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Dell Controlled Print

Dye and Pry Failure Analysis Procedure


Number: REL###
Revision: A00

Engineers/Owners: Dell Reliability Organization & Component/Materials


Failure Analysis Lab

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Dye and Pry Procedure

1. Purpose
The purpose of this document is to describe in detail the Dye and Pry procedure that is
required to be used on products evaluated for Dell. Modifications to this procedure are
acceptable if such modifications are shared with Dell and approved.

2. Minimum Requirements
1. Machinist’s dye (recommendation is Red Steel Dykem).
2. Vacuum pump and chamber (typically a mechanical pump and bell jar).
3. Stereo microscope with digital camera
4. Baking oven capable of 100C
5. Ability to section out desired components from board without exerting excessive
stress on the solder joints.
6. Tool to pry the component from the board.
7. Flux cleaning solvent.
8. Trained operators.

3. Procedure
1. Identify components to be “Dye and Pry” evaluated (consult test plan).
2. Section out the desired component leaving about 1.5 to 2 inches of board around
the part.
3. Clean any flux residue from around joints using a solvent (recommend using a
Flux Remover spray - Isopropyl alcohol alone is not acceptable). Removing any
flux residues and other particles/oils enables the dye to more easily penetrate the
fractures. Failure to completely remove flux from around the BGA bumps may
prevent ink penetration and give false indications of a good solder joint.
4. Rinse well with water (followed by isopropyl alcohol if desired). Allow to
completely dry.
5. Immerse the sectioned sample in the dye (typically in a small tray).
6. Place the tray and sectioned sample into a vacuum chamber. Draw a vacuum for
3 to 4 minutes. Partially vent and reapply vacuum to the chamber a few times to
aid in dye penetration.
7. Turn off vacuum pump and leave the sample in the dye for several minutes under
vacuum.
8. Vent any remaining vacuum and remove sample. Allow the excess dye to drain
off the sample.
9. Dry the sample in an oven by baking at 100°C for up to 30 minutes depending on
the amount of dye under and around the device. The dye must be completely
dried. Wet dye can smear during component removal resulting in false
conclusions.
10. Following removal from the oven, allow the part to cool.
11. The component is then mechanically removed. It can be pried off with a chisel
but this may damage bumps on the outer one or two rows. The board can also be
repeatedly flexed until the device “pops” off.
12. After the component is removed, the board and part are to be examined.
Fractured wetting pad surfaces on either the board or the component will be dyed
red.
13. Take photos of dyed regions and plot results in a matrix chart.

Immerse in dye and place in vacuum. Ensure dye is completely dry.

Remove component by prying or, remove component by twisting.

Photos from Universal Instruments.


Cracked/open prior to testing

PWB Partially cracked but still


conductive prior to testing

Example of solder joints after component removal.

Example of a dye and pry matrix map which reveals the location of the fracture when
component is removed from the PCB.

A similar map is required that shows the magnitude of the ink penetration for each solder
ball (> 25%, >50%, >75%, 100%).