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Contents

A.
1. 2.

220/132 KV & 400 KV SUB-STATION


Definition Introduction

B.

About the substation


B.1 Construction Site Selection & Layout

C.
1) 2)

Equipment in a 220K V & 4 0 0 K V Substation


B u s - bar Ins u lat o rs a ) P i n t ype i nsu lat o rs b ) Su s pe ns io n t ype i ns u lat o rs c ) St rai n t ype i ns ulat o rs

3) 4)

Isolating Switches Circuit breaker a) SF6 Circuit breaker b) Air Circuit breaker c) Oil Circuit breaker

5) 6)

Protective re lay Ins t ru me nt Trans fo rme r i. ii. Current Transformer Voltage Transformer

7)

Metering and Indicating Instru ment

8) 9)

Miscellaneous equipment Power Transformer a ) au t o t rans fo rme r

10) 11) 12 )

Lightening arrestors Line isolator C o nduc t o rs I. II. Bu ndle d c o ndu ct o rs G ro u nd wi re s

13)

Wave trap

14 ) C o mmu nic ati o n i n po we r s ys t e m A ) Te le c o mmu ni c at i o n I. II. III. Microwave Communication System Fibre Optic Communication System Power Line Carrier Communication System

B ) SC A DA s ys t e m

A.1) Definition of sub -station :The assembly of apparatus used to change some ch a ra c t er is t ics (e .g. V o l t a g e a c t o d c freq. p.f. etc) of electric supply is called sub-station.

A.2)

Introduction : -

The present day electrical power system is a.c. i.e. electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of Alternating current. The electric power is produce at the power station, which are located at favorable places, generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumer through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many place in the line of power system, it may be desirable and necessary to change some characteristic (e.g. Voltage, ac to dc, frequency p.f. etc.) of electric supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station for example, generation voltage (11K V o r 6 . 6 K V ) at the power station is stepped up to high voltage (Say220KVt o 1 3 2 KV) for transmission of electric power. Similarly near the consumers localities, the voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub -station.

B)

About the substation :-

Panki Thermal Power Station is located at Panki in Kanpur district in the Indian state of Uttar pradesh , about 16 km from Kanpur . It has an installed capicity of 220 Mega Watts. The Central government has commissioned a 210 MW unit at Panki Power Station. At PTPS, 2x110 MW BHEL made coal fired turbo generating units are presently in operation. These 110 MW machines were manufactured, supplied and commissioned by M/s BHEL, during 1976-77 with features of reheating and regenerative feed heating. The Steam Generator is balanced draft, radiant, dry bottom, single drum, natural circulation, vertical water tube type construction with skin casing and semi direct type of firing system. Apart from the above 110 MW units, 2x32 MW Russia made turbo generating units were also installed at PTPS in 1967-68, however these units have become obsolete and permanently closed now after running for about 30 years. The most important of any substation is the grounding (Earthing Syst em) of the instruments, transfor mers et c. used in the substation for the safety of the operation personnel as well as for proper system operation and performance of the protective devices. An earthes system comprising of an earthing mat buried at a suitable depth below ground and supplemented with ground rods at suitable points is provided in the substations. These ground the extra high voltag e to the ground. As it is dangerou s to u s to go near the instrum ent without prop er earth. If the instruments are not ground properly they may give a huge shock to anyone who would stay near it and also it is dangerous for the costly instrument as they may get damaged by this high voltage.

B.1)

Site Selection & Layout 220KV & 400 KV Substation :-

2 2 0 K V S u b -Station forms an important link between Transmission network and Distribution network. It has a vital influence of reliability of service. Apart from ensuring efficient transmission and Distribution of power, the sub-station configuration should be such that it enables easy maintenance of equipment and minimum interruptions in power supply. Sub -Station is constructed as near as possible to the load center. The voltage level of power transmission is decided on the quantum of power to be transmitted to the load center.

S e l e c t i o n o f s i t e :Main points to be considered while selecting the site for Grid Su b-Station are as follows: i) The site chosen should be as near to the load center as possible. ii) It should be easily approachable by road or rail for

transportation of equipments. iii) Land should be fairly leveled to minimize development cost. iv) Source of water should be as near to the site as possible. This is

because water is required for various constru ct io n a ct iv it ies (especially civil works), earthing and for drinking purposes etc. v) T h e s u b -station site should be as near to the town / city but should be clear of public places, aerodromes, and Military / police installations.

vi) The land should be have sufficient ground area to accommodate substation equipments, buildings, staff quarters, space for storage of material, such as store yards and store sheds etc. with roads and space for future expansion. vii) Set back distances from various roads such as National Highways, State Highways should be observed as per the regulations in force. Viii While selecting the land for the Substation preference to be

given to the Govt. land over private land. ix) The land should not have water logging problem. x) Far away from obstructions, to permit easy and safe approach / termination of high voltage overhead transmission lines.

B.2)

Equipment in 220KV&400KV Sub- Station :-

The equipment required for a transformer Sub -Station depends upon the type of Sub-Station, Service requirement and the degree of protection desired. 220K V EHV Sub -Station has the following major equipments.

1)

B u s - b a r :-

When a no. of lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected electrically, bus-bar are used, it is made up of copper or aluminum bars (generally of rectangular X-Section) and operate at constant voltage. The bus is a line in which the incoming feeders co me into a nd get into the instruments for furt her step up or step down. The first bus is used for p utting the incoming feeders inLAsingleline.There may be double line in the bus so that if any fault occurs in the one the other can still havethe current and the supply will not stop. The two lines in the bus are separated by a little distanceby a Conductor having a connector between them. This is so that one can work at a t im e a nd t he other works only if the first is having any fault . Bus bars:b

2 )

Insulators :-

The insulator serves two purpose. They support the conductor (or bus bar) and confine the current to the conductor. The most commonly used material for t h e manufactures of insulators is porcelain. There are several type of insulator (i.e. pine type, suspension type etc.) and there used in Su b- Station will depend upon the service requirement.

Ceramic insulators

Glass insulators

a)

PIN INSULATOR:-

Offering an extensive range of 11KV, 22KV and 33 KV pin insulators that are fabricated from high grade raw material as per the demand of various electrical industries. Pin insulators it is supported on a pin and provide a means to hold the insulator to the pin and provide a means to secure the conductor to the insulator. We offer these pin insulators at varied standard and customized specifications at cost efficient rates.

11 KV PIN INSULATORS
Our range of 11KV pin insulators encompasses RR / PN / 1105, RR / PN / 1103, RR / PN / 1104 and RR / PN / 1102 which are available in different technical specifications. These highly efficient pin insulators are less vulnerable to damage and can normally withstand the line voltage for a considerable time with ease. RR / PN / 1105 RR / PN / 1103

RR / PN / 1104

RR / PN / 1102

VOLTAGE CLASS 22 KV AND 33 KV


Pin insulators in voltage class 22KV and 33KV have found application in varied industries and are widely used in low cost distribution lines. Our pin insulator is designed to secure the conductor to itself. Top quality pin insulator includes RR / PN / 2201, RR / PN / 3301, RR / 004 / 22 PIN and RR / 003 / 33 PIN.
RR / PN / 2201 RR / PN / 3301

RR / 004 / 22 PIN

RR / 003 / 33 PIN

b)

SUSPENSION INSULATORS:-

Suspension insulators are made of multiple units, with the number of unit insulator disks increasing at higher voltages. The number of disks is chosen based on line voltage, lightning withstand requirement, altitude, and environmental factors such as fog, pollution, or salt spray. Longer insulators, with longer creepage distance for leakage current, are required in these cases.

Suspension type insulators:-

C)

STRAIN INSULATORS :-

A strain insulator is an insulator that provides both large electrical insulation and a large load-bearing capacity. A typical strain insulator is a piece of glass or porcelain that is shaped to accommodate two cables or a cable shoe and the supporting hardware on the support structure (hook eye, or eyelet on a steel pole/tower). The shape of the insulator maximizes the distance between the cables while also maximizing the load-bearing transfer capacity of the insulator. When the line voltage requires more insulation than a single insulator can supply, strain insulators are used in series: A set of insulators are connected to each other using special hardware. The series can support the same strain as a single insulator, but the series provides a much higher effective insulation. Strain type insulators:-

3)

Isolating Switches: -

I n S u b - Station, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an isolating switcho r iso la t o r. An isolator is essentially a kniff Switch and is design to often open a circuit under no lo ad, in other words, isolator Switches are operate only when the line is which they are connected carry no load. For example, consider that the isolator are connected on both side of a cut breaker, if the isolators are to be opened, the C.B. must be opened f i r s t . 3 pole switch:-

4 )

Circuit breaker : can open or close a

A circuit breaker is an equipment, which

circuit under normal as well as fault condition. These circuit breaker breaks for a fault which can damage other instrument in the station.It is so designed that it can be operated manually (or by remote control) under normal conditions and automatically under fault condition.There are mainly two types of circuit breakers used for any substations. They are (a) SF6 circuit breakers; (b) air circuit breakers; (c) oil circuit breakers. For the latter operation a relay wt. is used with a C.B. generally bulk oil C.B. are used for voltage upto 66 KV while for high voltage low oil & SF6 C.B. are used. For still higher voltage, air blast vacuum or SF6 cut breaker are used.

(a)

SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER :-

The use of SF6 circuit breaker is mainly in the substations which are having high input kv input, say above 220kv and more. The gas is put inside the circuit breaker by force i .e. under high pressure. When if the gas gets decreases there is a motor connected to the circuit breaker. The motor starts operating if the gas went lower than 20.8 bar. There is a meter connected to the breaker so that it can be manually seen if the gas goes low. The circuit breaker uses the SF6 gas to reduce the torque produce in it due to any faul t in the line. The circuit breaker ha s a direct link with the instrument s in the stat ion, when any fault occur alarm bell rings.

SF6 ckt breaker diagram:-

( b)

AIR CIRCUIT BREAKER :-

These type of breakers employ air blast as the quenching medium.The contacts are opened by air blast produced by the opening of blast valve.The air blast cools the arc and sweeps away the arcing products to the atmosphere.This rapidly increases the dielectric strength of the medium between contacts and prevents from re-establishing the arc.Consequently the arc is extinguished and the flow of current is interrupted.

(c )

OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER :-

A high-voltage AC electrical switch whose main contacts are located in a space filled with mineral (transformer) oil. Upon interruption of the electric circuit, an electric arc forms between the contacts of the circuit breaker. Because of the high temperature of the arc the oil is evaporated rapidly and oil vapors are partially decomposed, liberating ethylene, methane, and other gases. A gas bubble is formed in the arcing zone; the pressure in the bubble may be as high as several dozen mega newtons per sq m. The arc is then extinguished, both because of its elongation upon parting of contacts and because of intensive cooling by the gases and oil vapor. Low oil ckt breaker diagram :-

5)

P r o t e c t i v e r e l a y :-

A p r o t e c t i v e relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the C.B. to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system. The relay detects the abnormal condition in the electrical circuit by constantly measuring the electrical quantities, which are different under normal and fault condition. The electrical quantities which may change under fault condition are voltage, current, frequency and p hase angle. Having detect the fault, the relay operate to close the trip circuit of C.B. Relay diagram:-

6 )

Instrument Trasformer: -

The line in Sub-Station operate at high voltage and carry current of thousands of amperes. The measuring instrument and protective devices are designed for low voltage (generally 110V) and current (about 5A). Therefore, they will not work satisfactory if mounted directly on the power lines. This difficulty is overcome by installing Instrument transformer, on the power lines. There are two types o f in st rum e nt tr a ns f or m e r .

i )

C u r r e n t Transformer : -

A current transformer is essentially a step-down transformer which steps-d o w n t h e current in a known ratio, the primary of this transformer consist of one or more turn of thick wire connected in series with the line, the secondary consist of thick wire connected in series with line having large number of turn of fine wire and provides for measuring instrument, and relay a current which is a constant faction of the current in t h e l i n e . Current transformer s are basically used to take the readings of the currents entering the substation. This transformer steps down the current from 800 amps to1amp. This is done because we have no instrument for measuring of such a large current. The main use of his transformer is (a) distance protection; (b) backup protection; (c) measurement.

Current transformer(CT) diagram :-

ii)

Voltage Transformer: -

It is essentially a step down transformer and step down the voltage in known ratio. The primary of these transformer consist of a large number of t u rn o f fine wire connected across the line. The secondary way consist of a few turns and provides for measuring instruments and relay a voltage which is known fraction of the line voltage. Potential transformer(PT) diagram :-

7 )

Metering and Indicating Instrument :-

There are several metering and indicating Instrument (e.g. Ammeters, Volt- meters, energy meter etc.) installed in a Substation to maintain which over the circuit quantities. The instrument transformer are invariably used with them for satisfactory operation .

8)

Miscellaneous equipme nt:-

In addition to above, there may be following equipment in a Substation : i ) Fuses i i ) C a rrier - c u r re n t e q u i p m e n t i i i ) S u b - Station auxiliary supplies

9)

Power Transformer : -

There are three t ransformers in t he incoming feeders so that the three lines are step down at the same time. In case of a 220KV or more KV line station auto transformers are used. While in case of lower KV line such as less than 132KV line double winding transformers are used.

a) Autotransformer :
Transformer is static equipment which converts electrical energy from one voltage to another. As the system voltage goes up, the techniques to be used for the Design, Construction, Installation, Operation and Maintenance also become more and more critical. If properc a r e i s exercised in the installation, maintenance and condition monitoring of the transformer, it can give the user trouble free service throughout the expected life of equipment which of the order of 25-35 years. Hence, it is very essential that the personnel associated with the installation, operation or maintenance of the transformer is through with t he instructions provided by the manufacture. Autotransformer taping :-

10)

Lightening arrestors:-

Lightening arrestors with earth switch lightening arrestors after the current transfor mer are used so as to protect it from lightening i.e. from high voltage entering into it. This lightening arrestor has an earth switch, which can directly earth the lightening. The arrestor works at 30 to 45 angel of the lightening making a cone. The ear th switch can be operated manually, by pulling the switch towards ground. This also helps in breaking the line entering the station. By doing so maintenance and repair of any instrument can b performed. Different types of lighning arrestors:-

It is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effet of lightning. Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) have been used for power system protection since the mid 1970s. The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system t o the arrester to the grou nd.

11)

Line isolator :-

The line isolators are used to isolate the high voltage Flow throught he line int o t he b u s. This isolat o r p rev ent s t he inst ru m ent s t o get damaged. It also allows the only needed voltage andrest is earthed by itself. In electrical engineering, a disconnector or isolator switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-energised for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrical distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switches are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance.

12)

Conductors:-

Aluminium conductors reinforced with steel (known as ACSR) are primarily used for medium and high voltage lines and may also be used for overhead services to individual customers. Aluminium conductors are used as it has the advantage of lower resistivity/weight than copper, as well as being cheaper. While larger conductors may lose less energy due to lower electrical resistance, they are more costly than smaller conductors. An optimization rule called Kelvin's Law states that the optimum size of conductor for a line is found when the cost of the energy wasted in the conductor is equal to the annual interest paid on that portion of the line construction cost due to the size of the conductors. The optimization problem is made more complex due to additional factors such as varying annual load, varying cost of installation, and by the fact that only definite discrete sizes of cable are commonly made.

I.

Bundle conductors :-

Bundle conductors are used to reduce corona losses and audible noise. Bundle conductors consist of several conductor cables connected by nonconducting spacers. For 220 kV lines, two-conductor bundles are usually used, for 380 kV lines usually three or even four. Bundle conductors are used to increase the amount of current that may be carried in a line. Due to the skin effect, ampacity of conductors is not proportional to cross section, for the larger sizes. Therefore, bundle conductors may carry more current for a given weight. A bundle conductor results in lower reactance, compared to a single conductor. It reduces corona discharge loss at extra high voltage (EHV) and interference with communication systems. It also reduces voltage gradient in that range of voltage. Double conductors four conductors

II. Ground wires

:-

Overhead power lines are often equipped with a ground conductor (shield wire or overhead earth wire). A ground conductor is a conductor that is usually grounded (earthed) at the top of the supporting structure to minimise the likelihood of direct lightning strikes to the phase conductors. Shield wires on transmission lines may include optical fibers (OPGW), used for communication and control of the power system.

13)

wave trap:-

It is also called "Wave trap". It is connected in series with the power (transmission) line.It blocks the high frequency carrier waves (24 KHz to 500 KHz) and let power waves (50 Hz - 60 Hz) to pass through. It is basically an inductor of rating in Milli henry (approx 1 milli Henry for 220 KV 1250 Amp.).

Wave trap diagram:-

14)

Communication in Power System

Following are mainly three inter-related areas of functions in UPPTCL for management of power system: A) Telecommunication B) SCADA- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System.

A) TELECOMMUNICATION
There are three different types of telecommunication systems in UPPTCL i.e. i. ii. iii. Microwave Communication System, Fibre-optic Communication System, PLCC-Power Line Carrier Communication.

Voice Frequency (VF) channels of all these systems have been integrated/interconnected to make a hybrid communication system. Microwave & Fibre Optic are multi-channels communication systems and are also called 'Wideband communication system'. PLCC is single channel communication system. A brief overview of these three types of telecommunication system of UPPTCL is as below:

I. Microwave Communication System


Microwaves travel in 'Space' and any object in the path can obstruct communication system. Microwave is called 'line-of-sight' communication system. As such, its antennas are mounted on high towers so that even trees should not obstruct path of microwaves. UPPTCL is using frequency band between 2.3 GHz to 2.5 GHz. The height for antenna are calculated by taking into account many factors, such as, distance between two locations, path clearance, height from sea level of these locations, tropical area, reflection points, and so on. As such, height of towers varies from location to location. Tower heights at our microwave stations range from 30 to 110 meters. Starting from Muzaffarnagar (220KV substation Nara), in the north-west, to Rihand (Pipri), in south-east of UP, 33 microwave stations have been established. A list of microwave stations with height of towers has been given at the end of this write-up. This covers a route length of over 1000 Km.

II. Fibre Optic Communication System


It is new communication system and has been introduced in UPPTCL since 2001. Optical fibre cable, in the form of 'Optical Fibre Composite Ground Wire' (OPGW), has been installed on transmission towers by replacement of earth wire. Earth wires of following five transmission lines, total route length of 408 Km., have been replaced: 'Optical Line Terminal Equipment' (OLTE) have been manufactured by Fujitsu, Japan and have been installed at eight sub-stations (Muradnagar, Moradabad, C.B.Ganj, Unnao, Panki, Sahupuri, Sarnath & Azamgarh). The electrical signal of 2Mb/s or 34Mb/s, as the case may be, from OLTE is connected with Primary Multiplexing equipment supplied by 'Nokia' Finland. Its NMS provides operational support for the 'Fibre Optic Transmission System' (FOTS). For testing, commissioning & maintenance 'FLEXR' and 'FLEXR Plus' computer software programmes have been provided. 'FLEXR' is used for initial settings of OLTEs of fibre optic network. Similar to microwave NMS, 'FLEXR Plus' helps in remote diagnosis, operation and maintenance of fibre optic network. For complete communication control system, a NMS100 system has installed at NRLDC, New Delhi, which is in position to diagnose faults of whole northern region. OPGW has been manufactured by Farukawa, Japan. They have done replacement work, on live (hot) lines, by using a unique installation technology. The OPGW in our system has got twelve (12) 'Dual Window Single Mode' (DWSM) type fibres in it. Optical signals of 1310 or 1550 nanometer (nm) wavelength are being used. Only two fibres are required for a multi-channel link between two stations. One fibre is used for transmitting optical signal and second for receiving from other end. In our system two fibres have been used for 'Normal' communication path and two fibres for 'protection' path. Fibre optic communication system has got a wide bandwidth transmission capability. Two fibres are sufficient for providing more than one lakh telephone channels on both sides. As such, a

high-speed data, containing large volumes of information can be transmitted at low cost.

III. Power Line Carrier Communication System


Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) is a single channel communication system in which its channel (300 to 3400 Hz) is divided into two parts i.e. speech band is generally kept 300 to 2400Hz or 300 to 2000Hz and rest is used as data band. Due to narrow speech band in PLCC, voice of poor quality is available in comparison to wideband communication system. In this system, signal travels on the transmission line from one end to other end. Transmitter output (Radio Frequency signal) is fed to the transmission line through a Coupling Capacitor or CVT. RF power output is in frequency band from 70 KHz to 500 KHz. Inductors, called 'Wave Traps' are used at the ends of the signals. PLCC is also used for line protection signal. Protection signals are transmitted through PLCC system for tripping circuit breaker of other end of transmission line. UPPTCL has a wide network of PLCC links. Presently, its number of PLCC links are about 550.

Plc block diagram:-

B) SCADA SYSTEM
In SCADA system measured values, i.e. analogue (measured value) data (MW, MVAR, V, Hz Transformer tap position), and Open/Closed status information, i.e. digital data (Circuit Breakers/Isolators position i.e. on/off status), are transmitted through telecommunication channels to respective sub-LDCs. For this purpose Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at 400KV, 220KV and few important 132KV sub-stations have been installed. System values & status information below 132 KV have not been picked up for data transmission, except for 33KV Bus isolator position and LV side of generators. Secondary side of Current Transformers (CT) and Potential Transformer (PT) are connected with 'Transducers'. The output of transducers is available in dc current form (in the range of 4mA to 20mA). Analogue to digital converter converts this current into binary pulses. Different inputs are interleaved in a sequential form and are fed into the CPU of the RTU. The output of RTU, containing information in the form of digital pulses, is sent to subLDC through communication links. Depending upon the type of communication link, the output of RTU is connected, directly or through Modem, with the communication equipment. At subLDC end, data received from RTU is fed into the data servers. In general, a SCADA system consists of a database, displays and supporting programmes. In UPPTCL, subLDCs use all major functional areas of SCADA except the 'Supervisory Control/Command' function. The brief overview of major 'functional areas' of SCADA system is as below: 1. Communications - Sub-LDC's computer communicates with all RTU stations under its control, through a communication system. RTU polling, message formatting, polynomial checking and message retransmission on failure are the activities of 'Communications' functional area. 2. Data Processing - After receipt of data through communication system it is processed. Data process function has three sub-functions i.e. (i) Measurements, (ii) Counters and (iii) Indications.

'Measurements' retrieved from a RTU are converted to engineering units and linearised, if necessary. The measurement are then placed in database

and are checked against various limits which if exceeded generate high or low limit alarms.

The system has been set-up to collect 'Counters' at regular intervals: typically 5 or 10 minutes. At the end of the hour the units is transferred into appropriate hour slot in a 24-hour archive/history.

'Indications' are associated with status changes and protection. For those statuses that are not classified as 'alarms', logs the change on the appropriate printer and also enter it into a cyclic event list. For those statuses, which are defined as an 'alarms' and the indication goes into alarm, an entry is made into the appropriate alarm list, as well as in the event list and an audible alarm is generated in the sub-LDC.

3. Alarm/Event Logging - The alarm and event logging facilities are used by SCADA data processing system. Alarms are grouped into different categories and are given different priorities. Quality codes are assigned to the recently received data for any 'limit violation' and 'status changes'. Alarms are acknowledged from single line diagram (or alarm lists) on display terminal in LDCs. 4. Manual Entry - There is a provision of manual entry of measured values, counters and indications for the important sub-station/powerhouse, which are uncovered by an RTU or some problem is going on in its RTU, equipment, communication path, etc. 5. Averaging of Measured Values - As an option, the SCADA system supports averaging of all analogue measurements. Typically, the averaging of measured values over a period of 15 minutes is stored to provide 24 hours trend. 6. Historical Data Recording (HDR) - The HDR, i.e. 'archive', subsystem maintains a history of selected system parameters over a period of time. These are sampled at a pre-selected interval and are placed in historical database. At the end of the day, the data is saved for later analysis and for report generation. 7. Interactive Database Generation - Facilities have been provided in such a way that an off-line copy of the SCADA database can be modified allowing the addition of new RTUs, pickup points and communication channels.

8. Supervisory Control/Remote Command - This function enables the issue of 'remote control' commands to the sub-station/powerhouse equipment e.g. circuit breaker trip command. Though, there is provision of this function in this system, yet it is not used in U.P. As such, related/associated equipment have not been ordered. 9. Fail-over - A 'Fail-over' subsystem is also provided to secure and maintain a database of devices and their backups. The state of the device is maintained indicating whether it is 'on-line' or 'failed'. There is a 'backup' system, which maintains database on a backup computer and the system is duplicated. SLDC Lucknow has a large and active 'Mimic Board' in its Control room. This mimic board displays single line diagram of intra State transmission system i.e. grid network of 400KV, 220KV and important 132KV substations, transmission lines, thermal & hydro powerhouses. Outgoing feeders, shown in the mimic board, have 'achieve' (LED display) colored indications, of three different colors, to show the range of power flow at any moment i.e. 'Normal', 'Nominal' or 'Maximum' of its line capacity. UPPTCL's transmission network is expanding rapidly and thereby number of RTUs is also increasing. For new substations and lines, displays in active and passive forms are required to be made in the Mimic diagram. But, Mimic Board has a limitation that it cannot incorporate/add large volume of displays for substations/power houses/transmission lines in 'active' form due to space constraint and congestion. Due to this Mimic Board is going to be supplemented with a Video Projection System (VPS) at SLDC, Lucknow in near future. Also in SLDC & subLDCs, displays of single line diagrams of RTU sub-stations/power house are viewed on VDUs of large size (21").

Transmission & reciver block diagram :-

Scada system diagam:-