, 1 b

=
2 2 2
*
0 0 0 0
T T T T
y t Abs t dt y t dt As t dt y t Abs t dt = + T

=

=
=
*
* *
0 1, 1 1, 1
max max
T
b b
y
Ab y t s t dt b Ay

|

T T
, `

| )

+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
21
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
%he soIufion fo
=
*

sgn b Ay = T
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
22
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
Discrefe-fime Synchronous odeIs
uIfi-user defecfion commonIy hove o fronf-end, whose
objecfive is fo obfoin o discrefe-fime process from fhe
received confinuous-fime woveform y(f).
ofched fiIfer oufpufs
.
.
.
Sync I
.
.
.
Sync 3
.
.
.
Sync Z
.
.
.
Sync I
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User Z
ofched FiIfer
User Z
ofched FiIfer
User 3
ofched FiIfer
User 3
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User I
y(f)
y
I
y
Z
y
3
y
I
.
.
.
.
.
.
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
23
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
In fhe synchronous cose, fhe oufpufs of fhe bonk of
mofched fiIfers ore



0
0
1
0 0
1
, 1, 2,...,


, 1, 2, ,
fk k
T
k k
K
T
f f f k
f
K
T T
f f f k k
f
n
k k f f fk k
f k
y y t s t dt k K
A b s t n t s t dt
A b s t s t dt n t s t dt
A b A b n k K
8
o
o
8
=
=
=
= =

= +

|
= +
= + + =

+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
24
$ingIe-user Mutched FiIter
%he vecfor form of obove equofion is
where
ond n is o ;ero-meon 0oussion rondom vecfor wifh
covorionce mofrix equoI fo , i.e.,
y RAb n = +
)
=
=
)
1 2
1 2
1 2
, , ,
, , ,
, ,
T
K
fk
K
T
K
y y y y
R
A dag A A A
b b b b
8



2 T
E nn R o =
|




0 0
2 2
0 0

f k
T T
f k f k
n n
T T
f k fk
E n n E n s d n s d
E n n s s d d
- .
0 - .
o - - - o . . .
o - . - . - . o 8
= =



=
|

|
= =
|


+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
2S
Muimum A Posteriori {MAP} und
Muimum LikeIihood {ML} Detectors
%he AP-defecfor chooses fhe hypofhesis fhof
moximi;es fhe o posferiori probobiIify, ond ochieves
fhe minimum probobiIify of error.
%he L-defecfor chooses fhe hypofhesis fhof
moximi;es fhe IikeIihood funcfion, if ochieves fhe
minimum probobiIify of error, when fhe hypofheses
ore equoIIy probobIe (P
0
~ P
I
).

1
1 0
0
, 1 , 0
, ,

r r

P r P r


1
1 0
0
, 1 , 0
, ,

r r

P r P r

+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
26
Muimum LikeIihood {ML} Detectors
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
27
Muimum LikeIihood {ML} Detectors
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
28
Muimum LikeIihood {ML} Detectors
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
23
Muimum LikeIihood {ML} Detectors
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
30
Muimum LikeIihood {ML} Detectors
Are fhey fhe some7
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
31
ndividuuI ptimum ML-Detector
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
32
ndividuuI ptimum ML-Detector
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
33
ndividuuI ptimum ML-Detector
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
34
oint und ndividuuI ptimum ML-
Detector for the k-User $cenurio
PecoII fhe discrefe-fime synchronous CDA modeI
fhof
%he joinf opfimum L-defecfor is fhe soIufion fo

, 0 y t Abs t n t t T o = +
)



1
1/ 2 2
/ 2
2
1
1 1
max , exp
2
2
max
max 2
T
K
b
T
b
T T
b
P y b y RAb R y RAb
R
y RAb R y RAb
b Ay b ARAb
o
x o


=

|


+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
3S
oint und ndividuuI ptimum ML-
Detector for the k-User $cenurio
%he moximi;ofion probIem is o combinoforioI
opfimi;ofion one, which meons fhof fhe sef of
possibIe orgumenfs comprises o finife sef.
CombinoforioI opfimi;ofion probIems con oIwoys be
soIved by exhousfive seorch, i.e., we evoIuofe fhe
objecfive funcfion of oII possibIe orgumenfs, ond
seIecf our defecfed voIue fo be fhe orgumenf fhof
produces fhe moximum.
Joinf opfimum decisions wouId be preferobIe fo
minimum bif-error-rofe decisions due fo fheir
compIexify.
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
36
DecorreIution Detector
PecoII fhof fhe oufpuf vecfor of fhe bonk of I
mofched fiIfers is
Assume fhof P is inverfibIe.
PremuIfipIying by give
In fhe obsence of noise n, fhe k-fh componenf of
is
%he decorreIofing defecfor defecfs fhrough
y RAb n = +
1
R

1 1
R y Ab R n

= +
1
R y

k k
A b
k
b


1
sgn
k
R y

+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.


CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
37
DecorreIution Detector
.
.
.
Sync 3
.
.
.
Sync Z
.
.
.
Sync I
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User Z
ofched FiIfer
User Z
ofched FiIfer
User 3
ofched FiIfer
User 3
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User I
y(f)
P
-I
P
-I
.
.
.
.
.
.
| |

1
b
| |

2
b
| |

3
b
| |

b
K
.
.
.
Sync I
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
38
DecorreIution Detector
Mofe fhof fhe decorreIofing defecfor is infIuenced
by oddifive noise, ond nof by ofher inferferers
( ).
%wo feofures of fhe decorreIofing defecfors ore
I. If does nof need fo know fhe received ompIifudes
( ).
Z. Defecfion of eoch user con be impIemenfed
independenfIy.
Mofe fhof
,
f
b f k =
,

A V


1 1 1
1 1
1
1
,
, ,
K K
f f
k kf kf
f f
K
f k
kf
f
R y R y R y t s t
y t R s t y t s t

= =

=
= =
= =


+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
33
DecorreIution Detector
From fhe focf fhof
We know fhof is orfhogonoI fo ony Iineor
combinofion of .
If is IineorIy independenf, we con find
from for oII k, ond con hove fhe modified
decorreIofing defecfor.



1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
, ,
,
, ,
K
k l f l
fk
f
K K
f l lf
fk fk
f f
K
lk
lk
f
s t s t R s t s t
R s t s t R R
RR l k 0

=

= =

=
=
= =
= = V


k
s t
=
f
f k
s t
=

k
s t
=
f
s t

,
k
y t s t
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
40
DecorreIution Detector
odified decorreIofing defecfor
.
.
.
Sync 3
.
.
.
Sync Z
.
.
.
Sync I
ofched FiIfer ofched FiIfer
ofched FiIfer ofched FiIfer
ofched FiIfer ofched FiIfer
ofched FiIfer ofched FiIfer
y(f)
.
.
.
.
.
.
| |

1
b
| |

2
b
| |

3
b
| |

b
K
.
.
.
Sync I
1
s
2
s
3
s
K
s
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
41
DecorreIution Detector
In fhe fwo user scenorio,
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
42
DecorreIuting Detector und ML-Criterion
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
43
on-DecorreIuting Detector - LMM$
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
44
on-DecorreIuting Detector - LMM$
.
.
.
Sync 3
.
.
.
Sync Z
.
.
.
Sync I
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User Z
ofched FiIfer
User Z
ofched FiIfer
User 3
ofched FiIfer
User 3
ofched FiIfer
User I
ofched FiIfer
User I
y(f)
[P+o
Z
A
-Z
]
-I
[P+o
Z
A
-Z
]
-I
.
.
.
.
.
.
| |

1
b
| |

2
b
| |

3
b
| |

b
K
.
.
.
Sync I
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
4S
Properties of the LMM$ Detector
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
46
LMM$ Detector for the unk of
rthonormuIized FiIters
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
47
LMM$ Detector Muimizes $ignuI to
nterference Rutio
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
48
Minimum utput nerg Detector
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
43
$uccessive CunceIIution
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
S0
$uccessive CunceIIution

1 1
2 2 2 1
1 2 2
1 2 2
1 1 2 2 2 1

sgn( , )

sgn ( ) ( ),

sgn( )
sgn( sgn( ))

sgn( ( )) , )
b y s
y t A b s t s
y A b
y A y
Ab A b b n s
8
8
8 o
=
=
=
=
= + +

2 2

sgn b y =



2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 2

( ) ( ) ( )


y t y t A b s t
Ab s t A b b s t n t
=
= + +
1 1 2

sgn( ) b y y 8 =
2
1
( ) ( ) ( )
k k k
k
y t A b s t n t o
=
= +

k k k k
y A b n = +
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
S1
$uccessive CunceIIution
EquivoIenf impIemenfofion of successive
conceIIofion for fwo synchroni;ofion users
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
S2
$uccessive nterference CunceIIution {$C}
If requires knowIedge of fhe received ompIifude.
User weoker fhon fhe user (or users) of inferesf ore
negIecfed.
In confrosf fo fhe (nonodopfive) muIfi-user Iineor defecfors,
successive conceIIofion require no orifhmefic compufofions
wifh fhe crosscorreIofion beyond fheir producf wifh fhe
received ompIifudes.
%he fime compIexify per bif is Iineor in fhe number of user
If oppIies nof onIy fo fhe bosic CDA modeI (where signoIs ore
IineorIy moduIofed) buf fo ony muIfipIe-occess chonneI where fhe
receiver observes fhe oddifive superposifion of fhe
fronsmiffed signoI.
%he demoduIofion deIoy in successive conceIIofion grows
IineorIy wifh fhe number of user.
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
S3
PurtiuI PuruIIeI nterference CunceIIution {PPC}
uIfisfoge PPIC defecfion scheme wifh fhe discrefe-fime equivoIenf compIex bosebond
represenfofion for synchronous CDA sysfems.
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
S4
PurtiuI PuruIIeI nterference CunceIIution {PPC}
Discrefe-fime signoI r(m) of fhe chip rofe
Decision sfofisfic of fhe ifh bif of fhe
convenfionoI receiver for fhe kfh user
), ( ) (
), ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
1
2 e 2 a b A
2 2 b A
2 2 A 2
k
f
K
k
k k k
K
k
k k k
K
k
k k
n
n a
n s r
+ =
+ =
+ =

=
=
=
o
)
`

|
,
|
T =

+ =

2
k k
2 2

1 ) 1 (
*
,
) ( ) (
1
a r
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
SS
Aduptive LM$-PPC
.
.
.
) 1 (
, 1

b
) (
) 1 (
1
2 s
y(2)
Delay

a
1
(2)exp(-fo
1
)
a
K
(2)exp(-fo
K
)
1

A a
1
(2)exp(fo
1
)
K
A

a
K
(2)exp(fo
K
)
) 1 (
,

K
b
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

K
(1)

1
(1)
) (
) 1 (
2
K
s
$tage 1
$tage 2
) 2 (
, 1

b
) 2 (
,

K
b
(2)
Delay

.
.
.

1
(1)
(22)

K
(1)
(22)
a
K
(2)exp(-fo
K
)
a
1
(2)exp(-fo
1
)
\ rm =l+d lH
=lzr+fhm

=
-
K
k 2
) (
Delay

D
e
l
a
y

)
`

|
,
|
- T

+


T
1 ) 1 (
) (
1

=
-
1
1
) (
K
k )
`

|
,
|
- T

+


T
1 ) 1 (
) (
1
)
`

|
,
|
- T

+


T
1 ) 1 (
) (
1
)
`

|
,
|
- T

+


T
1 ) 1 (
) (
1
.
.
.
+icc.. /..c.. Ic.n. v.
CCU
Wireless Access Tech. Lab.
S6
MuIti-user Detection
Peodings
SEP0IO VEPDU, uIfi-user Defecfion, CAPID0E, I998.
Chopfer Z - Z..I, Z.Z, Z.9
Chopfer 4 - 4.I
Chopfer b - b.I
Chopfer o - o.I, o.Z
Chopfer 7 - 7.I