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Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 1

1 Length = (74.4 + 0.4) mm = 74.8 mm Width = (32.7 + 0.4) mm = 33.1 mm Height = (28.9 + 0.4) mm = 29.3 mm 2 Close micrometer and check for any zero error Use it to measure combined thickness of all 56 pages (not the covers) Page thickness = measurement/56 [ 5 mm/56 0.09 mm] 3 4 5 E.g. the metre rule may have shrunk or its end may be 3 mm short Percentage uncertainty = 0.05 mm 100/(1.23 mm) = 4.1 % Uncertainty = 4.7 k 2/100 = 94 100 = 0.1 k Possible values range from 4.6 k to 4.8 k

Chapter 2

1 2 See experiment description on page 4 Mass = density volume (a) Volume of room = 4 m 3 m 2 m = 24 m3 Mass of air = 1.3 kg m3 24 m3 = 31.2 kg = 31 kg (b) Volume of Earth = 4r3/3 = 4 (6.35 106 m)3/3 = 8.04 1020 m3 Mass of Earth = 5500 kg m3 8.04 1020 m3 = 4.42 1024 kg (c) Volume of rod = r2 l = (0.2 cm)2 24 cm = 3.02 cm3 Mass of rod = 8.0 g cm3 3.02 cm3 = 24 g 3 Volume = mass/density = 170 g/(2.7 g cm3) = 63 cm3 Length3 = 63 cm3 Length of each side = 3.98 cm = 4.0 cm 4 Volume of cube = 5 cm 5 cm 5 cm = 125 cm3

Mass = density volume = 2.5 g cm3 125 cm3 = 313 g

Volume of DVD = r2 t

Similar to that of glass

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

6 Volume of mercury = mass/density = 10.1 g/(13.6 g cm3) = 0.743 cm3 Volume of cylinder = r2 l = 0.743 cm3 r = (0.743 cm3/( 10.5 cm)) = 0.150 cm Internal diameter = 2r = 2 0.150 cm = 0.300 cm

Chapter 3

1 2 See Table 3.1 on page 7 Metre the distance an electromagnetic wave travels in a vacuum in a time of 1/(299 792 458) s Using this definition has the advantages that the metre can be reproduced anywhere in the world and it does not vary with temperature like the original standard bar A disadvantage is the difficulty imagining the distance travelled by such a fast wave in such a short time compared with observing the actual length of the original standard bar 3 A caesium atomic clock makes 9 192 631 770 oscillations every second So in 1 day Number of oscillations = 9 192 631 770 s1 24 hour 3600 s hour1 = 794 243 384 928 000 4 Examples: 75 kg 32 mm 5.4 m s1

Chapter 4

1 All quantities, other than base quantities, are called derived quantities All derived quantities can be produced by suitable combinations of base quantities 2 Speed Area Volume 3 m s1 m2 m3

Homogeneous means the same type Can only equate or add together quantities which are of the same type

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 5

1 Total distance = 3.5 km + 5.5 km = 9.0 km Final displacement from home = 0 m 2 A scalar is a physical quantity where the magnitude is not associated with any particular direction a scalar has only size while a vector has both size and direction Scalars: distance, energy, volume, speed, mass Vectors: acceleration, weight, displacement, velocity, force 3 Average speed = total distance travelled/total time taken (a) Average speed = 100 m/(10 s) = 10 m s1 (b) Average speed = 42 500 m/(2.25 hour 3600 s hour1) = 5.25 m s1 4 Attach a measured length of card centrally to the trolley Position the light gate so that the card blocks its beam as the trolley passes Use an electronic timer to record the time interval for which the beam is blocked Average speed = length of card/recorded time 5 Average speed = total distance travelled/total time taken Both journeys are the same length L, so total distance is 2L For each journey, time = distance/speed Time to work = (L/3) seconds time to home = (L/9) seconds Total time = (L/3) + (L/9) = (3L/9) + (L/9) = (4L/9) seconds Average speed = 2L/(4L/9) = 2 9/4 = 4.5 m s1 [OR chose a journey of, say, 90 m [Time to work = 90 m/(3 m s1) = 30 s [Time to home = 90 m/(9 m s1) = 10 s [Total time = 30 s + 10 s = 40 s [Average speed = 180 m/(40 s) = 4.5 m s1 ] ] ] ] ]

Chapter 6

1 Average acceleration = change in velocity/time taken a = (25.1 m s1 3.4 m s1)/(6.2 s) = 21.7 m s1/(6.2 s) = 3.5 m s2 2 Time taken = change in velocity/acceleration t = (330 m s1 75 m s1)/(5 m s2) = 255 m s1/(5 m s2) = 51 s

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

3 Attach a double interrupter card of measured prong length x centrally to the trolley Position the light gate so that the prongs block its beam as the trolley passes Use an electronic timer to record: the time intervals for which the beam is blocked t1 t2 the time interval between the interruptions t3 Average velocity = length of prong/recorded time v1 = x/t1 v2 = x/t2 Acceleration a = (v1 v2)/t3 4 rate of means divided by time so rate of doing work means work done divided by time (which is power) 5 Average acceleration = change in velocity/time taken a = (30 m s1 0 m s1)/(8 s) = 4 m s2

Chapter 7

1 The gradient of a displacement-time graph is the instantaneous velocity The gradient of a velocity-time graph is the instantaneous acceleration The area of a velocity-time graph is the change in displacement The area of an acceleration-time graph is the change in velocity 2 Since body moves 20 m in 15 s and graph is a straight line (a) (10 s/15 s) 20 m = 13.3 m (b) (8 m/20 m) 15 s = 6.0 s (c) Average speed = total distance/total time = 20 m/(15 s) = 1.3 m s1 3 (a) Object is first accelerating, then constant velocity and then decelerating (b) Stage 1 Acceleration = change in velocity/time = 12 m s1/(5 s) = 2.4 m s2 Distance = area under graph up to 5 s = Stage 2 Acceleration = 0 m s2 (since constant velocity) Distance = area under graph from 5 s to 10 s = 12 m s1 5 s = 60 m Stage 3 Acceleration = 12 m s1/(12 s) = 1 m s2 Distance = area under graph from 10 s to 22 s = (c) Total distance = 30 m + 60 m + 72 m = 162 m Average speed = total distance/total time = 162 m/(22 s) = 7.4 m s1

1 2 1 2

12 m s1 5 s = 30 m

12 m s1 12 s = 72 m

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4

2.5 2 Acceleration/m s2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 5 10 Time/s 15 20 25

Acceleration/m s2 Velocity/m s1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 8

1 Record motion of ball in front of a vertical metre rule using a video camera Replay the video a frame at a time and record displacement from scale at 0.04 s intervals 2

Velocity

Time

Height of second bounce = either of the shaded areas Acceleration of gravity = gradient of negative sloping lines 3

Velocity/m s1

Time/s

The two graphs are the same for the times for which the two balls are in the air

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Centre of the track (since both positive and negative displacements)

Displacement

Time

Velocity

Time

Acceleration

Time

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5

Displacement

Time

Velocity

Time

Acceleration

Time

Chapter 9

1 Using v = u + at t = (v u)/a = (18 m s1 0 m s1)/(4.5 m s2) = 4.0 s 2 Using v = u + at a = (v u)/t = (0 m s1 18 m s1)/(4.5 s) = 4.0 m s2 Using x = x= 3

1 2 1 2

(u + v)t

1 2

Using x = ut +

at2

1

1 Using x = ut + at2 2 1

u = (x 2 at2)/t = {60 m [ 2 35 m s2 (1.6 s)2]}/(1.6 s) = (60 m 44.8 m)/(1.6 s) = 15.2 m/(1.6 s) = 9.5 m s1 Using v = u + at v = 9.5 m s1 + (35 m s2 1.6 s) = 9.5 m s1 + 56.0 m s1 = 65.5 m s1 = 66 m s1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 (a) Using v2 = u2 + 2ax a = [v2 u2]/2x = [(9.0 105 m s1)2 (1.0 105 m s1)2]/(2 0.20 m) = 2.0 1012 m s2 (b) Using x =

1 2

(u + v)t

Chapter 10

1 2 See pages 22 and 23

1 Using x = ut + at2 2

1 2

1 2

t = (2x/a) = [2 30 m/(9.81 m s2)] = (6.12 s2) = 2.5 s Using v2 = 2ax (from rest) v2 = 2 9.81 m s2 30 m = 588.6 m2 s2 v = (588.6 m2 s2) = 24.3 m s1 4 Using v2 = u2 + 2ax and taking upwards as positive u2 = v2 2ax = 02 (2 9.81 m s2 200 m) = 3924 m2 s2 u = (3924 m2 s2) = 62.6 m s1 Using x =

1 2

Time to rise = time to fall = t = (2x/a) = [2 200 m/(9.81 m s2)] = (40.8 s2) = 6.4 s Total distance travelled = 200 m + 200 m = 400 m Final displacement = 0 m 5 (a) Using v = u + at Speed = at = 150 m s2 6 s = 900 m s1 Distance = 2 at2 =

1 1 2

(b) Rocket then decelerates at 9.81 m s2 Time to slow down = 900 m s1/(9.81 m s2) = 91.7 s Total time to reach top = 6 s + 91.7 s = 97.7 s Further distance covered = 450 m s1 91.7 s = 41 284 m

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

(c)

160 Acceleration/m s2 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 0 20 40 Time/s 60 80 100

900

Velocity/m s1

600

300

0 0 20 40 Time/s 60 80 100

Chapter 11

1 A body thrown horizontally from a cliff top takes the same time to reach the bottom as a body dropped vertically. Provided air resistance is small, the horizontal velocity of a projectile is constant while its vertical velocity increases at 9.8 m s2. Using x = 2 at2 (from rest) Time to fall t = (2x/a) = [2 0.85 m/(9.81 m s2)] = (0.173 s2) = 0.42 s Time to fall t = (2x/a) = [2 2 m/(9.81 m s2)] = (0.408 s2) = 0.64 s 3 as Figure 11.3 on page 25 with h = 0.85 m and x = 6.4 m Using x =

1 2 1

Time to fall t = (2x/a) = [2 0.85 m/(9.81 m s2)] = (0.173 s2) = 0.42 s Since horizontal speed is constant Speed = x/t = 6.4 m/(0.42 s) = 15.4 m s1 = 15 m s1 4 Using x =

1 2

Time to fall t = (2x/a) = [2 2 m/(9.81 m s2)] = (0.408 s2) = 0.64 s Since horizontal speed is constant x = speed t = 400 m s1 0.64 s = 255 m

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 Using x =

1 2

at2 (from rest) for vertical motion of dart (falls 0.4 m vertically from rest)

t = (2x/a) = [2 0.4 m/(9.81 m s2)] = 0.29 s Since horizontal velocity is constant Velocity = x/t = 3 m/(0.29 s) = 10.5 m s1

Chapter 12

1 2 A force can cause a body to accelerate; either to speed up, to slow down or to change direction The single force that could replace all other forces acting on a body and have the same effect Maximum resultant force when forces act in same direction = 8 N + 12 N = 20 N Minimum resultant force when forces act in opposite directions = 12 N 8 N = 4 N 3 Both bodies have zero acceleration So resultant force on each body must be zero 4 A body will remain at rest or continue to move with a constant velocity as long as the forces on it are balanced, i.e. the resultant force is zero The inertia of a body is its reluctance to change velocity Apply the same force to both stationary cans The empty can will move the most as it has least inertia

Chapter 13

1 2 See page 28 Set up apparatus as described on page 28 Measure the mass of the trolley Use a forcemeter to apply a constant force to the trolley and measure the resulting acceleration Repeat for a range of known masses added to the trolley Plot a graph of acceleration against 1/mass A straight line through the origin shows that acceleration is directly proportional to 1/mass, so acceleration is inversely proportional to mass 3 Using F = ma a = F/m = 24 000 000 N/(2 000 000 kg) = 12 m s2 4 Using v = u + at a = (v u)/t = (40 m s1 0 m s1)/(10 s) = 4 m s2 Using F = ma F = 1200 kg 4 m s2 = 4800 N

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 (a) Using F = ma a = F/m = 150 N/(30 kg) = 5 m s2 (b) Resultant force F = 150 N 30 N = 120 N a = 120 N/(30 kg) = 4 m s2

Chapter 14

1 2 None Both skaters have equal and opposite forces acting on them so move away from each other with accelerations that depend on their masses; the heavier skater having the smaller acceleration Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body always exerts a force on the first body; hence forces occur only in pairs While body A exerts a force on body B, body B exerts an equal and opposite force on body A A Newton III pair of forces cannot cancel each other as they act on different bodies

4 5

Chapter 15

1 Your weight arises from the gravitational attraction of the Earth pulling on you The Newton III force that pairs with your weight is the gravitational attraction of you pulling on the Earth 2 Gravitational forces are always attractive while electromagnetic forces can be either attractive or repulsive Gravitational force of attraction between two masses Electrostatic force of repulsion between two electrons Magnetic force of attraction between two opposite poles 4 5 Gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear and weak nuclear Contact forces arise from electrostatic forces acting over very short distances

Chapter 16

1 2 Diagram showing a body with no forces acting on it Similar to Figures 16.2 and 16.3 on page 34 Planet pulls the body down with a gravitational force Body pulls the planet up with an equal gravitational force 3 While a body A exerts a force on a body B, body B exerts a force on body A. The forces are equal, opposite and of the same type; they have the same line of action and act for the same time

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 5 Joe pushes Fred right with a contact force of 40 N See Figures 16.4, 16.5 and 16.6 on page 35

Chapter 17

1

Chair pushes me up

I pull Earth up

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

2

Tension in cables pulls crane down

Similarities: equal magnitude, same type, same line of action, act for the same time (any 2) differences: opposite directions, act on different bodies

(a) Acting on same body (b) Acting in same direction (c) Different lines of action (d) Different types of force NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5

Table pushes book up with a contact force

Book

Both forces act on the same body rather than on different bodies Forces are of different types (gravitational down and contact up) rather than the same type Forces produce equilibrium of book, a Newton III pair cannot oppose each other

Chapter 18

1 Total distance = 800 m + 1200 m + 300 m = 2300 m

1200 m

300 m

800 m

final displacement

As you end up being 500 m north and 1200 m east of your starting point: Distance = [(500 m)2 + (1200 m)2] = (1 690 000 m2) = 1300 m Angle east of north = tan1 [1200 m/(500 m)] = tan1 2.4 = 67 2 8 m s1 and 2 m s1 are two perpendicular velocities Resultant velocity = [(8 m s1)2 + (2 m s1)2] = (68 m2 s2) = 8.2 m s1 Angle to bank = tan1 [8 m s1/(2 m s1)] = tan1 4.0 = 76 3 Resultant force = [(14 N)2 + (9 N)2] = (277 N2) = 17 N Angle to 14 N force = tan1 [9 N/(14 N)] = tan1 0.64 = 33 This object is not in equilibrium as it has a resultant force of 17 N acting on it

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Split the SW force of 86 N into two components directed towards the South and the West: 86 N cos 45 = 60.81 N towards the South 86 N sin 45 = 60.81 N towards the West Unbalanced force towards South = 60.81 N 35 N = 25.81 N Resultant force = [(25.81 N)2 + (60.8 N)2] = (4 363 N2) = 66 N Angle below East = tan1 [25.81 N/(60.8 N)] = tan1 0.42 = 23 5 When acting in same direction, resultant force = 25 N +14 N = 39 N When acting in opposite directions, resultant force = 25 N 14 N = 11 N When these forces are perpendicular Resultant force = [(25 N)2 + (14 N)2] = (821 N2) = 29 N Angle to 25 N force = tan1 [14 N/(25 N)] = tan1 0.56 = 29

Chapter 19

1

Vertical component

Horizontal component

Vertical component = 220 N cos 40 = 170 N Horizontal component = 220 N cos 50 = 140 N

(a) Force component = 85 N cos 30 = 74 N (b) Force component = 85 N cos 55 = 49 N (c) Force component = 85 N cos 90 = 0 N

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Since pendulum is in equilibrium Weight W = vertical component of tension = 35 N cos 20 = 33 N Force F = horizontal component of tension = 35 N cos 70 = 12 N 5 Parallel component of tension = 600 N cos 25 = 544 N Perpendicular component of tension = 600 N cos 65 = 254 N Since moving with a constant velocity parallel to the tow path, resultant force is zero, so: a force of 544 N must act backwards produced by the water as the barge pushes it out of its path a force of 254 N must act away from the bank produced by an angled rudder 6 Vertical component of 60 N force = 60 N cos 30 = 52.0 N Vertical component of 100 N force = 100 N cos 45 = 70.7 N Horizontal component of 60 N force = 60 N cos 60 = 30.0 N Horizontal component of 100 N force = 100 N cos 45 = 70.7 N Total vertical force = 70.7 N 52.0 N = 18.7 N down Total horizontal force = 30 N + 70.7 N 50 N = 50.7 N to the right Resultant force = [(50.7 N)2 + (18.7 N)2] = (2920 N2) = 54 N Angle = tan1 [18.7 N/(50.7 N)] = tan1 0.37 = 20 below the right-hand horizontal For equilibrium, a fourth force of 54 N must act at 20 above the left-hand horizontal

Chapter 20

1 Upthrust is an upward force that acts on all immersed objects Upthrust arises from the greater pressure acting on the bottom than on the top of an immersed object When in a river, part of the boulders weight is already opposed by the upthrust Force required = weight upthrust 2 Use apparatus as in Figure 20.2 on page 42 Time how long it takes for ball bearing to pass through each equal length section Times will decrease but then become constant Constant times show that the ball bearing has reached its terminal speed 3 Using v2 = u2 + 2ax From rest v2 = 2ax = 2 9.81 m s2 1000 m = 19 620 m2 s2 v = (19 620 m2 s2) = 140 m s1 Other forces acting are upthrust and drag As the speed of a raindrop increases so do the drag forces acting on it Resultant force on the raindrop = weight (upthrust + drag) Resultant force on the raindrop decreases as its speed increases, becoming zero before drops speed reaches anywhere near 10 m s1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Air has to travel faster over the curved upper wing surface than the flat lower surface Air pressure is least where the air travels fastest The pressure difference produces the upward force known as aerodynamic lift The upside-down wing on a racing car produces a downward force that improves the grip between the tyres and the track 5 See Figure 20.7 on page 43

air pushes aircraft (lift) air pushes aircraft (drag)

Drag = thrust Lift = weight Horizontally: forward components of thrust and lift = backward component of drag Vertically: upwards components of lift and drag = weight + downward component of thrust

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 21

1

Earth pulls book down

(a) The ground/starting blocks push the athlete forwards The force arises as the athlete pushes backwards on the ground/starting blocks

Ground pushes athlete

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

3

Earth pulls car Air pulls car

Trailer pulls car Ground pushes car Ground pushes car Ground pushes car

4

man pushes box to right

friction with Earths surface pushes box to left Earth pushes box up (contact)

(a) Forces on box must balance in both horizontal and vertical directions (b) Force from man pushing box is greater than frictional force from floor on box

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5

Tension pulls lamp Tension pulls lamp

Chapter 22

1

18 N

18 N

Moment about centre of wheel = (18 N 0.18 m) + (18 N 0.18 m) = 6.5 N m 2 The moment of a force is the product of force and its perpendicular distance from the point about which the force is acting A torque is the resultant moment of two or more turning forces 3 (a) Moment = F perpendicular distance = 20 N 0.40 m = 8.0 N m (b) Perpendicular distance from P = 0.60 m sin 65 = 0.54 m Moment = F perpendicular distance = 35 N 0.54 m = 19 N m

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 If a body is in equilibrium, the sum of the moments about any point must be zero Sum of the moments about: left-hand support = (35 kN 24 m) (10.5 kN 80 m) = 840 kN m 840 kN m = 0 right-hand support = (35 kN 56 m) (24.5 kN 80 m) = 1960 kN m 1960 kN m = 0 centre = (35 kN 16 m) + (10.5 kN 40 m) (24.5 kN 40 m) = 560 kN m + 420 kN m 980 kN m = 0 5 For beam to balance, sum of moments about its pivot is zero: 16 N 25 cm = (a) 10 cm (a) = 400 N cm/(10 cm) = 40 N 3 N (b) = 5 N 18 cm (b) = 90 N cm/(3 N) = 30 cm 35 N 8 cm = 14 N (c) (c) = 280 N cm/(14 N) = 20 cm (d) 18 cm = 45 N 16 cm (d) = 720 N cm/(18 cm) = 40 N

Chapter 23

1 The point at which all the weight of the body appears to act See experiment at top of page 48 2 Condition 1: the sum of the forces in any direction is zero Condition 2: the sum of the moments about any point is zero Usually condition 1 is applied to two perpendicular directions to produce two equations and condition 2 used to produce the third equation 3 Foot of ladder is 3 m from base of wall {[(5 m)2 (4 m)2]} Sum of vertical forces is zero: R2 150 N = 0 equation (1) Sum of horizontal forces is zero: R1 F = 0 equation (2) Sum of moments about point of contact of ladder with floor is zero: R1 4 m = 150 N 1.5 m R1 4 m = 225 N m equation (3) From equation (1), R2 = 150 N From equation (3), R1 = 225 N m/(4 m) = 56 N From equation (2), F = R1 = 56 N

1.5 m R2 F 150 N 4m R1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Rule 1: when the three forces are drawn as head-to-tail vectors, they form a closed triangle Rule 2: all three forces must pass through the same point

force from top hinge

Note that the intersection of lines of action of F and W determine the common point through which the third force must act 5 W (N) x (cm) 1/x (m1)

8 7 6 W/N 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 (1/x)/m1 6 7 8 gradient=Wx=1.04 N m

2.0 52 1.92

3.0 35 2.86

4.0 26 3.85

5.0 21 4.76

6.0 17 5.88

7.0 15 6.67

8.0 13 7.69

Chapter 24

1 See second experiment on page 50 Precautions: balance rule accurately before adding masses balance screw on its head, using the slot in its head to position it accurately on the rules scale similarly use any slot in 10 g mass to assist in its accurate positioning use a range of large distances from the pivot

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

2

30 tension in string (T)

weight (25 N)

For vertical equilibrium, vertical component of tension = weight of sphere = 25 N Vertical component of tension = T cos 30 T = 25 N/(cos 30) = 29 N For horizontal equilibrium, horizontal component of tension = horizontal force F Horizontal component of tension = T cos 60 F = 29 N cos 60 = 14 N 3 Line of action of painters weight is 2.4 m from foot of ladder {3 m 4 m/(5 m)} Sum of vertical forces is zero: R2 150 N 750 N = 0 R2 900 N = 0 equation (1) Sum of horizontal forces is zero: R1 F = 0 equation (2) Sum of moments about point of contact of ladder with floor is zero: R1 4 m = (150 N 1.5 m) + (750 N 2.4 m) R1 4 m = 225 N m + 1800 N m R1 4 m = 2025 N m equation (3) From equation (1), R2 = 900 N From equation (3), R1 = 2025 N m/(4 m) = 510 N From equation (2), F = R1 = 510 N

2.4 m 750N 1.5 m R2 F 150 N 4m R1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Taking moments about P T2 2.2 m = 150 N 1.2 m = 180 N m T2 = 180 N m/(2.2 m) = 82 N For vertical equilibrium T1 + T2 = 150 N T1 = 150 N 82 N = 68 N

0.3 m T1 2.2 m T2 0.5 m

1.2 m

1.0 m

150 N

0.9 m

T Fv

hinge

Fh

1.5 m

90 N

Clockwise moment about hinge = 90 N 1.5 m = 135 N m For equal anticlockwise moment, Tvertical = 135 N m/(1.5 m) = 90 N Tvertical 1.5 m = 135 N m Tvertical = 135 N m/(1.5 m) = 90 N Angle wire makes with vertical T cos 59 = 90 N T = 90 N/(cos 59) = 175 N Horizontal component of tension = T cos 31 = 175 N cos 31 = 150 N For horizontal equilibrium (only two forces have horizontal components): Horizontal force of hinge = horizontal component of tension = 150 N For vertical equilibrium: weight acting down = 90 N vertical component of tension acting up = 90 N So vertical force of hinge = 90 N 90 N = 0 N NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd. = tan1 1.5 m/(0.9 m) = tan1 1.67 = 59

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

6 Taking moments about A

T1 A 0.5 m

0.1 m

T2 B 0.4 m

100 N

250 N

350 N

T2 1.2 m = (100 N 0.5 m) + (250 N 0.6 m) + (350 N 1.0 m) T2 1.2 m = 50 N m + 150 N m + 350 N m = 550 N m T2 = 550 N m/(1.2 m) = 460 N For vertical equilibrium T1 + T2 = 100 N + 250 N + 350 N = 700 N T1 = 700 N 460 N = 240 N

Chapter 25

1 Momentum = mass velocity Momentum is a vector quantity 2 Momentum = mass velocity (a) Momentum of rugby player = 120 kg 10 m s1 = 1200 kg m s1 (b) Momentum of electron = 9 1031 kg 2 107 m s1 = 1.8 1023 kg m s1 (c) Momentum of toy train = 1.6 kg 0.25 m s1 = 0.4 kg m s1 3 Change in momentum = final momentum initial momentum = mv mu (a) Change in momentum of car = (800 kg 30 m s1) (800 kg 5 m s1) = 24 000 kg m s1 4000 kg m s1 = 20 000 kg m s1 (b) Change in momentum of trolley = (0.8 kg 0.2 m s1) (0.8 kg 0.8 m s1) = 0.16 kg m s1 0.64 kg m s1 = 0.48 kg m s1 (c) Change in momentum of ball = (0.05 kg 5 m s1) (0.05 kg 7 m s1) = 0.25 kg m s1 0.35 kg m s1 = 0.6 kg m s1 4 The rate of change in momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on it and takes place in the same direction as the resultant force Force rate of change in momentum F (mv mu)/t m(v u)/t ma F = kma where k is the constant of proportionality In SI units, the newton is defined so that k = 1, so F = ma NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 Force = change in momentum/time (a) Force acting on car = 20 000 kg m s1/(8 s) = 2500 N (b) Force acting on trolley = 0.48 kg m s1/(3 s) = 0.16 N (c) Force acting on ball = 0.6 kg m s1/(0.6 s) = 1 N

Chapter 26

1 Provided no external forces act, the total momentum in any direction remains constant so that the total momentum after the collision equals the total momentum before the collision See experiment on page 54 2 Momentum of skateboard = mu = 4 kg 2 m s1 = 8 kg m s1 Combined mass after bag lands on it = 4 kg + 1 kg = 5 kg Assuming momentum is unchanged 5 kg v = 8 kg m s1 v = 8 kg m s1/(5 kg) = 1.6 m s1 3 Momentum of bullet = mu = 0.02 kg 300 m s1 = 6 kg m s1 Since block is stationary, total initial momentum (TIM) = 6 kg m s1 Total final momentum (TFM) = TIM = 6 kg m s1 (since momentum conserved) Final speed = TFM/(total mass) = 6 kg m s1/(4 kg) = 1.5 m s1 4 TIM = (65 kg 7 m s1) + (45 kg 6 m s1) TIM = 455 kg m s1 270 kg m s1 = 185 kg m s1 TFM = TIM = 185 kg m s1 Combined speed = TFM/(total mass) = 185 kg m s1/(110 kg) = 1.7 m s1 In the original direction of the 65 kg skater 5 Prior to a gun being fired, its total momentum is zero (TIM = 0) As momentum is conserved, total momentum after firing must also be zero (TFM = 0) Pellet has momentum in the forward (positive) direction so gun must have momentum in the backward (negative) direction, and so recoils 6 (a) Momentum of stone = mu = 0.1 kg 6 m s1 = 0.6 kg m s1 (b) TFM = TIM = 0.6 kg m s1 Speed of squirrel = TFM/(total mass) = 0.6 kg m s1/(0.6 kg) = 1 m s1 (c) Total momentum must remain at 0.6 kg m s1 Stones new momentum = 0.1 kg 2 m s1 = 0.2 kg m s1 (as backwards) Squirrels momentum = (0.6 + 0.2) kg m s1 = 0.8 kg m s1 (to keep TFM = 0.6 kg m s1) Squirrels final speed = 0.8 kg m s1/(0.5 kg) = 1.6 m s1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 27

1 Impulse = force time Unit of impulse from this equation is N s In base units: N s = kg m s2 s = kg m s1 The same unit as momentum 2 (a) Impulse = Ft = 60 N 0.008 s = 0.48 N s (b) Ft = mv mu but since u = 0, Ft = mv v = Ft/m = 0.48 N s/(0.15 kg) = 3.2 m s1 3 Impulse = area under force-time graph Impulse =

1 2

Impulse = Ft = mv mu but since u = 0, Ft = mv v = Ft/m = 3.6 N s/(0.8 kg) = 4.5 m s1 4 (a) Change in momentum = mv mu = m(v u) = 900 kg (0 m s1 30 m s1) = 27 000 kg m s1 (b) Impulse of wall on car = mv mu = 27 000 N s (c) Force of wall on car F = impulse/t = 27 000 N s/(0.5 s) = 54 000 N 5 (a) Change in momentum = m(v u) = 0.3 kg (2 m s1 8 m s1) = 0.3 kg 10 m s1 = 3 kg m s1 (b) Impulse of hammer on nail = mv mu = 3 N s (c) Force of hammer on nail F = impulse/t = 3 N s/(0.012 s) = 250 N (d) Connect one of the start leads of a digital timer to the nail and the other to the metal hammer head 6 When two bodies collide, they exert equal and opposite forces on each other, F and F These forces act for the same length of time t Therefore the impulses are also equal and opposite, Ft and Ft and the change in momentum of one body is equal and opposite to the change in momentum of the other So the overall change in momentum is zero and total momentum is conserved 7 TIM = 3 kg 4 m s1 = 12 kg m s1 TFM = TIM = 12 kg m s1 Momentum of 2 kg sphere after collision = 2 kg 4.5 m s1 = 9 kg m s1 Momentum of 3 kg sphere = 12 kg m s1 9 kg m s1 = 3 kg m s1 Speed of 3 kg sphere = momentum/mass = 3 kg m s1/(3 kg) = 1 m s1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 28

1 Work = force distance moved in the direction of the force (a) Work = 60 N 3 m = 180 J (b) Work = 4000 N 0.25 m = 1000 J 2 (a)Work done = area under graph up to 60 mm =

1 2

(b) Work done = area under graph between 40 mm and 140 mm 1 = 2 (1.0 N + 3.5 N) (0.14 m 0.04 m) = 0.225 J 3 Work done = area under graph Area up to 3 cm

1 2

Area between 3 cm and 9.5 cm 0.065 m 14.2 N 0.90 J Total work done 1.1 J 4 Power is the rate of doing work (a) Average speed = distance/time = 36 m/(60 s) = 0.60 m s1 (b) Average upward velocity = upward displacement/time = 21 m/(60 s) = 0.35 m s1 (c) Total work done against his weight = weight height = 800 N 21 m = 16 800 J (d) Average power = work/time = 16 800 J/(60 s) = 280 W 5 144 km h1 = 144 000 m h1/(60 60 s h1) = 40 m s1 Power = force velocity Resistive force = power/velocity = 35 000 W/(40 m s1) = 875 N

Chapter 29

1 Energy is a scalar quantity Base units: J = N m = kg m s2 m = kg m2 s2 2 Energy can be stored as either potential energy or kinetic energy 3 types of potential energy: gravitational, electromagnetic and nuclear elastic potential energy 3 Increase in gravitational potential energy W = mgh (a) W = 0.5 kg 9.81 N kg1 25 m = 123 J (b) W = 60 kg 9.81 N kg1 0.30 m = 177 J (c) W = 1.2 106 kg 9.81 N kg1 0.15 m = 1.8 106 J 4 Kinetic energy =

1 2

mv2

1 2

If all kinetic energy is converted into gravitational potential energy, mg h Height risen h = kinetic energy/(mg) h = 180 000 J/(900 kg 9.81 N kg1) = 20.4 m NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 (a) Kinetic energy of trolley =

1 2 1 2

h = 0.22 J/(0.60 kg 9.81 N kg1) = 0.037 m (b) Kinetic energy of ball = 0.11 kg (40 m s1)2 = 88 J

h = 88 J/(0.11 kg 9.81 N kg1) = 82 m not surprisingly, the worked example gives the same height!

Chapter 30

1 In this situation, the decrease in the gravitational potential energy corresponds to an increase in the internal energy of the object and its surroundings due to the frictional forces acting on it The internal energy of a body is the total of the random kinetic and potential energies of all the molecules of that body Internal energy may be increased by: mechanical working by hammering electrical working by the passing of an electric current heating in a hot fire 3 4 The energy content of a closed or isolated system remains constant (a) Potential energy lost by falling mass = mgh = 1 kg 9.81 N kg1 0.25 m = 2.45 J (b) Total kinetic energy just before hitting ground = potential energy lost by falling mass

1 2 (m1 + v2 = 2

v = (0.98 m2 s2) = 0.99 m s1 5 Efficiency = useful output/input Power of light emitted = (2/100) 60 W = 1.2 W The other 58.8 W increases the internal energy of the surroundings

Chapter 31

1 2 See experiment on page 54 Momentum and energy are conserved in both elastic and inelastic collisions Elastic collisions also conserve kinetic energy; inelastic collisions do not The collisions between the molecules of a gas are, on average, elastic

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

3 TIM = mu = 4 104 kg 3 m s1 = 1.2 105 kg m s1 TFM = TIM = 1.2 105 kg m s1 Speed after collision = TFM/(total mass) = 1.2 105 kg m s1/(6 104 kg) = 2 m s1 Kinetic energy after collision =

1 2

1 2

This shows that the collision was inelastic, 6 104 J is spread around, mainly raising the internal energy of the buffers and surroundings so that energy is still conserved 4 Gravitational potential energy kinetic energy gravitational potential energy kinetic energy gravitational potential energy (a) Momentum of bullet = mu = 0.02 kg 300 m s1 = 6 kg m s1 Since block is stationary before collision, TIM = 6 kg m s1 Since momentum is conserved, TFM = TIM = 6 kg m s1 Combined speed = TFM/(total mass) = 6 kg m s1/(4 kg) = 1.5 m s1 (b) Kinetic energy of bullet = 2 mu2 =

1 1 2

1 2 2 Mv

1 2

Collision is inelastic as kinetic energy is not conserved 99.5% of bullets kinetic energy is converted to other forms 6 Motorway crash barriers are designed to absorb the kinetic energy of any vehicle that hits them to prevent the vehicle from bouncing back into the carriageway

Chapter 32

1 neutron proton electron 2 neutral positive negative

An atom consists of a very small central nucleus where most of its mass is concentrated and around which low-mass electrons orbit Beryllium-8 has 4 protons and 4 neutrons in its nucleus with 4 orbiting electrons

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

3 Density = mass/volume An atom is mostly empty space with no mass Nearly all the mass is concentrated into a very small central volume (very large nuclear density) The overall density is an average for the whole material, taking into account the empty space 4 (a) number of protons = 82 (b) number of nucleons = 207 (c)number of neutrons = 207 82 = 125 5 Isotopes are nuclides with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Lightest (1st) isotope of tin is Sn-108 i.e. (107 + 1) 2nd isotope of tin is Sn-109 3rd So isotope of tin is Sn-110 25th isotope of tin is Sn-132

109 Sn, 110 Sn 50 50

131 Sn, 132 Sn 50 50

Possible symbols:

......

Chapter 33

1 See Figure 33.2 on page 70 The vast majority of alpha particles are deflected very little as they travel through the gold foil while a tiny minority (about 1 in 8000) are deflected through angles greater than 90 2 See Figure 33.3 on page 70 The positive nuclei have comparatively large distances between them so most alpha particles are deflected very little The closer the path of an alpha particle comes to a nucleus, the more the alpha particle is deflected Deflections through angles greater than 90 result from almost head-on collisions 3 Diameter of an atom 3 1010 m Diameter of a nucleus 1 1014 m The diameter of this atom is about 30 000 times greater than the diameter of this nucleus Area of circle diameter2 The head-on area of this atom is about 30 0002 times greater than the head-on area of this nucleus Percentage taken up by nucleus = 100 1/(30 000)2 0.000 000 1% (which is why so many alpha particles miss!) 4 Quarks are the particles from which all sub-atomic particles are made There are six types of quark called up, down, strange, charm, top, bottom A proton consists of two up quarks and one down quark A neutron consists of one up quark and two down quarks A baryon is a particle made up of three quarks A meson is a particle made up of a quark and an antiquark

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 deep inelastic scattering Incident particles electrons Targets Process Results protons/neutrons quarks discovered alpha particle scattering alpha particles atoms in foil nucleus discovered

deflections off smaller parts within nucleons deflections off smaller parts within atoms

Chapter 34

1 When ionised, an atom releases an electron and becomes a positively charged ion Air can be ionised either by a flame or by the radiation from a radioactive source 2 3 See second experiment on page 72

215 Po 211 Pb + 4 84 82 2 227 Ac 223 Fr + 4 89 87 2

Alpha source

Air gap

Smoke particles in air reduce the number of alpha particles reaching the detector fewer ionisations then occur within the detector so a lower current flows when smoke is present A reduction in the current is used to trigger the alarm 5

228 Th 90

224 Ra + 4 88 2

To get to lead-212 from radium-224, 12 nucleons must be removed as each alpha particle removes 4 nucleons (and beta removes none), 3 more alpha decays are required the proton number of all isotopes of lead is 82

Chapter 35

1 A GM tube is more sensitive: it can detect any single ionising event that occurs inside the tube while an ionisation chamber needs a large number of ionising events to produce a measurable current A GM tube allows each ionising event to be directly registered on a counter A GM tube detects radiation once it has entered the tube through its walls (it is poor at detecting alpha radiation that is mostly stopped by the walls) while the radioactive source can be placed directly inside an ionisation chamber 2 Place source close to GM tube window Observe count rate as paper placed between source and GM tube no change, no alpha Repeat with aluminium instead of paper reduction in count rate, beta being emitted Repeat with lead instead of aluminium no emissions from source detected, no gamma

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

3 In beta-minus decay, a neutron in the nucleus splits into a proton and an electron

1n 0 0 1p + 1e 1

The proton stays in the nucleus but the electron is ejected at high speed as a beta-minus particle 4

216 Po 84 212 Pb 82 212 Pb 82

212 Pb + 4 82 2 212 Pb + 82

0 212 Bi + 1 83

241 94 Pu 0 1

241 95 Am

237 93 Np

4 2

233 91 Pa

4 2

233 92 U

0 1

229 90 Th

4 2

225 88 Ra

4 2

225 89 Ac

0 1

221 87 Fr

4 2

217 85 At

4 2

213 83 Bi

4 2

213 84 Po

0 1

209 82 Pb

4 2

209 83 Bi

0 1

Unit 1

Mechanics and Radioactivity

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 36

1 Background radiation is the radiation that is around us all the time natural radioactivity is associated with isotopes that occur naturally artificial radioactivity is associated with isotopes produced by man by neutron bombardment cosmic rays are another important contributor to background radiation 2 Radioactive decay is a random process as it is impossible to predict when an individual atom will decay A radioactive source contains an extremely large number of atoms The unpredictable individual decays of such a large number together produce a statistical pattern from which predictions can be made 3 Activity is the number of decays of a radioactive source per second Decay constant is the probability of decay per nucleus per second Activity = N Activity = 8.0 106 s1 3.0 1011 = 2.4 106 s1 As nuclei decay, there are fewer and fewer nuclei left to decay so the decay rate decreases 4 Half-life is the average time taken for half the nuclei of that isotope to decay See experiment on page 78 5 t1 = ln 2/ 2 t1 = ln 2/ = 0.69/(7.84 1010 s1) = 8.80 108 s = 8.80 108 s/(60 60 24 365.25 s y1) 2 = 27.9 y 84 years = 3 28 years = 3t1 2 Mass = 4.5 mg 1/8 = 0.56 mg Mass of strontium isotope will have fallen to ( 2 )3 = 1/8

1

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 1

1 2 An electric current is a flow of electric charge The cell does electrical work by applying a force to the charge carriers in the direction in which they move Both electrical and mechanical work transfer energy 3 4 A cell is a single source of e.m.f. whereas a battery is a group of cells connected together Circuit A see Figure 4.6 on page 9

Circuit B

Circuit C

Circuit D

The circuits will run out of fuel in order A, C, B D need not run out of fuel at all, as the engines can be turned off and still produce the same effect!

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 Direct current: the electrons travel in one direction only Alternating current: the electrons move first one way and then the other; they keep moving backwards and forwards

Chapter 2

1 2 +4 nC on A and 4 nC on B The duster takes electrons from the surface of the rod The duster now has a negative charge and the rod an equal positive one 3 Current is a base quantity Charge is a derived quantity Charge is measured in coulombs and current in amperes 1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second 4 (a) Q = It = 3 A 4 s = 12 C (b) Q = 7 A (8 60) s = 3360 C (c) Q = 0.25 A (2 60 60) s = 1800 C 5 (a) I = Q/t = 700 C/(35 s) = 20 A (b) I = Q/t = 3600 C/(3 60 s) = 20 A 6 Q = It = 4.5 A (20 60) s = 5400 C Number of electrons = 5400 C/(1.6 1019 C) = 3.4 1022 7

Charge = current time C=As

Chapter 3

1 Draw a large copy of the circuit diagram on a piece of paper Place components on top of their circuit symbols Connect components using wires of the correct length to keep the circuit looking like its circuit diagram 2 Break the circuit at the required point Insert the ammeter; an additional lead will be needed Make sure the red terminal of the ammeter is connected nearest to the positive terminal of the power supply 3 4 Torch bulb 0.3 A, LED 20 mA, small motor 1 A, buzzer 0.1A, mains lamp 0.25 A, electric kettle 10 A A series circuit is one where the components are all connected in-line, one after the other The current passes through one component, then through the next, then the next, etc. Current is not used up by any component (conservation of charge): what goes in comes out so the current throughout a series circuit is the same NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 The current entering a house equals the current leaving, so company A makes no charge The charge entering a house equals the charge leaving, so company B makes no charge Electrical devices in a house remove energy from the supply, so company C charges its customers

Chapter 4

1 A parallel circuit is one where components are connected across each other Current flowing into a parallel circuit splits at the junction so that a part of it goes through each route Current flowing out of each route of a parallel circuit join together at the junction 2 The sum of the currents entering a point is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that point Conservation of charge 3

2.4 A

1.6 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

0.8 A

2.4 A

1.6 A

In series: (a)

12 V

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

(b)

3V

Note that currents in series are the same and that currents add up to zero at junctions Circuit A I1 = I2 = 1 A + 1 A = 2 A Circuit B I3 = I4 = 1.5 A Circuit C I5 = I6 = 1.2 A [current through parallel resistor = 0.4 A] Circuit D I7 = 20 mA, I8 = 20 mA 0.1 mA = 19.9 mA, I9 = 0.1 mA

Chapter 5

1 Adding a resistor to a series circuit increases the total resistance So that the current flowing through the whole circuit decreases A circuit can be given additional resistance by: making part of the wiring thinner using longer wires using a material through which electrons find it hard to move using a material in which there are only a few electrons that can move 2

mA

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

3

4

live

neutral

12 4 A

An LDR will not pass enough current to run a motor See Figure 5.7 on page 11 As the level of illumination increases, the resistance of the LDR falls Current flowing through LDR and relay coil increases sufficiently to close the relay switch which allows current to flow directly through the motor from the supply

Chapter 6

1 3 1.5 V = 4.5 V Three cells in parallel will supply energy for a longer time compared to a single cell [Will also reduce the overall effect of any internal resistance as current splits between the three cells see Chapter 17] 2 The average resultant force on the electrons is zero The power supply pushes the electrons along in their direction of travel The circuit resistances apply equal forces in the opposite direction

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

3

+ V + V

+ V

+ V

Chapter 7

1 Two components that give energy to a circuit: cells (batteries), generators Two components that take energy away from a circuit: lamps, motors Voltage differences across components that give energy to a circuit are called e.m.f.s Voltage differences across components that take energy away from a circuit are called potential differences 2 (a) W = VQ = 9 V 15 C = 135 J (b) W = VQ = VIt = 9 V 0.5 A (2 60) s = 540 J 3 (a) Energy per second (power) = 36 000 J/(10 60 s) = 60 J s1 (b) 3 A = 3 C s1 (c) Energy per coulomb (voltage) = 60 J s1/(3 C s1) = 20 J C1 4 P = VI V = P/I = 0.75 W/(0.3 A) = 2.5 V 5 Q = It = 2.5 A (10 60) s = 1500 C e.m.f. = W/Q = 300 000 J/(1500 C) = 200 V NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 8

1

1 k 4V

12 V

1 k

4V

1 k

4V

12 V

1 k

12 V 1 k

12 V 1 k

12 V

V1 = 12 V 3 V = 9 V V2 = V3 = 6 V V4 = Vlamp = 4 V V5 = 9 V 4 V = 5 V

See Figure 8.6 on page 17 Source of power in the water circuit is the Sun Source of power in the electric circuit is the battery Assuming no water either evaporates from the streams or is absorbed into the ground then the amount of water flowing down mountain equals amount of water evaporating from sea

When at A, VX > potential of right-hand terminal of ammeter, so current through ammeter flows from left to right When at E, VX = potential of right-hand terminal of ammeter, so no current flows through ammeter When at B, VX < potential of right-hand terminal of ammeter, so current through ammeter flows from right to left

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 9

1 The voltage at a point in a circuit is the voltage difference between zero and that point The voltage across a component is the difference in the voltages at its two ends 2 (a) Vlamp = 1.8 V 0.4 V = 1.4 V (b) Vresistor = 5.7 V 2.1 V = 3.6 V (c) Vwire = 2.1 V 1.8 V = 0.3 V 3

6 5 Voltage/V 4 3 2 1 0 Position

V1 = 1.5 V , V2 = 3.0 V V3 = 1.5 V V4 = 3.0 V V5 = 1.5 V , V6 = 2.0 V V7 = 4.0 V V8 = 6.0 V , , V9 = 3.0 V V10 = 6.0 V , , , , V11 = 6.0 V V12 = 3.0 V V13 = 3.0 V V14 = 6.0 V

5 6

Around any closed loop, the sum of the e.m.f.s is equal to the sum of the p.d.s For energy conservation: total energy gained by a coulomb going round a complete circuit equals the total energy lost and as voltage is a measure of the energy transferred per unit charge total e.m.f. (energy providers) = total p.d. (energy takers)

Chapter 10

1 Either volt = J C1 = N m C1 = kg m s2 m C1 = kg m s2 m (A s)1 = kg m s2 m A1 s1 = kg m2 s3 A1 or volt = W A1 = J s1 A1 = N m s1 A1 = kg m s2 m s1 A1 = kg m2 s3 A1 ohm = V A1 = kg m2 s3 A1 A1 = kg m2 s3 A2 2 See experiment on page 20

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

3 Resistors are connected in parallel (combined resistance < individual resistance) 1/total = 1/R1 + 1/R2 1/R2 = 1/total 1/R1 = 1/(120 ) 1/(180 ) = 0.002778 1 R2 = 360 4 The seven arrangements are

(i) (ii) (iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(i) 18 , (ii) 36 , (iii) 54 , (iv) 9 , (v) 6 , (vi) 12 , (vii) 27 5 Power = I2R I2 = P/R = 0.810 W/(25 ) = 0.0324 A2 I = (0.0324 A2) = 0.18 A V = IR = 0.18 A 25 = 4.5 V Number of cells = 4.5 V/(1.5 V) = 3

Chapter 11

1 (i) Behaviour of circuit will be unaffected by presence of voltmeter as resistance of parallel (voltmeter) combination will be as close as possible to resistance of component (ii) Behaviour of circuit will be unaffected by presence of ammeter as it does not change the circuit resistance

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 In Figure 11.1 on page 22: Voltmeter records the correct voltage for the resistor Ammeter records the current through both the resistor and the voltmeter Calculated resistance value = correct V/larger I = lower R In Figure 11.2 on page 22: voltmeter records the voltage across both the resistor and the voltmeter ammeter records the correct current for the resistor Calculated resistance value = larger V/correct I = higher R 3 First connect the probes of the digital ohmmeter together and note the reading Connect the probes to the ends of the component and note the new reading Resistance of the component is the difference in these two readings 4

tungsten filament lamp Resistance

NTC thermistor

Temperature

The resistance of a light-dependent resistor decreases as the light intensity falling on it increases

Chapter 12

1 Number of tennis balls along each 1 m side = 1000 mm/(66 mm) = 15 Total number in 1 m3 box = 15 15 15 = 3375 2 Volume of wire V = Al = 3 106 m2 30 102 m = 9 107 m3 Number of free electrons N = nV = 6.4 1028 m3 9 107 m3 = 5.76 1022 Amount of free charge Q = Ne = 5.76 1022 1.6 1019 C = 9216 C = 9200 C 3 A = 3 C s1 (I = Q/t) t = Q/I = 9216 C/(3 C s1) = 3072 s = 3100 s Average speed = distance/time = 30 102 m/(3072 s) = 9.8 105 m s1 = 0.1 mm s1 3 When the switch is closed, electrons throughout the circuit start moving almost straight away The electromagnetic wave that starts the electrons moving travels around the circuit very quickly (at the speed of light 3 108 m s1) Electrons move in, and give energy to, the lamp almost instantaneously Delay time t = length of cable/(3 108 m s1)

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 I = nAvq v = I/nAq = 25 A/(7 1028 m3 2.5 106 m2 1.6 1019 C) = 8.9 104 m s1 = 0.89 mm s1 5 See experiment on page 25

Chapter 13

1 Resistivity = resistance area/length Units of resistivity = m2/m = m In base units: resistance = = kg m2 s3 A2 (see solution 10.1) resistivity = m = kg m2 s3 A2 m = kg m3 s3 A2 2 Resistivity of tungsten is greater than that of copper Cross-sectional area of the tungsten filament is smaller than that of the copper connecting wires As R =l/A, filament resistance is greater than that of the same length of copper connecting wire Since they are in series, the current through both the filament and the connecting wires is the same Power P = I2R R, so filament dissipates more power and gets hotter 3 R =l/A A = wt = 2.0 103 m 8.5 103 m = 1.7 105 m2 R = 1.7 108 m 4.0 102 m/(1.7 105 m2) = 4 105 V = IR = 25 103 A 4 105 = 1 106 V = 1 V 4 In both components: lattice vibrations increase with temperature producing increased carrier obstruction and reduced drift speed v In the tungsten filament lamp: current I v (nAq are constant), so producing a smaller current and a larger resistance

In the NTC thermistor:

charge carrier density n increases massively with temperature n increases much more than v decreases current I nv (Aq are constant), so producing a larger current and a smaller resistance 5 I = V/R = 12 V/(300 ) = 0.04 A = 40 mA Power = V2/R = (12 V)2/(300 ) = 0.48 W = 480 mW Thermistor gains 180 mW (i.e. 480 mW generated 300 mW dissipated) (a) Temperature increases (b) Resistance decreases Both the current flowing and the power generated within the thermistor will increase If process continues: temperature rises more producing further reductions in resistance and increases in current and power so that thermal runaway occurs NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

6 Resistivity increases with temperature: copper and iron Resistivity decreases with temperature: carbon, glass, paraffin wax and silicon

Chapter 14

1 A potential divider circuit consists of a chain of resistors, all connected in series It divides the voltage from a source in proportion to their resistances 2 Total resistance = 7 k + 3 k = 10 k Current I = e.m.f./(total resistance) = 9 V/(10 k) = 9 104 A VOUT = IR = 9 104 A 3 103 = 2.7 V 3 VOUT will decrease Larger current in 7 k resistor so greater p.d. across top resistor (or effective resistance of bottom resistor is reduced) 4 (a) 1/R = (1/600 ) + (1/400 ) = 0.0042 1 R = 1/(0.0042 1) = 240 (b) Total R = 360 + 240 = 600 (c) I = e.m.f./total R = 12 V/(600 ) = 0.02 A = 20 mA (d) V360 = IR = 0.02 A 360 = 7.2 V (e) Vparallel = Vsupply V360 = 12 V 7.2 V = 4.8 V [or V240 = IR = 0.02 A 240 = 4.8 V] (f) I600 = V600/R = 4.8 V/(600 ) = 0.008 A = 8 mA (g) I400 = Isupply I600 = 20 mA 8 mA = 12 mA [or I400 = V400/R = 4.8 V/(400 ) = 0.012 A = 12 mA] 5

Parallel combination: 1/R = (1/12 ) + (1/36 ) = 0.111 1 R = 1/(0.111 1) = 9 Circuit: total R = 18 + 9 = 27 I = e.m.f./total R = 9 V/(27 ) = 0.33 A I18 = 0.33 A V18 = IR = 0.33 A 18 = 6 V Vparallel = Vsupply V18 = 9 V 6 V = 3 V I12 = V12/R = 3 V/(12 ) = 0.25 A I36 = Isupply I12 = 0.33 A 0.25 A = 0.08 A

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 15

1 A rheostat is a variable resistance in series with the component (see Figure 15.1 on page 30) The rheostat controls the current through the lamp A potentiometer is a variable potential divider (see Figure 15.2 on page 30) The potentiometer controls the voltage across the lamp An advantage of using a potentiometer is that the voltage across the lamp can be reduced to zero A disadvantage of using a potentiometer is that circuit current still flows even when there is zero current in the lamp 2 Digital voltmeter shows that there is 1.5 V across bottom resistor of potential divider Torch bulb is connected in parallel with the bottom resistor Their combined resistance is less so p.d. across them is less than 1.5 V 3 Using a digital voltmeter (infinite resistance): Total resistance = 2000 + 3000 + 1000 = 6000 I = e.m.f./total R = 12 V/(6000 ) = 0.002 A VBC = IRBC = 0.002 A 3000 = 6 V Using analogue voltmeter (resistance = 6000 ): Combined resistance RBC = 1/[(1/3000 ) + (1/6000 )] = 2000 Total resistance = 2000 + 2000 + 1000 = 5000 I = e.m.f./total R = 12 V/(5000 ) = 0.0024 A VBC = IRBC = 0.0024 A 2000 = 4.8 V Using both voltmeters: combined resistance RBC = 1/[(1/3000 ) + (1/6000 ) + (1/ )] = 2000 so both voltmeters read 4.8 V 4 The terminals must be joined together by a wire of negligible resistance [short-circuited] R1 = Vsupply/Imax = 4 V/(0.5 A) = 8 Note that the current of 0.1 A flows between the output terminals and not through R2 VR1 = Vsupply Vout = 4 V 3 V = 1 V IR1 = VR1/R1 = 1 V/(8 ) = 0.125 A IR2 = IR1 Iout = 0.125 A 0.100 A = 0.025 A R2 = VR2/IR2 = Vout/IR2 = 3 V/(0.025 A) = 120 5 (a) At 1000 lux, Rldr = 150 so total circuit resistance = 1050 Current flowing = 5 V/(1050 ) = 0.0048 A V900 = IR = 0.0048 A 900 = 4.29 V = 4.3 V (b) At 90 lux, Rldr = 1500 so total circuit resistance = 2400 Current flowing = 5 V/(2400 ) = 0.0021 A V900 = IR = 0.0021 A 900 = 1.875 V = 1.9 V

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 16

1 The current through a component is directly proportional to the voltage across it See experiment on page 32 2 The resistance of the tungsten filament of a lamp increases as it gets hotter its current-voltage graph is curved If the filament is maintained at a constant temperature (e.g. by keeping it immersed in water) its current-voltage graph is a straight line through the origin showing that the material from which the filament is made is ohmic 3 With switch S closed: Vsupply = VR1 + Vdiode Graph shows that at 50 mA, Vdiode = 0.77 V So VR1 = 2.5 V 0.77 V = 1.73 V R1 = VR1/I = 1.73 V/(0.05 A) = 34.6 = 35 With switch open: Vsupply = VR1 + VR2 + Vdiode Graph shows that at 10 mA, Vdiode = 0.65 V VR1 = IR1 = 0.01 A 34.6 = 0.346 V So VR2 = 2.5 V (0.65 V + 0.346 V) = 1.504 V R2 = VR2/I = 1.504 V/(0.01 A) = 150.4 = 150 Diode power when switch S closed = IdiodeVdiode = 0.05 A 0.77 V = 0.0385 W = 39 mW 4 Voltage across series resistance VR = Vsupply VLED = 6.0 V 1.7 V = 4.3 V R = VR/I = 4.3 V/(20 103 A) = 215 = 220 5

Potential difference

Chapter 17

1

Voltage across resistance = IRexternal = 0.5 A 12 = 6 V lost volts = E voltage across resistance = 9 V 6 V = 3 V Internal resistance r = lost volts/I = 3 V/(0.5 A) = 6

Resistance

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 3 See experiment on page 35 E.m.f. = terminal voltage + lost volts E = V + Ir V = (r)I + E Graph of terminal voltage V against current I has gradient equal to r and intercept equal to E

1.8 1.6 Terminal voltage/V 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Current/A 0.4 0.5 0.6

Working resistance R = V/I = 3.5 V/(0.35 A) = 10 Total circuit resistance = E/I = 12 V/(0.35 A) = 34 Required series resistance = 34 (4 + 10 ) = 20 lost volts = 4.5 V 3.5 V = 1.0 V Internal resistance = lost volts/I = 1.0 V/(0.35 A) = 2.9

Digital voltmeter reads 12 V when switch S is open Current I = e.m.f./total resistance = 12 V/(2 + 4 ) = 12 V/(6 ) = 2 A Terminal voltage = IRexternal = 2 A 4 = 8 V Power dissipated in internal resistance Pr = I2r = (2 A)2 2 = 8 W Power dissipated in external circuit PR = I2R= (2 A)2 4 =16 W

A car battery has a very small internal resistance (10 m) so that it can supply a large current (e.g. 200 A) to the starter motor A school e.h.t. supply has a very large internal resistance (5 M) to prevent it from supplying dangerously large currents

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 18

1 Pressure is the force acting per unit area Pressure = force/area Pa = N m2 = kg m s2 m2 = kg m1 s2 2 (a) Pressure = force/area = 150 N/[(0.06 m)2] = 1.3 104 N m2 Force on piston = pA = 1.33 104 N m2 (0.96 m)2 = 38 000 N (b) For volume of fluid to remain the same (Distance moved area)piston = (distance moved area)plunger Distance moved by piston = 0.64 m (0.06 m)2/[(0.96 m)2] = 0.0025 m = 2.5 mm 3 See parts 2 and 3 of experiment Blowing up balloons on page 38 Use a pressure gauge to measure the pressure of the gas and a thermometer to measure its temperature 4 E.m.f. generated = 35 V C1 160 C = 5600 V = 5.6 mV Current I = e.m.f./total resistance = 5.6 103 V/(16 + 4 ) = 2.8 104 A Power produced P = VI = 5.6 103 V 2.8 104 A = 1.57 106 W 5 Mark liquid level at 0 C (ice/water) and 100 C (steam) using elastic bands divide interval between these two marks into 100 equal divisions For this thermometer: 100 C (18.0 2.0) cm = 16.0 cm So scale is 0.16 cm C1 (a) 35 C 35 C 0.16 cm C1 = 5.6 cm Alcohol level is (5.6 + 2.0) cm = 7.6 cm above the bulb (b) 8 C 8 C 0.16 cm C1 = 1.28 cm Alcohol level is (1.28 + 2.0) cm = 0.72 cm above the bulb

Chapter 19

1 Macroscopic means large scale Volume m3 Pressure Pa (or N m2) Temperature K Amount of gas present 2 Boyles law: for a fixed mass of gas at constant temperature, the product of the pressure and volume is constant See experiment on page 40 Precaution: after each compression, wait for gas to cool before taking readings

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

3

Higher temperature Lower temperature

Pressure

Volume

Pressure volume = 1.8 106 Pa 0.06 m3 = 1.08 105 Pa m3 When tap opened: new pressure new volume = 1.08 105 Pa m3 new volume = 1.08 105 Pa m3/(100 103 Pa) = 1.08 m3 air leaving cylinder = (1.08 0.06) m3 = 1.02 m3 = 1.0 m3

As the bubble rises, there is less water pushing down on it from above so pressure on the fixed mass of gas in the bubble decreases as the bubble rises and its volume increases so that pV remains constant Volume of bubble has increased by a factor of 5 (20 mm3/4 mm3) so pressure at surface must be 1/5 of pressure at bottom of lake Pressure at bottom of lake = 5 pressure at surface = 5 atmospheric pressure Pressure at bottom is equivalent to 5 10 m of water = 50 m of water Depth of lake = (50 10) m = 40 m

Chapter 20

1 Pressure law: for a fixed mass of gas at constant volume, the pressure is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature See experiment on page 42 Precautions: submerge as much of the flask as possible in the water use a short length of tubing to connect flask to pressure gauge allow time for the gas in the flask to reach the temperature of the water before taking readings

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 As p T then p/T = constant For the given results: Temperature / C Pressure / kPa Temperature / K p/T / kPa K1 1 96 274 0.350 12 100 285 0.351 29 106 302 0.351 34 111 307 0.362 58 116 331 0.350 78 123 351 0.350

34 C is the incorrect temperature Correct temperature = 111 kPa/(average of other p/T values) = 111 kPa/(0.3506 kPa K1) = 317 K = 44 C 3 Pressure/temperature = 100 kPa/[(273 + 15) K] = 0.347 kPa K1 New pressure/new temperature = 0.347 kPa K1 New temperature = new pressure/(0.347 kPa K1) = (100 + 20) kPa/(0.347 kPa K1) = 345.6 K = 72.6 C 4 V reduces to 4 V0 when p increases to 4p0 (constant T)

1 4 V0 1

4p0 3p0 Pressure 2p0 p0 0 0

1 4 V0 1 2 V0 3 4 V0

V0

Volume

To return to original conditions: temperature must be reduced back to 27 C at constant volume 5 The critical temperature of a gas is the temperature above which it cannot be liquefied An ideal gas is one that would obey the gas laws at all temperatures and pressures and would never liquefy p is the pressure of the gas in Pa V is the volume of the gas in m3 n is the number of moles of gas present in mol R is the molar gas constant in J K1 mol1 T is the Kelvin temperature of the gas in K

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 21

1 See experiment on page 44 When viewed through the microscope, the smoke particles appear as very small bright dots which dance around randomly, moving first one way and then immediately another 2 The smoke particles are being bombarded by the gas particles Although very light, the gas particles are moving very fast and undergo a significant change in momentum At any instant, more gas particles will hit one side of the smoke particle than another creating a resultant force that momentarily pushes the smoke particle in that direction then the collision imbalance and the direction of the resultant force changes so the smoke particle continually gets pushed in different directions 3 (a) Use more ball bearings in the Perspex tube (b) Increase the speed of the motor to make the molecules move faster (c) Add mass to the cardboard disc Place a small polystyrene sphere, representing a smoke particle, in with the ball bearings 4 Collisions of gas particles with the container walls exert forces and create pressures on them Increasing the temperature of a gas causes its particles to move faster; the gas particles collide with the walls harder and more often, producing a greater pressure Increasing the volume of a container decreases the packing density of the gas particles within; fewer collisions per unit wall area occur per unit time and a lower pressure is produced 5 If collisions were inelastic, the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules would decrease The molecules would slow down and stop moving, just like the ball bearings in the model The temperature of the gas would fall and it would change into a liquid and then a solid

Chapter 22

1 For one collision: Change of momentum = mv mu = 0.2 kg (15 15) m s1 = 0.2 kg 30 m s1 = 6 kg m s1 For 600 collisions: Total change of momentum = 600 6 kg m s1 = 3600 kg m s1 Average force = total change of momentum/time taken = 3600 kg m s1/(12 s) = 300 N 600 collisions in 12 s = an average of 1 collision every 20 ms = 5 collisions in 100 ms

Force 0

20

40 60 Time/ms

80

100

Average force acting on wall = total area under the graph/(100 ms) NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 p = pressure of the gas

<c2> = mean square speed of the gas molecules Left-hand side: pressure = N m2 = kg m s2 m2 = kg m1 s2 Right-hand side:

<c2> = kg m3 (m s1)2 = kg m3 m2 s2 = kg m1 s2

E.g. (any four) gas consists of a large number of particles in rapid, random motion all collisions are elastic or particles assumed to be hard elastic spheres molecular size is negligible compared with the volume occupied by the gas intermolecular forces are negligible except during collisions time of collision is negligible compared with time between collisions 3 Since p = <c2>/3 <c2> = 3p/ = 3 101 103 Pa/(0.09 kg m3) = 3.37 106 m2 s2 Root mean square speed <c> = (3.37 106 m2 s2) = 1835 m s1 See Figure 22.3 on page 47 4 (a) Left-hand side:

1 2 2 mv

= kg (m s1)2 = kg m2 s2

Right-hand side: 3kT/2 = J K1 K = J = N m = kg m s2 m = kg m2 s2 (b) Molar gas constant = Avogadro constant Boltzmann constant (c) Since

1 2

mv2 = 3kT/2

v2 = 3kT/m so v2 T T2/T1 = (847 + 273) K/[(7 + 273) K] = 1120 K/(280 K) = 4 v2 increases by a factor of 4 R.m.s. speed increases by a factor of 2 (i.e. 4) R.m.s. speed = 2 380 m s1 = 760 m s1 5 (a) Mean speed = (350 + 420 + 280 + 610 + 680 + 540 + 590 + 490) m s1/8 = 3960 m s1/8 = 495 m s1 = 500 m s1 (b) Mean velocity = (350 + 420 280 + 610 680 540 + 590 490) m s1/8 = 20 m s1/8 = 2.5 m s1 (c) Mean square speed = (3502 + 4202 + 2802 + 6102 + 6802 + 5402 + 5902 + 4902) m2 s2/8 = 2 091 600 m2 s2/8 = 261 450 m2 s2 = 260 000 m2 s2 (d) Mean square velocity = [3502 + 4202 + (280)2 + 6102 + (680)2 + (540)2 + 5902 + (490)2] m2 s2/8 = 2 091 600 m2 s2/8 = 261 450 m2 s2 = 260 000 m2 s2 (e) Root mean square speed = (261 450 m2 s2) = 511 m s1 = 510 m s1 (f) Root mean square velocity = (261 450 m2 s2) = 511 m s1 = 510 m s1

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 23

1 Internal energy: the total of the random kinetic and potential energies of all the molecules of that body Examples: working on it [e.g. hammering or passing an electric current through it (electrical working)] or heating it (e.g. placing body in a hot fire) 2 Solid: molecules constantly vibrate about fixed positions Liquid: molecular vibrations sufficient to allow molecules to interchange positions Gas: molecules move throughout their container at high speeds Internal energy is stored as both molecular kinetic energy (due to all kinds of motion including vibration and spin) and potential energy (in the repulsive fields between the molecules) 3 A spoonful of hot water has more energy per degree of freedom than a bucketful of cold water as it is at a higher temperature, but it has less total internal energy as it has a much smaller mass Random shuffling of energy quanta between the two bodies will favour movement from hot to cold as a hot body has more energy per degree of freedom than a cold body The internal energy of an ideal monatomic gas is only kinetic, as there are no forces between its atoms The internal energy of a real monatomic gas is both kinetic and potential, as there are forces between its atoms

Chapter 24

1 Copper has conduction (free) electrons in its structure The conduction electrons in the hotter part of the material gain energy and pass this on to the colder part as they diffuse (move) into it Quartz has very few conduction electrons in its structure but its atoms are strongly linked together Large vibrational energy at the hot end is transferred along the atoms to atoms at the cold end 2 From flame to base of pan: direct contact of hot and cold bodies, convection within the flame and radiation from it Through base of pan: conduction Into water: adjacent to the base by conduction and throughout the water by convection 3 Energy conducts from the hot water to the cooler metal of the radiator Energy mainly conducts from the warm radiator to the cooler air in contact with it (Radiation from the radiator will be limited as its temperature is fairly low) The heated air expands and rises, carrying energy into the room by convection

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Conduction: helpful in allowing energy to reach the contents of a pan through its base; unhelpful in allowing energy to escape through the walls of a warm house Convection: helpful in heating a whole room from a single source of heat e.g. one radiator; unhelpful when convection currents in the atmosphere result in a bumpy flight Radiation: helpful in allowing the Sun to heat the Earth; unhelpful in radiating heat from a cooking pot even when it has a lid to prevent evaporation and convection 5 The two bodies in thermal equilibrium are at the same temperature It is a dynamic situation as energy flows between the two bodies, although at the same rate in both directions In thermal equilibrium, all the temperatures are the same and there is no net flow of internal energy In steady state, the temperatures are constant but different and there is a steady flow of internal energy

Chapter 25

1 Specific heat capacity: energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of that substance by 1 K without a change of state Unit: J kg1 K1 In base units: J kg1 K1 = N m kg1 K1 = kg m s2 m kg1 K1 = m2 s2 K1 2 See second experiment on page 52 Precautions: lagging, good thermal contact of block with heater and thermometer, measure maximum temperature reached after heater turned off Calculation: energy absorbed by block = mass specific heat capacity temperature rise Energy supplied = potential difference current time = VIt Specific heat capacity c = VIt/(mass temperature rise) 3 Energy supplied = VIt = V2t/R = (5.0 V)2 60 s/(25 ) = 60 J mcT = 60 J T = 60 J/(mc) = 60 J/(0.030 kg 380 J kg1 K1) = 5.3 K 4 Kinetic energy dissipated = mcT = 101 250 J T = 101 250 J/(mc) = 101 250 J/(2.8 kg 460 J kg1 K1) = 78.6 K = 79 K

Either perform second experiment on page 52, or

1 2

mv2 =

1 4

1 2

Place a known mass M of water at a measured temperature 1 in a calorimeter of known mass m Increase temperature of disc to a known temperature (e.g. 100 C using boiling water) Quickly dry and transfer hot disc to water in calorimeter Measure maximum final temperature 2 of liquid Energy lost by disc = energy gained by water and calorimeter Specific heat capacity of disc = [M cwater (2 1)] + [m ccalorimeter (2 2)]/ [mass of disc (100 2)] NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 Atomic masses mA: Aluminium = 4.5 1026 kg Copper = 1.1 1025 kg Iron = 9.3 1026 kg Lead = 3.5 1025 kg If c 1/mA then cmA = constant: For aluminium, 880 J kg1 K1 4.5 1026 kg = 4.0 1023 J K1 For copper, 380 J kg1 K1 1.1 1025 kg = 4.2 1023 J K1 For iron, 450 J kg1 K1 9.3 1026 kg = 4.2 1023 J K1 For lead, 130 J kg1 K1 3.5 1025 kg = 4.6 1023 J K1 Since the products are all approximately the same, c 1/mA

Number of atoms determines energy required Larger atomic masses result in fewer atoms in each kilogram of substance Less energy required to raise temperature of fewer atoms by 1 K

Concrete can be raised through a much higher temperature than water and so store more energy per kilogram Concrete is cheap and safe to use (best not to use water with electric storage heaters!)

Chapter 26

1 See experiment on page 54 Precautions: lag the cylinder; make sure heater is fully immersed Calculation: energy used to vaporise water = mass of water vaporised specific latent heat of vaporisation Energy supplied = potential difference current time = VIt Specific latent heat of vaporisation L = VIt/(mass of water vaporised) 2 Energy required = mL = 0.016 kg 2.25 106 J kg1 = 36 000 J Minimum power = energy/time = 36 000 J/(60 s) = 600 W Actual power will be greater to compensate for energy transferred to the surroundings by radiation, convection and conduction 3 Power of kettle = VI = 230 V 8 A = 1840 W Energy required to heat water = mcT = 0.6 kg 4200 J kg1 K1 (100 15) K = 214 200 J Energy required to heat kettle = 350 J C1 (100 15) C = 29 750 J Time taken = total energy required/power = (214 200 + 29 750) J/(1840 W) = 132.6 s = 130 s Energy supplied by kettle in two minutes = 1840 W 120 s = 220 800 J Mass of water vaporised = energy supplied/latent heat = 220 800 J/(2.25 106 J kg1) = 0.098 kg Mass of water remaining in kettle = (600 98) g = 502 g = 500 g 4 (a) Energy given out by water = mcT = 0.284 kg 4200 J kg1 K1 22 K = 26 200 J

mL = 26 200 J mass of ice that melts = 26 200 J/L = 26 200 J/(330 103 J kg1) = 0.080 kg

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

5

610 608 Temperature/K 606 604 602 600 598 596 594 592 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Time/s

The lead has solidified (a) Energy lost by solid lead = mcT = 3 kg 130 J kg1 K1 6 K = 2340 J Rate of energy loss = energy loss/time = 2340 J/(10 s) = 234 J s1 (or W) (b) Energy loss in 5 minutes = 234 J s1 (5 60) s = 70 200 J mL = 70 200 J Specific latent heat of fusion of lead = 70 200 J/m = 70 200 J/(3 kg) = 23 400 J kg1 (c) Energy loss in 16 s = 234 J s1 16 s = 3744 J mcT = 3744 J Specific heat capacity of molten lead = 3744 J/mT = 3744 J/(3 kg 8 K) = 156 J kg1 K1

Chapter 27

1 Working involves a moving force Heating involves a temperature difference Mechanical working: force squashes material and does mechanical work Fx Electrical working: power supply forces electrons through material and does electrical work VIt 2 KE =

1 2

mv2 =

1 2

Lead is soft compared with the hammer head and yields under the hammer blows Mechanical work is done on the lead as the force compresses it The leads internal energy rises (The lead is now able to heat the hammer head as it is at a higher temperature but the two are in contact only for a short period so little energy is transferred) Total energy from 50 blows = 33.75 J 50 = 1690 J = 1700 J mcT = 1690 J Temperature rise = 1690 J/mc = 1690 J/(0.15 kg 130 J kg1 K1) = 87 K 3 Heating is the transfer of energy through a temperature difference from hot to cold The hot lamp can heat the cold cell but not vice versa The cold cell is forcing electrons to move through the hot lamp, an example of electrical working NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 Electrical work done = VIt = 0.12 V 3.5 A 30 s = 12.6 J = 13 J I = nAqv v = I/nAq = 3.5 A/(1.7 1029 m3 1.0 106 m2 1.6 1019 C) = 1.29 104 m s1 = 0.13 mm s1 x = vt = 1.29 104 m s1 30 s = 3.9 103 m = 3.9 mm Work done = Fx = 12.6 J F = 12.6 J/x = 12.6 J/(3.9 103 m) = 3264 N = 3300 N 5 Electric mains supply forces electrons to move through the fire The mains supply does electrical work on the electrons The electrons then transfer their energy by collisions to the lattice of the heating element The mains supply cannot heat the electric fire since it is at a lower temperature than the fire Some energy will radiate into the room from the glowing element but convection currents will carry most of it around the room

Chapter 28

1 U: increase in the internal energy of the system Q: energy transferred to the system by heating W: energy transferred to the system by working Conservation of energy 2 Q = 0 either when the system is thermally isolated or when the system is at the same temperature as its surroundings Thermos flasks do not completely isolate their contents from the surroundings Some energy will always flow through either the walls or the lid It is impossible to produce a completely isolated system 4 U = 0 The filament has reached a steady temperature W = Pt = 24 W 5 s = 120 J The power supply is working on the filament Q = U W = 0 120 J = 120 J The filament is heating the surroundings 5 U = Q + W When a gas rapidly expands, Q = 0 as there is insufficient time for energy to enter or leave the system so U = W As the gas is doing work on its surroundings, W is negative so U is also negative The temperature of a rapidly expanding gas decreases

Unit 2

Electricity and Thermal Physics

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 29

1 Heat engine: a device that takes energy from a hot source, uses some of this to do mechanical work, and gives the rest to a cold sink See Figure 29.1 on page 60 2 Efficiency = useful output/input Power of light emitted = (2/100) 60 W = 1.2 W The other 58.8 W increases the internal energy of the surroundings 3 Make source temperature very high and sink temperature very low Maximum efficiency = 1 T2/T1 = 1 300 K/(673 K) = 0.55 4 In a heat pump, work is done to force energy to flow from cold to hot In a heat engine, energy flowing from hot to cold is used to do work Heat pumps are used in refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners 5 Maximum efficiency = 1 3 K/(5 000 000 K) = 0.999 999 4 Eventually, the Suns temperature will decrease greatly (and that of the Universe will increase slightly)

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 1

1 Constant velocity means a constant speed in a constant direction (a straight line) along a circular path, the direction is changing so the velocity will change By changing its direction Accelerating means that the objects velocity is changing Velocity is a vector quantity, involving both size (speed) and direction so a change in velocity involves either a change in speed or a change in direction (as in this case) 3 Direction of velocity is along a tangent Velocity is constantly changing direction as the object follows a circular path Acceleration is defined as a change in velocity; so object is accelerating Change in velocity, and therefore acceleration, is towards the centre of the circle 4 (a) The gravitational pull of the Earth on the Moon (b) Friction between you and the surface of the roundabout (c) Friction between the tyres and the road surface (d) Normal contact force of seat on you 5 Work done = force distance moved in the direction of the force A centripetal force is directed towards the centre of the circular path All movement occurs perpendicular to this force so distance moved in direction of force is zero Work done = centripetal force 0 = 0

Chapter 2

1 Left-hand side Right-hand side F in N = kg m s2 m in kg v in m s1 v 2 in (m s1)2 = m2 s2 r in m So 2 mv2/r in kg m2 s2 m1 = kg m s2 = same as left-hand side and homogeneous

(a) a = v2/r = (7 m s1)2/(2 m) = 24.5 m s2 towards the centre of the circle (b) F = ma = 0.5 kg 24.5 m s2 = 12.25 N (c) Work done = 0 J No work is done since no component of the tension acts in the direction of motion

Period is the time for one complete rotation, measured in seconds Frequency is the number of complete rotations each second, measured in hertz Angular speed is the rate at which the central angle changes each second, measured in radians per second

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 108 km h1 = 108 000 m h1/(60 60 s h1) = 30 m s1 Angular speed w = v/r = 30 m s1/(1000 m) = 0.03 rad s1 Acceleration a = v2/r = (30 m s1)2/(1000 m) = 0.9 m s2 5 (a) Length of tape = speed time = 0.048 m s1 (45 60) s = 129.6 m = 130 m (b) w = v/r wA = 0.048 m s1/(0.0255 m) = 1.88 rad s1 = 1.9 rad s1 wB = 0.048 m s1/(0.0105 m) = 4.57 rad s1 = 4.6 rad s1 (c) As the tape plays, wA increases while wB decreases

Chapter 3

1 At bottom of vertical circular path: tension in the string provides the centripetal force and supports the weight so tension is a maximum At top of vertical path: the weight helps to provide the centripetal force and the tension is less 2 (a) Tbottom Ttop = 2mg = 7 N 1 N = 6 N Weight = mg = 6 N/2 = 3 N (b) m = 3 N/g = 3 N/(9.81 N kg1) = 0.30 kg (c) Centripetal force = 4 N = mv2/r v = [4 N r/m] = [4 N 0.7 m/(0.30 kg)] = 3.0 m s1 3 Fishing line breaks when body is at bottom of vertical circular path At this point, tension Tmax = mv2/r + mg 15 N = mv2/r + 6 N so mv2/r = 9 N v 2 = 9 N 0.30 m/(6 N 9.81 N kg1) = 4.41 m2 s2 v = (4.41 m2 s2) = 2.1 m s1 4 To be weightless, a body must be in deep space with no gravitational forces acting on it, whereas a body in free fall experiences no upward forces and therefore can be considered to be weightless Free-body force diagram:

30 Tension T

Weight

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

(a) For vertical equilibrium: Force up = force down T cos 30 = mg so T = mg/(cos 30) = 0.51 kg 9.81 N kg1/(cos 30) = 5.8 N (b) Only one force component acts horizontally, T sin 30 this provides the centripetal force for a circular motion Radius of circle = 0.6 m sin 30 = 0.3 m (found using radius) T sin 30 = mv2/r so v = [rT sin 30/m] = [0.3 m 5.8 N sin 30/0.51 kg] = 1.3 m s1 (c) Period T = 2r/v = 2 0.3 m/(1.3 m s1) = 1.45 s

Chapter 4

1 The swing of a pendulum is regular The swings of a particular pendulum always take the same time (its period) Two other clock mechanisms: a mass/spring system and a quartz crystal (atomic oscillations) 2 Equilibrium position: where the resultant force on the oscillating body is zero Displacement: how far, and in what direction, the oscillating body is from its equilibrium position Amplitude: maximum displacement 3 E.g. place a card on the glider perpendicular to its direction of travel (like a sail) Use a motion sensor, connected to a data-logger, at one end of the air track to monitor positions of the glider on the track Data-logger sends position data to computer that plots time trace Take centre of air track as zero displacement:

Displacement

Time

4 5

Period T = 1/f = 1/(160 Hz) = 0.063 s Amplitude = 0.15 m 1 2 cycles occur each second, frequency = 1.5 Hz Body has zero speed when at maximum displacement in either direction

1

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

0.15 Displacement /m

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Time/s 2.5

Chapter 5

1 SHM: motion where the acceleration (or force) is directly proportional to the displacement from a fixed point and always directed towards that point Graph shows that F x

Force

Displacement

(a) Zero velocity at A and C (b) Zero acceleration at B (c) Maximum velocity to the right at B (d) Maximum acceleration to the left at C (e) Maximum kinetic energy at B

4 5

See Figure 5.4 on page 11 (i) k = F/e = 800 103 kg 9.81 N kg1/(4.0 102 m) = 196.2 N m1 = 200 N m1 (ii) = (k/m) = [196.2 N m1/(800 103 kg)] = (245 s2) = 15.66 rad s1 = 16 rad s1 (iii) T = 2/ = 2/(15.66 rad s1) = 0.40 s

Chapter 6

1 Amplitude = 8 cm

t = 4t

so

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

2

8 cm Displacement

0 Time /s

8 cm

Velocity

0 Time /s

Acceleration

0 Time /s

vmax = x0 = 4 rad s1 0.08 m = 1.01 m s1 amax = 2x0 = (4 rad s1)2 0.08 m = 12.6 m s2 3

Displacement (in cm) Velocity (in cm s1) Acceleration (in cm s2) x = x0 cos t = 12 cos 2t v = x0 sin t = 24 sin 2t a = 2x0 cos t = 48 cos 2t

Oscillations are in phase when they are exactly in step with each other The phase angle between their oscillations is zero Oscillations are in antiphase when they are completely out of step with each other The phase angle between their oscillations is radians (180) Their frequencies must be identical

(a) See Figure 6.6 on page 13 (b) See Figure 6.5 on page 13 Diagram showing both runners at same point on track

Chapter 7

1 Left-hand side Right-hand side T in s 2 has no units m in kg k in N m1 = kg m s2 m1 = kg s2 So m/k in kg (kg s2)1 = kg kg1 s2 = s2 and (m/k) in s2 = s = same as left-hand side and homogeneous

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 Let the spring constant of each spring be k T = 2 (m/k) 1/ k (a) 4 springs in series will have a spring constant of 4 k 1/ 4 = 1/ 2 = 2 So new period = 2 old = 2 2.4 s = 4.8 s (b) 4 springs in parallel will have a spring constant of 4k 1/4 =

1 2 1 1 1

So new period = 3 4

1 2

old =

1 2

2.4 s = 1.2 s

T = 2(l/g) = 2 [35 102 m/(9.81 m s2)] = 2 (0.0357 s2) = 2 0.189 s = 1.2 s Measure 20T for a measured length l Repeat and calculate an average value for T Change and measure l and repeat measurements of 20T to find average T for this new length Continue to get at least 6 corresponding values for l and T Plot a graph of T 2 against l Since T 2 = 4 2l/g Graph will be a straight line through the origin with gradient = 42/g So g = 42/gradient

A clock requires a regular repeating motion The period must remain constant even when the amplitude changes If amplitude is halved, body must travel half the distance in the same time, so its average speed is halved Thus its average acceleration is also halved So a ()x, a condition satisfied by simple harmonic motion

Chapter 8

1 Energy changes continually from potential to kinetic and back to potential at the ends the trolley is momentarily at rest and has no kinetic energy Maximum elastic potential energy is stored in the stretched and compressed springs In the centre the trolley is moving fastest and has maximum kinetic energy The stored elastic potential energy is at a minimum The energy has transferred into internal energy and sound 2 (a) Graph similar to the lower one in Figure 8.2 on page 16 but going on for twice as long i.e. showing two complete cycles (b) Graph identical to that in Figure 8.3 on page 17

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

3 Potential energy given to system = 2 kx2 = Kinetic energy of mass at centre = 0.8 J

1 2 2 mvmax = 0.8 J vmax2 = 2 0.8 J/(600 103 kg) = vmax = (2.67 m2 s2) = 1.6 m s1 1 Using an average speed of 2 1.6 1 1 2

2.67 m2 s2 m s1 = 0.8 m s1

T = total distance travelled in one oscillation/ average speed = 4 8 102 m/(0.8 m s1) = 0.39 s T = 2(m/k) = 2[600 103 kg/(250 N m1)] = 0.31 s Comment: e.g. since speed varies sinusoidally, average speed is greater than 2 vmax so time taken is less 4 As the mass rises: its gravitational potential energy increases continually the elastic potential energy in the spring decreases continually its kinetic energy increases from zero to a maximum half-way up and then decreases to zero at the top 5 For spring, k = F/e = 0.40 kg 9.81 N kg1/(0.06 m) = 65.4 N m1 Elastic potential energy at bottom = 2 kx2 = Elastic potential energy at mid-point =

1 1 2 2 kx 1 2 1

1 2

Gravitational potential energy at mid-point (taking zero at bottom) = mgh = 0.40 kg 9.81 N kg1 0.06 m = 0.235 J Kinetic energy at mid-point = 0.471 J (0.118 J + 0.235 J) = 0.118 J

Chapter 9

1 2 The frequency at which a free-standing system oscillates after it has been displaced and then released Left-hand side Right-hand side f in s1 1/2 has no units g in m s2 L in m so and g /L in m s2 m1 = s2 (g /L) in s2 = s1 = same as left-hand side and homogeneous

f 2 = g/42L L = g/42f 2 = 9.81 m s2/[4 2 (1 s1)2] = 0.248 m 3 Oscillator vibrates at forcing frequency When this is below or above its natural frequency, the amplitude is low When this is equal to its natural frequency, the amplitude can be much higher This high amplitude response is known as resonance Resonance is the large-amplitude oscillations that arise as a result of an oscillatory system being driven at a frequency equal to its natural frequency NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 The rear-view mirror oscillates on the end of its metal support It has a natural frequency that depends on its mass and stiffness and length of the support Rotation of engine forces mirror to oscillate at different frequencies Resonance occurs when engine frequency equals mirrors natural frequency Large amplitude oscillations result and blurring of the image occurs To overcome problem, need to change the natural frequency of the mirror either by changing its mass or its support system 5 T = 2(m/k) k = 42m/ T 2 = 42 (25 + 35) kg/(2 s)2 = 590 N m1 Uneven distribution of load in rotating inner drum produces forced oscillations of the whole system Maximum amplitude of oscillation achieved when system driven at its natural frequency fnatural = 1/T = 1/(2 s) = 0.5 Hz or 30 min1

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0 10 20 30 40 Inner drum frequency/min1 50 60

Without the block of concrete: resonant frequency higher as f 1/m [T m] resonant amplitude larger as energy transferred into smaller mass

Chapter 10

1 Use a similar set-up to that in Figure 10.1 on page 20 but without the dipper and with the motordriven beam lowered into the waters surface to produce the continuous plane waves Change frequency by varying the speed at which the motor on the beam vibrates Freeze wave motion using a stroboscope and measure as many wavelengths as possible Divide length by number to get wavelength Find the average time taken by a wave to cover a measured distance Divide distance by average time to get wave speed

Amplitude of oscillations/cm

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 A progressive wave (or travelling wave) is a disturbance that transfers energy away from its source Amplitude decreases with distance from source since energy is spread out over a larger area Energy absorbed by material along the path taken 3 Energy flux: the energy that a wave carries perpendicularly through unit area each second Inverse square law: when a quantity decreases in proportion to the square of the increasing distance E.g. distance 2, quantity distance 3, quantity

1 4 1 9

Energy leaving uniformly from a point source spreads out evenly over the surface of a sphere Applying the principle of energy conservation, Energy flux surface area of sphere = total power emitted Energy flux = total power emitted/(4r2) 1/r2 and therefore an inverse square law 4 If energy flux obeys an inverse square law, a graph of energy flux against 1/distance2 should be a straight line passing through the origin Distance/m Energy flux/W 1/(distance)2

3.0 2.5 Energy flux / W m2 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0 1.0 2.0 1/(Distance) /m

2 2

3.0

4.0

Either since

= P/4r2

gradient of graph = P/4 gradient = 2.56 W m2/(4 m2) = 0.64 W P = 4 gradient = 4 0.64 W = 8.04 W Or using P = 4r2 when r = 0.50 m when r = 1.00 m when r = 1.50 m when r = 2.00 m when r = 2.50 m when r = 3.00 m P = 2.56 W m2 4(0.50 m)2 = 8.04 W P = 0.64 W m2 4(1.00 m)2 = 8.04 W P = 0.28 W m2 4(1.50 m)2 = 7.92 W P = 0.16 W m2 4(2.00 m)2 = 8.04 W P = 0.10 W m2 4(2.50 m)2 = 7.85 W P = 0.07 W m2 4(3.00 m)2 = 7.92 W NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Lamp transfers only a small amount of its input energy into light Most of the input energy transferred into internal energy Actual power of lamp includes both transfers

= P/4r2

P = 4r2 = 1.4 103 W m2 4(1.49 1011 m)2 = 3.91 1026 W

Chapter 11

1 Displacements of longitudinal waves are parallel to direction of wave travel while those of transverse waves are perpendicular to it Observe movement of candle flame in front of a loudspeaker emitting a low frequency as shown in Figure 10.2 on page 20 In an unpolarised wave, the vibrations occur in a large number of planes perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation In a plane polarised wave, the vibrations are confined to a single planes perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation Visible light and microwaves are transverse waves so can be polarised Sound is a longitudinal wave so cannot be polarised 4 The microwave beam is polarised In one orientation, the metal rods absorb the microwave energy (when they are parallel to the microwaves oscillating electric field) and only a low signal is received When turned through 90, little energy is absorbed by the metal rods and a much larger signal is received So as the grille is rotated, the received amplitude falls and rises twice per rotation 5 View reflected light through a rotating single Polaroid filter; if it is polarised, transmitted intensity will vary twice per rotation

Chapter 12

1 Speed of light is greater than the speed of sound Assuming light reaches her instantaneously Distance = vt = 330 m s1 0.8 s = 264 m Extra distance travelled by echo = 330 m s1 2.4 s = 792 m But this is to the hill and back to the woodcutter So the hill is 2

Trace B Second trace as pulse takes longer to travel the greater distance Smaller trace as pulse dissipates more energy over the greater distance

1 2

A to B = 3 divisions = 3 20 ns = 60 ns

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Extra distance travelled by light = vt = 3 108 m s1 60 109 s = 18 m But this is twice the distance moved by the mirror So the mirror was moved 3

1 2

18 m = 9 m

Wavefront: a line joining all points across adjacent rays that have exactly the same phase Wavelength: the minimum distance between two in-phase points on a wave

1

Displacement of A

25

88

50

75 Time/ms

100

A and B are in phase; A and C (or B and C) are out of phase 5 (a) Frequency f = c/ = 330 m s1/(8.5 102 m) = 3900 Hz (b) Number of waves in 20 ms = 3900 Hz 20 103 s = 77(.6) waves (c) Length of wave train = ct = 330 m s1 6.5 s = 2100 m

Chapter 13

1 Diffraction: the spreading out of a wave as it passes through an aperture Amount of diffraction occurring depends on wavelength Wavelength of light is much less than that of microwaves so light diffracts much less than microwaves 2 Wavelength of red light is greater than that of blue light Bass (low frequency) sounds have a longer wavelength that treble (high frequency) sounds so bass sounds will diffract the most

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

3

The central fringe is twice as wide as the others and much brighter 4 See experiment at top of page 27 Law more difficult to test for microwaves since it is impossible to get a narrow beam of microwaves because of diffraction and, unlike light, you cannot see the path that microwaves follow For sound waves: Tape a loudspeaker connected to a signal generator to a long cardboard tube Tape a microphone connected to an oscilloscope to another long cardboard tube Use loudspeaker tube to direct sound waves towards a reflector at a measured incident angle Vary position of microphone tube until maximum signal is detected Measure angle of reflection and compare with angle of incidence Repeat for different incident angles 5

A

Note:

3 4

wavelength reduces to

21

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 14

1 See experiment at top of page 28 Use differently shaped pulses to tell whether they pass through or reflect from each other 2

resultant displacement = 1 + 2 = 3 resultant displacement = 1 + 1.5 = 0.5 resultant displacement = 1 + 1 = 0 resultant displacement = 1 + 0.5 = 1.5

Principle of superposition: the resultant displacement at any point is equal to the vector sum of the displacements of the individual waves at that point at that instant Constructive superposition is the combination of waves that are in-phase, producing a wave of increased amplitude Destructive superposition is the combination of waves that are out-of-phase, producing a wave of reduced amplitude

Coherent sources: sources that, in addition to having identical frequencies, always maintain a constant phase relationship with each other Having different frequencies results in waves being emitted with a continually changing phase relationship; the amplitude at any given point on the superposition pattern varies from maximum to minimum with this changing phase: the pattern varies with time

Chapter 15

1 0 rad corresponds to 0 /2 rad corresponds to 4 rad corresponds to 2 2 rad corresponds to

1 1

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 The loudspeakers are emitting out-of-phase sound waves They are connected such that the cone of one moves forwards when that of the other moves backwards Reverse the connections to one of the loudspeakers to get a central maximum 3 Place a double-slit arrangement in front of the single source Each slit acts as a separate coherent source 4 Using Pythagoras theorem S2P = [(110 cm)2 + (66 cm + 14 cm)2] = (18 500 cm2) = 136.0 cm S1P = [(110 cm)2 + (66 cm 14 cm)2] = (14 804 cm2) = 121.7 cm Path difference = 136.0 cm 121.7 cm = 14.3 cm For 3rd maximum, path difference = 3 Wavelength = 14.3 cm/3 = 4.8 cm 5 Waves will be coherent since they come from a single coherent source Distance travelled along top path = 2 [(15 cm)2 + (7 cm)2] = 33.1 cm Distance travelled along bottom path = 2 [(15 cm)2 + (10 cm)2] = 36.1 cm Path difference = 36.1 cm 33.1 cm = 3.0 cm 2.9 cm = Since path difference is 1 wavelength, received signal is a maximum

Chapter 16

1 Random bursts of unrelated light leave the different parts of the filament at various times so the filament produces incoherent light Single slit limits light used to small part of filament Light used is far more coherent A laser produces coherent light so a single slit is not required 2 Monochromatic: a single frequency (or wavelength) See Figure 16.3 on page 33 3 See Figure 16.4 on page 33 Double-slit pattern: all fringes are the same width Single-slit pattern: central fringe is twice the width of the others Using white light, the differently coloured fringes occur at different separations and may overlap See Figure 16.5 on page 33 4

= xs/D

s = D/x = 680 109 m 1.8 m/(3.2 103 m) = 3.8 10 4 m = 0.38 mm

= xs/D

x = D/s = 550 109 m 2 m/(0.25 103 m) = 4.4 103 m

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 17

1 Stationary wave: a disturbance that does not transfer energy although it does have energy associated with it Conditions: two waves with identical frequency and amplitude, moving in opposite directions 2 Node: a point on a stationary wave where the displacement is always zero Antinode: a point on a stationary wave that oscillates with the maximum amplitude Nodes: at any given moment, the two displacements are equal and opposite (out-of-phase); resulting displacement is always zero Antinodes: at any given moment, the two displacements are equal (in-phase); Resulting displacement varies from zero to twice the amplitude of the individual waves; position of maximum oscillation 3 Fundamental frequency: the lowest frequency at which a stationary wave occurs for a given system Left-hand side Right-hand side f in s1

1 2

has no units

l in m T in N = kg m s2

in kg m1

So and and T/ in kg m s2 kg1 m = m2 s2 (T/) in m2 s2 = m s1 1/l (T/) in m1 m s1 = s1 = same as left-hand side and homogeneous

Tension increased by a factor of 160/40 = 4 Fundamental frequency increases by a factor of 4 = 2 Fundamental frequency doubles when tension quadruples

A progressive wave conveys energy in the direction of travel A stationary wave does not convey any energy Along a progressive wave, adjacent points oscillate with a slight phase difference; only points that are exactly one wavelength apart oscillate in phase Along a stationary wave, the set of points between adjacent nodes oscillate in phase with each other and out of phase with all those in adjacent sets

Separation of nodes = / 2 = 0.39 m/2 = 0.19 m

T = 1/f = 1/(5 Hz) = 0.2 s

So microphone takes 0.2 s to move 0.19 m between antinodes Microphones speed = distance/time = 0.19 m/(0.2 s) = 0.97 m s1

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 18

1 Photoelectric emission: emission of electrons from a surface when illuminated with electromagnetic radiation of sufficient frequency See experiment on page 38 2 Threshold frequency: minimum frequency that will cause photoelectric emission from a material c = f

3 The larger the wavelength, the lower the photons energy No emission occurs when photon energy is less than the work function Electrons gain energy from an increase in temperature so less energy then required to remove them from the surface (smaller work function) Less energy corresponds to a longer wavelength 4 Photon: a small packet of electromagnetic energy; the smallest amount of light you can get at a given frequency (a) Both produce photons with identical energy but the bright source produces more photons each second than the dim source (b) Visible source produces lower energy photons than the ultra-violet source, although it produces them at a greater rate to achieve the same intensity 5 Work function: minimum amount of energy needed to release an electron from the surface of a metal Ultra-violet photon energy is greater than zincs work function so electrons are released Visible photon energy is smaller than zincs work function so no electrons are released Its the individual photon energy that matters, not how many there are

Chapter 19

1 Kinetic energy of freed electron = photon energy energy required to remove electron Surface electrons are the easiest to remove so have greatest kinetic energy and move the fastest 2 See experiment on page 40 Measure the voltage VS needed just to stop their emission Energy = eVS 3 where e = 1.6 1019 C

Photon energy = hf = hc/ so hc/ = + maximum kinetic energy and maximum kinetic energy = hc/ Maximum kinetic energy/1019 J Incident wavelength/107 m (1/incident wavelength)/106 m1 3.26 3.00 3.33 2.56 3.33 3.00 1.92 3.75 2.67 1.25 4.29 2.33 0.58 5.00 2.00

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Maximum kinetic energy/1019J 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 (1/Incident wavelength)/106 m1

Gradient of graph = hc hc = (3.26 0.58) 1019 J/[(3.33 2.00) 106 m1] = 2.02 1025 J m h = 2.02 1025 J m/c = 2.02 1025 J m/(3.00 108 m s1) = 6.72 1034 J s Intercept of graph = = 3.4 1019 J

= 3.4 1019 J

4 Maximum kinetic energy = (hc/) = [6.6 1034 J s 3 108 m s1/(319 109 m)] 3.78 1019 J = 6.21 1019 J 3.78 1019 J = 2.43 1019 J eVS = 2.43 1019 J VS = 2.43 1019 J/(1.6 1019 C) = 1.52 V 5 Maximum kinetic energy = (hc/) Situation 1: 2.4 1019 J = [6.6 1034 J s 3 108 m s1/(500 109 m)]

Situation 2: 9.0 1019 J = (6.6 1034 J s 3 108 m s1/) 1.56 1019 J 6.6 1034 J s 3 108 m s1/ = 9.0 1019 J + 1.56 1019 J = 1.056 1018 J

Chapter 20

1 Electronvolt: the energy transferred to an electron when it moves through a potential difference of 1 V; 1 eV is equivalent to 1.6 1019 J E = hc/ = 6.6 1034 J s 3 108 m s1/(253 109 m) = 7.83 1019 J = 7.83 1019 J/(1.6 1019 J eV1) = 4.89 eV 2

hc/ = 2.24 1019 J

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

3

Photon energy = hc/ = 6.6 1034 J s 3 108 m s1/(0.4 106 m) = 4.95 1019 J

Maximum kinetic energy = photon energy = 4.95 1019 J 3.14 1019 J = 1.81 1019 J

1 2 19 J 2 mvmax = 1.81 10 vmax2 = 2 1.81 1019 J/(9.1 1031 vmax = (3.99 1011 m2 s2) = 6.31

(a) The intensity (b) The photon frequency and the materials work function

Photon energy = hc/ = 6.6 1034 J s 3 108 m s1/(250 109 m) = 7.92 1019 J In electronvolts, photon energy = 7.92 1019 J/(1.6 1019 J eV1) = 4.95 eV Maximum kinetic energy = photon energy = 4.95 eV 0.88 eV = 4.07 eV So stopping voltage = 4.07 V

Photon energy increases with frequency (E = hf ) Maximum kinetic energy increases with photon energy (maximum kinetic energy = hf f ) A greater potential difference is needed to stop these more energetic electrons

Chapter 21

1 Ionisation energy: the energy required to completely free a ground state electron from its atom Ground state: the condition of an atom where all its electrons are in their lowest energy positions Excited state: the condition of an atom with one or more of its electrons raised above their groundstate positions Energy needed = 10.4 eV 5.5 eV = 4.9 eV = 7.84 1019 J 2 Minimum kinetic energy = 5.14 eV

1 19 J eV1 = 8.22 1019 J 2 2 mvmin = = 5.14 eV 1.6 10 vmin2 = 2 8.22 1019 J/(9.1 1031 kg) = 1.81 1012 m2 s2 vmin = (1.81 1012 m2 s2) = 1.34 106 m s1

This wavelength is in the visible region 4 Emission spectrum: the range of frequencies emitted by de-exciting atoms Left-hand side so n in m sin has no units N in m1 so (sin )/N in 1/m1 = m = same as left-hand side and homogeneous See experiment on page 45 NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd. n has no units

in m

Right-hand side

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 Bohr model: electrons in discrete orbits Each orbit has an associated energy state Schrdinger model: electrons form stationary waves inside the atom Different modes (number of loops) of the stationary wave account for the different energy states

Chapter 22

1 2 They are polarised and, therefore, must be transverse (a) Microwaves (b) Infra-red (c) Ultra-violet (d) X-rays Wavelength decreases from left-to-right (a) 3 cm microwaves (b) 600 nm visible 3 Using c = f where c = 3.00 108 m s1 (a) = c/f = 3.00 108 m s1/(200 103 Hz) = 1500 m (b) f = c/ = 3.00 108 m s1/(3.24 m) = 9.26 107 Hz = 92.6 MHz (c) = c/f = 3.00 108 m s1/(0.516 109 Hz) = 0.581 m 4 E = hf = 6.6 1034 J s 909 103 Hz = 6.0 1028 J Number of photons leaving each second = power/E = 12 103 W/(6.0 1028 J) = 2.0 1031 s1 Photons spread out over an area 4r2 = 4 (20 103 m)2 = 5.0 109 m2 Density of photons reaching aerial each second = 2.0 1031 s1/(5.0 109 m2) = 4.0 1021 s1 m2 Number incident on aerial each second = 4.0 1021 s1 m2 0.01 m2 = 4.0 1019 s1 5

min = c/fmax = 3 108 m s1/(1021 Hz) = 3 1013 m max = c/fmin = 3 108 m s1/(1017 Hz) = 3 109 m

Kinetic energy = 2 mv2 = hf = 2.41 1016 J f = 2.41 1016 J/(6.6 1034 J s) = 3.65 1017 Hz

1 1 2

Chapter 23

1 Light displays a wave nature when diffracting and forming superposition patterns, but a particle nature when behaving as photons (packets of energy) and releasing photoelectrons Electrons have a set charge and mass and experience forces and accelerations like all other particles, but high-speed electrons display a wave nature when diffracting through the atomic planes of graphite

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 When accelerated through 1500 V an electron gains 1500 eV of energy , 1500 eV = 1500 eV 1.6 1019 J eV1 = 2.4 1016 J

1 2 16 J 2 mv = 2.4 10 v 2 = 2 2.4 1016 J/(9.1

v = (5.27 1014 m2 s2) = 2.3 107 m s1 Momentum p = mv = 9.1 1031 kg 2.3 107 m s1 = 2.1 1023 kg m s1 de Broglie wavelength = h/p = 6.6 1034 J s/(2.1 1023 kg m s1) = 3.2 1011 m 3 n = (sin )/N (See question 21.4)

Spacing = 1/N = n/sin = 1 3.2 1011 m/(sin 12) = 1.5 1010 m Spacing achieved using an atomic grating (as in graphite experiment on page 49) 4

Sketch showing a number of concentric rings around a central spot Constructive interference where rings and circle appear Destructive interference in spaces between rings

With a larger accelerating voltage, the electrons will reach a greater speed v These faster electrons will have a greater momentum p (= mv) and a shorter de Broglie wavelength (= h/p) so therefore diffract less The diameter of the rings on the screen decreases; the ring pattern closes up 5

Using = h/p where p = mass velocity

(a) p = 60 kg 2 m s1 = 120 kg m s1 = h/p = 6.6 1034 J s/(120 kg m s1) = 5.5 1036 m (b) p = 7 kg 3 103 m s1 = 2.1 102 kg m s1 = h/p = 6.6 1034 J s/(2.1 102 kg m s1) = 3.1 1032 m (c) p = 9.1 1031 kg 6 107 m s1 = 5.5 1023 kg m s1 = h/p = 6.6 1034 J s/(5.5 1023 kg m s1) = 1.2 1011 m (d) p = 1 1015 kg 0.3 106 m s1 = 3 1022 kg m s1 = h/p = 6.6 1034 J s/(3 1022 kg m s1) = 2.2 1012 m

Electrons wavelength is similar to the lattice spacing while both student wavelengths are very much shorter than the width of the doorway Bacterium wavelength much shorter than length so no diffraction expected

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 24

1 When an electron falls to a lower energy level in an atom, a photon is released Falls between different levels release photons with different frequencies This series of discrete frequencies is an emission spectrum An electron will move up to a higher energy level when its atom absorbs a photon of the required energy Promotions between different levels absorb photons with different frequencies (energies) When white light passes through a gas, certain photons are absorbed and these are missing from the transmitted light This series of discrete missing frequencies is an absorption spectrum For a given element, the frequencies missing from its absorption spectrum correspond to those present in its emission spectrum 2 Doppler effect: the apparent change of frequency of a wave observed when there is relative motion between the observer and the waves source Red shift of light from galaxies The apparent decrease in the lights frequency shows that these galaxies are moving away from us As an ambulance approaches, its sirens frequency appears higher than it actually is as it moves away, the frequency appears lower 3

Since moving away, wavelength will appear to be longer Apparent wavelength = 410.2 nm + 16.4 nm = 426.6 nm

v = HD D = v/H = 1.2 107 m s1/(1.7 1018 s1) = 7.1 1024 m Time = distance/speed t = 7.1 1024 m/(1.2 107 m s1) = 4.2 1017 s = 1.3 1010 years Value of H is uncertain Calculation of t assumes that the speed of the galaxy has not changed

A light year is the distance travelled by light in one year Distance = speed time Light year = 3 108 m s1 (365.25 24 3600) s = 9.47 1015 m

Chapter 25

1 The universe is currently expanding Gravitational forces oppose and slow down this expansion Whether or not the expansion can be halted and reversed depends on the average mass-energy density If greater than about 1026 kg m3, the universe will end up collapsing back in on itself If less, the universe will continue to expand

Unit 4

Waves and our Universe

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 Left-hand side Right-hand side

o in kg m3

3/8 has no units H in s1 H2 in (s1)2 = s2 G in N m2 kg2 = kg m s2 m2 kg2 = kg1 m3 s2 1/G in (kg1 m3 s2)1 = kg m3 s2

so

Value of H is uncertain 3 Density = mass/volume Assuming Earth is a sphere V = 4R3/3 = 4 (6400 103 m)3/3 = 1.1 1021 m3 r = M/V = 6 1024 kg/(1.1 1021 m3) = 5500 kg m3 So density of Earth is about 5.5 1029 times greater than the critical density of the universe 4 Visible matter is that which we can observe i.e. that in stars and galaxies Dark matter is all that which is non-visible and undetectable, including that of interstellar dust Dark matter makes up most of the mass of the universe

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 1

1 Mass is the amount of matter in a body Mass is a scalar quantity Weight is the gravitational force of attraction that the Earth exerts on the body Weight is a vector quantity 2

Spring balance pulls mass up

5 kg

Gravitational field: a region where a gravitational force is exerted on a mass Gravitational field strength: the force exerted by a gravitational field on each kilogram

The unit of gravitational field strength = N kg1 N kg1 = kg m s2 kg1 = m s2 = the unit of acceleration Acceleration of Moon = 0.0028 m s2 (Numerically the same as the Earths gravitational field strength at the Moons orbit)

Chapter 2

1 Newtons law of gravitation: the gravitational force between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation since F = GmM/r2 G = Fr2/(mM) so units of G = N m2/(kg kg) = N m2 kg2 in base units, N m2 kg2 = kg m s2 m2 kg2 = kg1 m3 s2 2 Mass of each sphere =

1 2

12 kg = 6 kg

Volume = mass/density = 6 kg/(11 400 kg m3) = 5.26 104 m3 4R3/3 = 5.26 104 m3 Radius R = 3(5.26 104 m3 3/4) = 0.05 m When touching, centre to centre separation r = 2 0.05 m = 0.1 m F = GmM/r2 = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 6 kg 6 kg/(0.1 m)2 = 2.4 107 N NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

3 The 75 g mass is attracted by both masses Using F = GmM/r2 Force towards 300 g mass = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 0.3 kg 0.075 kg/(0.2 m)2 = 3.75 1011 N Force towards 500 g mass = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 0.5 kg 0.075 kg/(0.2 m)2 = 6.25 1011 N Resultant force = (6.25 3.75) 1011 N = 2.50 1011 N towards the 500 g mass 4

Tension

Mass of Schiehallion = volume density = 1.6 109 m3 3000 kg m3 = 4.8 1012 kg Force of attraction = GmM/r2 = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 4.8 1012 kg 2 kg/(2 103 m)2 = 1.6 104 N Tension in string both supports the weight of the bob and opposes the attraction of the mountain: Vertical component = weight = 2 kg 9.8 N kg1 = 19.6 N Horizontal component = attraction to mountain = 1.6 104 N Angle from vertical : tan = opposite/adjacent = 1.6 104 N/(19.6 N) = 8.17 106

= 4.68 104

5 The force on the bob from the mountain is less (since mountains centre of mass actually further away) The force is also angled downwards Both of these result in a smaller horizontal force being exerted on the bob so it deflects through a smaller angle

Chapter 3

1

Satellite

The free fall acceleration of a satellite is also its centripetal acceleration This keeps the satellite on a circular path about the Earths centre

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Therefore the satellite remains a constant distance above the Earths surface The gravitational force always acts towards the centre of the circle This is at 90 to the satellites instantaneous tangential direction of motion The force therefore does not do any work No energy is transferred to or from the satellite Its kinetic energy and speed remain constant 2

(Period of orbit)2/1019 s2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1 (radius of orbit)3/1038 m3 1.5 2

Graph is a straight line passing through the origin so T 2 r 3 3 Comparing T 2 = (42/GM) r3 with the equation of a straight line y = mx + c shows that a graph of T 2 against r3 will be a straight line through the origin (c = 0) with a gradient (m) of 42/GM For the same central mass M, the value of 42/GM is a constant so gradient is constant for all bodies orbiting the same central mass Gradient = 6 1019 s2/(1.95 1038 m3) = 3.1 1019 s2 m3 42/GM = 3.1 1019 s2 m3 M = 42/(6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 3.1 1019 s2 m3) = 1.9 1030 kg 4 Centripetal acceleration r 2 = g

T = 2/ = 2/(1.24 103 rad s1) = 5080 s = 84.6 min 5 Geostationary satellite: orbits above the equator with a period of 24 h and so maintains the same position above the Earths surface

r3 2 = GM so r3 = GM/ 2 Since mass of Earth is 6.0 1024 kg r3 = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 6.0 1024 kg/(7.3 105 rad s1)2 r = 3(7.57 1022 m3) = 4.23 107 m Height above surface = (42.3 6.4) 106 m = 3.6 107 m

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 4

1 g = GM/r2 r2 = GM/g = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 6.0 1024 kg/(0.0028 N kg1) = 1.4 1017 m2 r = (1.4 1017 m2) = 3.8 108 m 2 Inverse square law: when a quantity decreases in proportion to the square of the increasing 1 1 1 1 distance e.g. if distance 2 then quantity ( 2 )2 (i.e. 4 ), if distance 3 then quantity ( 3 )2 (i.e. 9 ) Radius of satellite orbit = (9.6 + 6.4) 106 m = 16 106 m Ratio = 16 106 m/(6.4 106 m) = 2.5 : 1 Using the inverse square law Gravitational acceleration of satellite = 9.8 m s2/(2.52) = 1.57 m s2 Centripetal acceleration = 1.57 m s2 a = v 2/r

v = (ar) = (1.57 m s2 16 106 m) = 5009 m s1

T = 2r/v = 2 16 106 m/(5009 m s1) = 20 070 s = 5.6 h 4 At the surface g = GM/R2 = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 6.0 1024 kg/(6400 103)2 = 9.77 m s2 At a height of 10 km g = GM/R2= 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 6.0 1024 kg/(6410 103)2 = 9.74 m s2 So, as g only falls by 0.3 % over this height, it can be considered to be uniform 5 Work done = force distance moved Force (mg) can be considered to remain constant over 5 km Work done = mgh = 500 kg 9.8 m s2 5 103 m = 2.45 107 J This value is greater since less force is required at 50 km (as g will be reduced) so less work is done moving the same distance

Chapter 5

1 Q = CV V = Q/C = 40 109 C/(0.1 106 F) = 0.4 V 2 Coulombs law: the electrostatic force between two charges is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of their separation F = kqQ/ r2 k = Fr2/q Q The unit of k is N m2 C2 In base units, this is kg m s2 m2 (A s)2 = kg m3 s2 A2 s2 = kg m3 s4 A2 3

By removing electrons from it F = kqQ/r2 = 9.0 109 N m2 C2 95 109 C 106 109 C/(0.12 m)2 = 6.3 103 N Repulsive force since both positive

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 F = GmM/r 2 = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 0.4 kg 0.4 kg/(12 102 m)2 = 7.4 1010 N Electrostatic force is 6.3 103 N/(7.4 1010 N) = 8.5 106 times bigger 5

Tension

Electrostatic repulsion

Weight

For vertical equilibrium Tcos = mg = 500 106 kg 9.81 N kg1 = 4.9 103 N T = 4.9 103 N/(cos 7) = 4.94 103 N For horizontal equilibrium Electrostatic repulsion = Tsin = 4.94 103 sin 7 = 6.02 104 N so kqQ/r 2 = 6.02 104 N k = 6.02 104 N r2/q Q = 6.02 104 N (20 102 m)2/(50 109 C 50 109 C) = 9.6 109 N m2 C2

1/(4air) = 9.6 109 N m2 C2

Chapter 6

1 Electric field: a region where there are electric forces on charges Electric field strength: force exerted by an electric field on each coulomb of charge Its unit is N C1 2 In base units, N C1 = kg m s2 (A s)1 = kg m s2 A1 s1 = kg m s3 A1 The test charge must cause as little distortion as possible to the electric field it is measuring therefore it has to be very small 3 E = kQ/r 2 = 9.0 109 N m2 C2 35 109 C/(15 102 m)2 = 14 000 N C1 (a) At 30 cm Double the distance means ( 2 )2 = E=

1 4 1 1 4 1 C 1 9

14 000 N

C1

= 3500 N

1

(b) At 45 cm Treble the distance means ( 3 )2 = E = 14 000 N C1/9 = 1600 N C1 the field strength

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 See experiment on page 12 (a) See Figure 6.4 on page 13 (b) Same as Figure 6.4 on page 13 but with arrows reversed (i.e. towards charge) 5 Centripetal force provided by the electrostatic attraction between the electron and the proton This force has no effect on the speed as it always acts at 90 to the direction of travel and so does no work on the electron The orbiting electron is continually changing direction and so its velocity (a vector) is continually changing

Chapter 7

1 See Figure 7.2 on page 14 A uniform electric field has a constant electric field strength Occurs in Figure 7.2 where the field lines are parallel and equally spaced Exists in the central region between the plates 2 Energy transferred = qV = 500 1012 C 180 V = 9 108 J Work done = average force distance moved = 9 108 J Average force = 9 108 J/distance moved = 9 108 J/(9 102 m) = 1 106 N 3 Equipotential: a line joining points of equal potential energy See second experiment on page 14 4 See Figure 7.5 on page15 Field lines are always perpendicular to equipotentials 5 E = V/x = 1 103 V/(5 102 m) = 2 104 V m1 F = qE = 1.6 1019 C 2 104 N C1 = 3.2 1015 N a = F/m = 3.2 1015 N/(9.1 1031 kg) = 3.5 1015 m s2 Since the electric field is uniform between the plates force on electron remains constant so its acceleration remains constant

Chapter 8

1

+Q

These equipotentials are circular The electric field gets weaker with distance from the source So the same amount of work will move each coulomb through a greater distance NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 (a) Work done = 4.5 103 J kg1 8 kg = 3.6 104 J (b) The gravitational potential difference between the two points is the same no matter what path is taken between them So work done = 3.6 104 J 3 Escape speed: the vertical speed with which one body must be projected from the surface of a second body in order to escape completely from the gravitational field of the second body

1 2 2v

v = (2 3.0 106 J kg 1) = 2450 m s1 4 Similarities: point masses and point charges both produce radial fields the force between masses and that between charges both obey inverse square laws equipotentials can be used for both to join points with the same energy Differences: gravitational fields originate from/affect masses while electric fields originate from/affect charges gravitational fields only have attractive forces while electric fields have both attractive and repulsive forces gravitational fields cannot be shielded while electric fields can 5 The gravitational field in a relatively small region near the surface of a spherical body, where the field lines are almost parallel, can be considered to be uniform Energy transferred in a uniform electric field = QEx (= QV )

Chapter 9

1 A capacitor consists of two metal plates separated from each other by an insulating material A wire from each plate connects the capacitor to the circuit 2 Electrons are removed from one plate of the capacitor and added to the other without any passing directly through the insulating material between them

See Figure 10.1 on page 22 Start the stopclock as the capacitor is connected to the resistor

Record the current every 5 s until it has fallen to 5% of its starting value The current will decrease with time as the capacitor discharges and the potential difference across it decreases 4 When a capacitor is charged, a charge Q is displaced from one plate to the other The charge on the positive plate is +Q while that on the negative plate is Q Total charge on capacitor = +Q + (Q) = zero

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 (a) Use two or more engines in series

Would force membrane to bend more and so displace more balls

Would bend more for same engine and so displace more balls

Chapter 10

1

Current

Time

The supply voltage and the circuit resistance Initial charging current I = V/R = 12 V/(50 103 ) = 2.4 104 A 2

80 70 60 Current/A 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 Time/s 80 100 120

Charge = area under the current-time graph Area is approximately 18 squares 1 square = 10 A 20 s = 200 C 18 squares = 18 200 C = 3600 C 3 Capacitance = charge displaced per unit potential difference across its plates farad = C V1 but and C=As V = J C1 = N m (A s)1 = kg m s2 m A1 s1 = kg m2 s3 A1

so farad = A s kg1 m2 s3 A = A2 s4 kg1 m2 NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 E.m.f. = initial current circuit resistance = 80 106 A 50 103 W = 4.0 V So potential difference across capacitor when fully charged = 4.0 V C = Q/V = 3600 C/(4.0 V) = 900 F 5 See Figure 10.6 on page 23 Resistance of variable resistor is reduced to keep the current constant as the capacitor charges Q = CV = 500 F 12 V = 6000 C Q = It t = Q/I = 6000 C/(40 A) = 150 s

Chapter 11

1

Current I = VR/R = 6 V/(50 103 ) = 1.2 104 A When shorting wire removed: capacitor charges and voltage across it increases voltage across resistor falls as at all times VR + VC = 6 V current decreases as VR falls and R is constant

VR = IR = 30 106 A 50 103 = 1.5 V VC = 6 V 1.5 V = 4.5 V Q = CVC = 500 106 F 4.5 V = 2.25 103 C

Student has calculated the initial current and assumed this remains constant However, as capacitor charges, current decreases So capacitor will take much longer than 100 s to charge

To charge to the same potential difference requires the same amount of charge When in series with a larger resistance, the current is less Since current is the rate of flow of charge, a lower current takes longer to supply the necessary charge

Use a circuit to compare VR with a known voltage Timer operates as long as VR is greater As capacitor charges, VR falls below the known voltage and timer stops Time for VR to fall can be adjusted using a variable resistor

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 12

1

Resistor

Time

Potential difference across the resistor varies with time in the same way as the current since I = VR /R VR 2

Potential difference

Time

Current

high-value C

low-value C

Time

Initial current same for both (same e.m.f. and circuit resistance) High-value capacitor will displace more charge in reaching the same potential difference so area under current-time graph will be greater and capacitor will take longer to charge NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 The time constant is the time for a discharging capacitors charge and potential difference to decrease to 1/e of its original value Time constant = RC = 100 103 250 106 F = 25 s After 25 s, current = (1/e) 90 A = 33 A After 50 s, current = (1/e) 33 A = 12 A Final potential difference = e.m.f. = initial current circuit resistance = 90 106 A 100 103 = 9.0 V

Chapter 13

1 Q = CV = 2200 106 F 5.0 V = 0.011 C = 11 mC Time constant = RC = 15 103 2200 106 F = 33 s Q = Q0 et/RC = 11 mC e20 s/(33 s) = 6.0 mC 2 Since mass of isotope number of atoms of that isotope m = m0 et t = 14 years = (14 365.25 24 3600) s = 4.4 108 s so m = 4.5 g e 7.8 10 3

1 2 1 2 1 2

10 s1

4.4 10 8 s

= 3.2 g

N0 N0 = N0et = e t

1 2 1 2 1 2

Substituting Cancel N0 Invert both sides 2 = et Take natural logs of both sides ln 2 = t as required

1 2

4 Time / s Activity / Bq ln(activity / Bq) 0 820 6.71 20 530 6.27 40 330 5.80 60 210 5.35 80 145 4.98 100 95 4.55 120 59 4.08 140 35 3.56 160 22 3.09 180 14 2.64 200 9 2.20

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

7 6 5 ln(activity/Bq) 4 3 2 1 0 0 50 100 Time/s 150 200 250

1 2

1 2

Chapter 14

1 k = F/x = 18 N/(0.045 m) = 36 N/(0.09 m) = 400 N m1 when F = 25 N x = F/ k = 25 N/(400 N m1) = 0.0625 m Energy stored = 2 Fx = 2 3

1 1 2

25 N 0.0625 m = 0.78 J

1 1 2

10 106 C 50 V = 2.5 10 4 J

1 1

Energy stored in spring = 2 Fx = 2 mgx Gravitational potential energy lost by mass = mgx So only half the energy lost by the mass is stored in the spring the remainder is dissipated as internal energy to the surroundings

Comparing V = Q/C with F = kx 1/C is analogous to k so large C is analogous to small k A large value capacitor is analogous to a weak spring

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 15

1 In parallel Ct = C1 + C2 = 150 F + 350 F = 500 F in series 1/Ct = 1/C1 + 1/C2 = 1/(150 F) + 1/(350 F) = 0.0095 F1 Ct = 1/(0.0095 F1) = 105 F 2

(i) (ii) (iii) (vi) (iv) (v)

(vii)

Combined capacitance: (i) 500 F (ii) 250 F (iii) 167 F (iv) 1000 F (v) 1500 F (vi) 750 F (vii) 333 F 3 12 V Q = CV = 330 106 F 12 V = 3.96 103 C W = 2 CV 2 = 4

1 1 2

1/Ct = 1/C1 + 1/C2 = 1/(50 F) + 1/(150 F) = 0.027 F1 Ct = 1/(0.027 F1) = 37.5 F Q = CV = 37.5 F 9 V = 340 C displaced on each capacitor For 50 F: V = Q/C = 337.5 C/(50 F) = 6.75 V W = 2 Q 2/C = For 150 F: V = Q/C = 337.5 C/(150 F) = 2.25 V W = 2 Q 2/C =

1 1 2 1 1 2

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

5 Q = CV = 15 106 F 50 V = 7.5 104 C W = 2 CV 2 =

1 1 2

(a) in parallel Ct = C1 + C2 = 15 F + 25 F = 40 F (b) V = Q/C = 7.5 10 4 C/(40 10 6 F) = 19 V (c) For 15 F: Q = CV = 15 106 F 18.75 V = 2.8 10 4 C For 25 F: Q = CV = 25 106 F 18.75 V = 4.7 10 4 C (d) W = 2 CV 2 =

1 1 2

When the second capacitor is connected, 12 mJ of energy is dissipated in the connecting wires as the charge redistributes between the two capacitors

Chapter 16

1 A magnetic field is a region within which there are magnetic forces Use either iron filings or a small plotting compass see experiment on page 36 The direction of a magnetic field is that indicated by the north end of the needle of a plotting compass 2 3 See Figure 16.3 on page 37

Neutral point: position within overlapping magnetic fields where the resultant field is zero

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

5

Magnetic North

Magnetic North

N

X X

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 17

1 2 See Figure 17.2 on page 38 A solenoid is a cylindrical current-carrying coil of wire with a large number of turns See Figure 17.4 on page 39 3 The shape of the magnetic field outside both a solenoid and a bar magnet are similar The field lines through the centre of a solenoid are like the aligned domains within a bar magnet A suitable length of steel is placed inside a solenoid and the current switched on 4 Current is flowing anticlockwise around this end of the coil So polarity is north see Figure 17.5 on page 39 5 Coils will attract, as they will have opposite polarities (a) Coils will repel, as they will now have the same polarity (b) Coils will continue to attract, as they will still have opposite polarities

Chapter 18

1 Both produce magnetic fields A bar magnet is long and thin while a magnadur magnet is short and fat A bar magnet has its poles at its ends while a magnadur magnet has its poles on its large sides Place two attracting magnadur magnets on opposite sides of an iron yoke see Figure 18.2 on page 40 A uniform magnetic field is produced in the space between them 2 See Figure 18.3 on page 40 On the left of the wire, the two magnetic fields are in the same direction and so a strong field results On the right, the two fields are opposite and so the field is weak The field lines get distorted around the left of the wire The effect of the field lines trying to straighten produces a force on the wire towards the right 3

N

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

4 (a) Force is towards the top of the page (b) Magnetic field is down the page (c) Current is up the page 5 See parts 1 and 2 of experiment on page 41 Plot a graph of force against current Should be a straight line through the origin see Figure 18.6 on page 41 Force depends also on the length of the wire and the strength of the magnetic field

Chapter 19

1 Tesla: unit of magnetic flux density, where 1 T produces a force of 1 N on each metre length of wire carrying a current of 1 A perpendicular to the magnetic field T = N A1 m1 = kg m s2 A1 m1 = kg s2 A1 2 Length of coil = N d = 300 4 102 m = 38 m F = BIl = 200 103 T 5 103 A 37.7 m = 0.038 N The coil is forced in when the current flows in one direction and forced out when the current flows in the opposite direction This results in the coil oscillating in and out 3 Current I = P/ V = 9.0 W/(6.0 V) = 1.5 A Current flows from left to right (from + to of battery) F = BIl = 50 103 T 1.5 A 100 103 m = 0.0075 N This force acts upwards (FLHR) If the magnetic field is reversed, the magnetic force acts downwards With no magnetic force, balance reading = 1.5094 N + 0.0075 N = 1.5169 N With downward magnetic force, balance reading = 1.5169 N + 0.0075 N = 1.5244 N 4 Turns density n = N/l = 100/(35 102 m) = 290 m1 B = 0nI = 4 107 N A2 290 m1 4.2 A = 1.5 103 T 5 B = 0 I/2 r I = 2 rB/0 = 2 15 102 m 6 106 T/(4 107 N A2) = 4.5 A The current will increase the temperature of the wire (electrical work)

Chapter 20

1 (a) Closing the switch allows a current to flow in the first coil

This sets up a magnetic flux in the iron core As this magnetic flux builds up through the second coil, a voltage is induced across it The microvoltmeter gives a reading

The microvoltmeter gives no reading

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

(c) Opening the switch stops the current from flowing in the first coil

The magnetic flux in the iron core collapses As this magnetic flux decreases through the second coil, a voltage is induced across it The microvoltmeter gives a reading in the opposite direction

= BA vertical = Bvertical area of floor = 50 106 T (9.2 m 7.5 m) = 3.45 103 Wb horizontal = Bhorizontal area of north-south aspect = 20 106 T (7.5 m 2.4 m) = 3.6 104 Wb

Area of coil = 4.0 cm2 = 4.0 104 m2 For each turn, = BA = 450 103 T 4.0 104 m2 = 1.8 104 Wb Total magnetic flux linkage = N = 200 1.8 104 Wb = 0.036 Wb If this magnetic flux linkage reduces to zero in 0.25 s Change in magnetic flux linkage = 0.036 Wb Rate of reduction = ()0.036 Wb/(0.25 s) = ()0.14 Wb s1 E.m.f. induced = 0.14 V

Initial magnetic flux linkage = NBA = 80 150 103 T 40 104 m2 = 0.048 Wb (a) Final magnetic flux linkage = 0 Change in magnetic flux linkage = 0.048 Wb Rate of reduction = ()0.048 Wb/(50 103 s) = ()0.96 Wb s1 E.m.f. induced = 0.96 V (b) Final magnetic flux linkage = NBA = 80 240 103 T 40 104 m2 = 0.077 Wb Change in magnetic flux linkage = 0.077 Wb 0.048 Wb = +0.029 Wb Rate of increase = 0.029 Wb/(150 103 s) = 0.19 Wb s1 E.m.f. induced = ()0.19 V (c) Final magnetic flux linkage = NBA = 80 150 103 T 40 104 m2 = 0.048 Wb Change in magnetic flux linkage = 0.048 Wb 0.048 Wb = 0.096 Wb Rate of decrease = ()0.096 Wb/(300 103 s) = ()0.32 Wb s1 E.m.f. induced = 0.32 V E.m.f. (b) will have the opposite polarity to the other two as the magnetic flux in (b) is increasing while the other two are decreasing

Induced e.m.f. = Blv = 50 106 T 60 102 m 12 m s1 = ()3.6 104 V No current flows in the handlebar-student circuit since: The motion of the handlebars through the magnetic field forces the electrons to move in a certain direction For a current to flow, electrons would have to flow back through the student in the opposite direction They would have to flow against the force exerted on them by the students motion through the magnetic field

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 21

1 Faradays law: the magnitude of the induced e.m.f. in a circuit is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage through that circuit Lenzs law: any current driven by an induced e.m.f. opposes the change causing it Lenzs law is a consequence of the conservation of energy 2 Student B is correct As the ring moves through the magnetic field, an e.m.f. is induced across it since the ring is complete, an induced current flows in it This induced current interacts with the magnetic field to produce a force that is always opposite to the direction in which the ring is moving The motion of the ring is always opposed 3 When the electromagnet is on, the spinning disc cuts through its magnetic field Induced currents flow in the metal disc, setting up forces that oppose the motion of the disc The disc, and the vehicle, therefore slow down When parked, the disc is not moving No currents are induced in it and so there is no opposition to prevent the vehicle from moving (Electromagnetic braking is only really effective at high speed when the rate of change is greatest) 4 (a) Induced current produces magnetic field that opposes movement of magnet Solenoid will have north pole on left and south pole on right (b) For south pole, current is clockwise (see Figure 17.5 on page 39) Current flows up on nearside and down on farside Force on bar magnet is to the left i.e. opposing its motion If switched off: E.m.f. still induced across solenoid No current in solenoid so no magnetic field and no opposing force on magnet 5 (a) No current or magnetic field in solenoid as circuit is incomplete Flux through ring remains at zero and doesnt change (b) Circuit completed so current and magnetic field in solenoid increases Flux through ring increases (c) Current and magnetic field in solenoid remain constant Flux through ring remains constant and doesnt change Ring leaps up only when there is a change in the flux through it Change in flux induces an e.m.f. and a current in the ring (a complete circuit) Current produces a magnetic field which opposes that of the solenoid Magnetic fields of ring and solenoid repel

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 22

1 Direct current: a current that flows in one direction only Alternating current: a current whose direction continually reverses Graphs B and C represent direct currents (both are always positive) Graphs A and D represent alternating currents (each has both positive and negative values) For graph A: period T = 20 ms frequency f = 1/T = 1/(20 103 s) = 50 Hz For graph D: period T = 10 ms frequency f = 1/T = 1/(10 103 s) = 100 Hz 2 Structure: two coils, called primary and secondary, of insulated wire wound around a soft iron core Action: an alternating current in the primary coil sets up an alternating (changing) magnetic field in the core This changing magnetic field induces an alternating e.m.f. across the secondary Vs = NsVp/Np = 700 2.5 V/140 = 12.5 V 3 See Figure 22.5 (a) and (b) on page 49 Flux through primary passes through core and secondary coil Since alternating, flux through secondary is continually changing E.m.f. induced across secondary as flux through it changes Maximum e.m.f. when flux changes at its greatest rate Direction of change determines polarity of e.m.f. at that instant 4 Transformers produce an output voltage when flux through secondary changes Use a.c. input so that flux produced by current in primary changes continually Using d.c. would only produce an output when current switched on or off 5 Np/Ns = Vp/Vs = 230 V/(9 V) = 25.6 Ps = VsIs = 9 V 0.5 A = 4.5 W Minimum Pp = Ps = 4.5 W Minimum Ip = Pp/Vp = 4.5 W/(230 V) = 0.02 A Energy will be dissipated within the transformer as internal energy to both the coils and the core

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 23

1 Electrons are produced by thermionic emission A low-voltage supply powers a heater which heats the cathode The cathodes lattice vibrates more vigorously and throws off some of its electrons A high-voltage supply puts the anode at a much higher positive potential than the cathode In the space between the electrodes, electrons experience a resultant force towards the anode which produces an acceleration in the same direction as the resultant force 2 Particle accelerates towards the negative plate Positive charge experiences a resultant force in same direction as the electric field, from + to Maximum kinetic energy gained = qV = 4.8 1019 C 400 V = 1.92 1016 J (assuming space between the plates is vacuum) at the negative plate 3 A charge e passing through a potential difference of 1 V gains 1 eV of energy A charge e passing through a potential difference of 350 V gains 350 eV of energy A charge 2e passing through a potential difference of 350 V gains 700 eV of energy So magnitude of charge = 2 1.6 1019 C = 3.2 1019 C 700 eV 700 eV 1.6 1019 J eV1 = 1.12 1016 J

1 2 2 mv

= 1.12 1016 J

v = [2 1.12 1016 J/(6.6 1027 kg)] = 1.8 105 m s1 4 Since proton is accelerated through a potential difference of 300 V Energy gained = 300 eV 300 eV 1.6 1019 J eV1 = 4.8 1017 J

1 2 2 mv

= 4.8 1017 J

v = [2 4.8 1017 J/(1.7 1027 kg)] = 2.4 105 m s1 Alpha particle has twice the charge of a proton So alpha particle gains twice the energy (600 eV = 9.6 1017 J) Alpha particle has four times the mass

1 2

4m v 2 = 9.6 1017 J

1 2

v = [2 9.6 1017 J/(4 1.7 1027 kg)] = 1.7 105 m s1 Proton gains 5 the energy and 2 the final speed of the alpha particle

1

As a particle accelerates, its kinetic energy 2 mv2 increases As a body approaches the speed of light, its mass increases There is a significant increase in m and very little increase in v Maximum possible speed = speed of light = 3 108 m s1 A linear accelerator (linac) consists of a straight evacuated tube containing a series of metal cylinders See Figure 23.5 on page 53 The voltage across the gap between adjacent cylinders switches repeatedly from positive to negative Thus a charged particle always has an accelerating electric field across the gap ahead of it Total energy gained = sum of the energies gained from each gap NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 24

1 Since I = nAqv F = BIl = BnAqvl The total number of moving charged particles in the length l = nAl Force on a single particle = F/nAl = BnAqvl/nAl = Bqv 2 F = Bqv = 120 103 T 3.2 1019 C 1.8 107 m s1 = 6.9 1013 N Force acts at 90 to both the magnetic field and the velocity of the alpha particle 3 Force acts at 90 to both the magnetic field and the particles velocity so no work is done on the particle and its speed remains constant Force provides the required centripetal force for the particles circular motion When moving at 70 to field, particle will follow a forward moving circular path, a helix 4 (a) Energy gained = 250 eV 250 eV 1.6 1019 J eV1 = 4.0 1017 J

1 2 2 mv

= 4.0 1017 J

v = [2 4.0 1017 J/(9.1 1031 kg)] = 9.4 106 m s1 (b) Bqv = mv 2/r r = mv/Bq = 9.1 1031 kg 9.4 106 m s1/(0.92 103 T 1.6 1019 C) = 0.058 m = 5.8 cm 5 A linac is straight while a cyclotron is circular A linac uses only electric fields while a cyclotron uses both electric and magnetic fields Advantage: for high energies, a linac needs to be very long see page 51 a cyclotron overcomes this problem by making the particles follow circular paths Disadvantage: relies on the high-frequency voltage across the dees accelerating all particles whatever their speeds however this only applies if their masses are all the same only true if particles are being accelerated to significantly below the speed of light Bqv = mv2/r r = mv/Bq v If the radius at speed v is r Time spent in a dee at speed v = x/t = r/v Since r v, radius at speed 3v is 3r Time spent in a dee at speed 3v = 3r/3v = r/v = time spent in a dee at speed v Since time in a dee does not depend on speed, an accelerating voltage of constant frequency can be used

Chapter 25

1 A cyclotron uses a constant frequency accelerating voltage A synchrotron uses an accelerating voltage whose frequency is synchronised to take account of the increasing mass of the particles as they approach the speed of light NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

2 In any collision, momentum has to be conserved Any particles created from a single beam technique must conserve the momentum of the initial beam Hence the particles produced must have momentum and kinetic energy, so some of the available energy has to become kinetic rather than being used to create new particles Two identical beams travelling in opposite directions have equal and opposite momentum Total momentum before and after any collision is zero Hence the particles produced have zero momentum and no kinetic energy, so all the available energy can be used to create new particles 3 Bubble chamber, spark chamber, drift chamber, G-M tube + counter All particle detectors use the ionisations produced by the charged particles passing through them Alpha particles produce bright (thick), straight cloud chamber tracks and if from the same decay, all alpha tracks have the same length Fast beta particles produce long, thin, straight cloud chamber tracks Slow beta particles produce short, thicker, tortuous tracks 4 See Figure 25.6 on page 57 All charged particles moving at 90 to a magnetic field follow circular paths Alpha particles are positive and produce a current in the same direction as the beam With magnetic field into the page, FLHR shows that initial force on alpha particles is upwards Alpha particles are deflected very little as they are relatively massive Beta-minus particles are negative and produce a current in the opposite direction to the beam With magnetic field into the page, FLHR shows that initial force on beta-minus particles is downwards Deflection is much more than for alpha particles as beta-minus particles are much less massive Gamma radiation is uncharged and so is not deflected

+

In a perpendicular electric field: forces act parallel to electric field (rather than at 90 as in a magnetic field) paths followed by charged particles are therefore parabolic and not circular force on alpha particle is always towards the negative plate force on beta-minus particle is always towards the positive plate no force acts on the gamma radiation since it is uncharged 5 The curved path results from the presence of a uniform magnetic field at 90 to the particles path The track spirals inwards as the particle slows down, due to ionising collisions and r = mv/Bq v NAS Physics Teachers Guide 2005 Nelson Thornes Ltd.

Unit 5

Fields, Forces and Synthesis

Solutions to Practice Questions

Chapter 26

1 E = mcT = 400 103 kg 880 J kg1 K1 (80 15) K = 2.3 104 J m = E/c2 = 2.3 104 J/(3 108 m s1)2 = 2.5 1013 kg 2 Total mass after decay = 3.419 18 1025 kg + 6.644 32 1027 kg = 3.485 623 2 1025 kg Mass of energy released = 3.485 72 1025 kg 3.485 623 2 1025 kg = 9.68 1030 kg Energy released = c2m = (3 108 m s1)2 9.68 1030 kg = 8.7 1013 J 3 Unified mass unit: one-twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom 1 u = 1.66 1027 kg Mass of polonium atom = 3.485 72 1025 kg/(1.66 1027 kg u1) = 210 u Mass of lead atom = 3.419 18 1025 kg/(1.66 1027 kg u1) = 206 u Mass of alpha particle = 6.644 32 1027 kg/(1.66 1027 kg u1) = 4 u 4 Nuclear fission: the splitting up of large nuclides into much smaller nuclides a process that releases energy Nuclear fusion: the joining together of light nuclei a process that also releases energy 5 Mass before = 235.04 u + 1.01 u = 236.05 u Mass after = 140.91 u + 91.91 u + (3 1.01 u) = 235.85 u Mass of energy released = 236.05 u 235.85 u = 0.20 u = 0.20 u 1.66 1027 kg u1 = 3.32 1028 kg Energy released in joules = c2m = (3 108 m s1)2 3.32 1028 kg = 3.0 1011 J Energy released in electronvolts = 3.0 1011 J/(1.6 1019 J eV1) = 1.87 108 eV There are a very large number of atoms N in even a tiny sample of uranium-235 so although each individual fission reaction releases only a small amount of energy (3.0 1011 J) the total energy released is large (N 3.0 1011 J) Precautions: concrete shielding around the nuclear reactor careful monitoring of power station and its surroundings suitable disposal of all nuclear waste material

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