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The Cell Cycle

Mr. Rosenberg SHS 11-12-2010

Cell Cycle Defined


The

cell

sequence of growth and division in a

Red blood cells: 3 months Skin cells: 3 weeks Intestinal Lumen cells: 2-3 days Liver Cells: 1 month Muscle Cells: Many Years Neuron Cells: Many Years

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic


Are

there differences in their cell cycles? YES!


Prokaryotic = Simple Eukaryotic = Complex, many stages

Prokaryotic Binary Fission


Binary Fission: division of a prokaryotic organism into two identical organisms 3 steps
1. 2. 3.

DNA is copied Cell doubles in size Cell divides; each cell receives 1 copy of DNA

Bacteria
Bacteria

and other Prokaryotes undergo Binary Fission At the completion of Binary Fission, another organism is produced

Eukaryotic Cell Cycle

2 Types
1.
2.

Mitosis Meiosis

Chromosomes Defined
A

nucleus

gene-carrying structure found in the

Chromosomes Defined
Each

chromosome consists of one long DNA molecule

Chromosomes
Somatic

Cells = Body cells Sex Cells = Egg and Sperm, used only for reproduction

Chromosomes
Human

Somatic cells contain 23 pairs (46 total) of chromosomes Human Sex Cells contain 23 chromosomes

Cell Cycle
Interphase

cycle

is the longest stage of the cell

Chromosomes replicate during Interphase This stage is when DNA replicates!

Cell Cycle

Interphase is divided into 3 stages


1.
2. 3.

G1 - growth 1 S - Synthesis (when the chromosomes duplicate) G2 - growth 2

Mitosis

Mitosis is the division of the cell


iPMAT: the five stages of division
Interphase in between 2. Prophase preparing 3. Metaphase meeting up 4. Anaphase action! 5. Telophase two cells
1.