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# 4.

## 1 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra

1. The 100110 2 is numerically equivalent to 6. Consider the signed binary number A = 01010110
and B = 1110 1100 where B is the 1’s complement and
1. 2616 2. 3610 3. 468 4. 212 4
MSB is the sign bit. In list-I operation is given, and in
The correct answer are list-II resultant binary number is given.
(A) 1, 2, and 3 (B) 2, 3, and 4
List–I List-II
(C) 1, 2, and 4 (D) 1, 3, and 4
1. 0 1 0 0 0011
2. If (211) x = (152)8 , then the value of base x is P. A + B 2. 0 1 1 0 1001
(A) 6 (B) 5 3. 0 1 0 0 0010
Q. B - A
4. 1 0 0 1 0101
(C) 7 (D) 9 5. 1 0 1 1 1100
R. A - B
6. 1 0 0 1 0110
3. 11001, 1001 and 111001 correspond to the 2’s S. - A - B 7. 1 0 1 1 1101
complement representation of the following set of 8. 0 1 1 0 1010
numbers
(A) 25, 9 and 57 respectively The correct match is

## (B) -6, -6 and -6 respectively P Q R S

(C) -7, -7 and -7 respectively
(A) 3 4 2 5
(D) -25, -9 and -57 respectively
(B) 3 6 8 7
4. A signed integer has been stored in a byte using 2’s (C) 1 4 8 7
complement format. We wish to store the same integer (D) 1 6 2 5
in 16-bit word. We should copy the original byte to the
less significant byte of the word and fill the more 7. Consider the signed binary number A = 0100 0110
significant byte with and B = 11010011, where B is in 2’s complement and
(A) 0 MSB is the sign bit. In list-I operation is given and in
(B) 1 List-II resultant binary number is given
(C) equal to the MSB of the original byte
(D) complement of the MSB of the original byte. List–I List-II

1. 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
P. A + B
5. A computer has the following negative numbers 2. 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
Q. A - B 3. 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
stored in binary form as shown. The wrongly stored 4. 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
number is R. B - A 5. 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0
(A) -37 as 1101 1011 (B) -89 as 1010 0111 6. 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
S. - A - B
7. 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1
(C) -48 as 1110 1000 (D) -32 as 1110 0000

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198 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra Chap 4.1

## The correct match is (A) AB + AB (B) AB + A B

P Q R S (C) 0 (D) 1
(A) 5 7 4 2
13. Z = ?
(B) 6 3 1 2
(C) 6 7 1 3
(D) 5 3 4 2 A

B Z
8. The decimal number 11.3 in binary is
(A) 1011.1101 (B) 1011.01001 C

## (C) 1011.1001 (D) 1011.01101

Fig. P4.1.13
9. A 7 bit Hamming code groups consisting of 4
information bits and 3 parity bits is transmitted. The (A) A + B + C (B) ABC
group 1101100 is received in which at most a single (C) AB + BC + AC (D) Above all
error has occurred. The transmitted code is
(A) 1111100 (B) 1100100 14. The Boolean expression ( X + Y )( X + Y )( X + Y ) is
equivalent to
(C) 1001100 (D) 1101000
(A) XY (B) X Y
10. X = ? (C) XY (D) X Y
M
N 15. Given that AB + AC + BC = AB + AC, then
Q
( A + C)( B + C)( A + B) is equivalent to
X
(A) ( A + B)( A + C) (B) ( A + B)( A + C)
(C) ( A + B)( A + C) (D) ( A + B)( A + C)

## (A) MNQ (B) N (Q + M ) A

(C) M (Q + N ) (D) Q( M + N ) B

C
Z
11. Z = ? D

A E
B F
Z Fig. P4.1.16
C

D
(A) ( A + B)( C + D)( E + F ) (B) AB + CD + EF
E
(C) ( A + B)( C + D)( E + F ) (D) AB + CD + EF
Fig. P4.1.11

## (A) AB + ( C + D) E (B) AB( C + D) E 17. X = ?

(C) AB + CD + E (D) AB + CDE A

B X
12. Z = ?
A

B
Z Fig. P4.1.17
A

B (A) AB (B) AB
Fig. P4.1.12 (C) AB (D) 0

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Chap 4.1 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra 199

18. Y = ?
A A B C X
B Y
0 0 0 1
C
Fig. P4.1.18
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
(A) AB + AB + C (B) A B + AB + C
0 1 1 1
(C) AB + AB + C (D) AB + AB + C
1 0 0 1

19. Z = ? 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
A
B Z 1 1 1 1
C
Fig. P4.1.19 Fig. P.4.1.24

## (A) ABC (B) ABC (A) AB + BC + A C + B C (B) BC + ABC

(C) ABC (D) 0 (C) BC (D) ABC

## 20. Z = ? 25. The truth table of a circuit is shown in fig. P.4.1.23.

A

B
A B C Z
Z
0 0 0 1
C 0 0 1 0
Fig. P4.1.20
0 1 0 1
(A) ABC (B) AB( C + B) 0 1 1 1
(C) ABC (D) AB( C + B) 1 0 0 1

21. Z = ? 1 0 1 1

A 1 1 0 1

B 1 1 1 1
Z
C Fig. P.4.1.25
Fig. P4.1.21
The Boolean expression for Z is
(A) ABC (B) A BC (A) ( A + B)( B + C) (B) ( A + B)( B + C)
(C) 0 (D) A BC
(C) ( A + B)( B + C) (D) Above all

## 22. The minimum number of NOR gates required to

26. The Boolean expression AC + BC is equivalent to
implement A( A + B)( A + B + C) is equal to
(A) AC + BC + AC
(A) 0 (B) 3
(B) BC + AC + BC + ACB
(C) 4 (D) 7
(C) AC + BC + BC + ABC

## 23. A + BC is equivalent to (D) ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC

(A) ( A + B)( A + C) (B) A + B
27. Expression A + AB + ABC + ABCD + ABCDE
(C) A + C (D) ( A + B)( A + C)
would be simplified to
24. For the truth table shown in fig. P.4.1.24, Boolean (A) A + AB + CD + E (B) A + B + CDE
expression for X is (C) A + BC + CD + DE (D) A + B + C + D + E

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200 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra Chap 4.1

## 28. The simplified form of a logic function A A

Y = A( B + C( AB + AC)) is B B
Z Z
(A) A B (B) AB C C

(C) AB (D) AB D D

(A) (B)
29. The reduced form of the Boolean expression of
A A
Y = ( AB ) × ( AB) is B B
(A) A + B (B) A + B Z Z
C C
(C) AB + AB (D) A B + AB D D

(C) (D)
30. If X Y + XY = Z then XZ + XZ is equal to
(A) Y (B) Y 35. In fig. P.4.1.35 the input condition, needed to
(C) 0 (D) 1 produce X = 1, is
A
31. If XY = 0 then X Å Y is equal to
B
(A) X + Y (B) X + Y
X
(C) XY (D) X Y C

Fig. P4.1.34
32. From a four-input OR gate the number of input
condition, that will produce HIGH output are (A) A = 1, B = 1, C = 0 (B) A = 1, B = 1, C = 1
(A) 1 (B) 3 (C) A = 0, B = 1, C = 1 (D) A = 1, B = 0, C = 0
(C) 15 (D) 0
36. Consider the statements below:
33. A logic circuit control the passage of a signal 1. If the output waveform from an OR gate is the same
as the waveform at one of its inputs, the other input is
according to the following requirements :
being held permanently LOW.
1. Output X will equal A when control input B 2. If the output waveform from an OR gate is always
and C are the same. HIGH, one of its input is being held permanently
HIGH.
2. X will remain HIGH when B and C are
different. The statement, which is always true, is
(A) Both 1 and 2 (B) Only 1
The logic circuit would be
(C) Only 2 (D) None of the above
A A

## B X B X 37. To implement y = ABCD using only two-input

C C NAND gates, minimum number of requirement of gate
(A) (B) is
(A) 3 (B) 4
A A
(C) 5 (D) 6
B X B X

## C C 38. If the X and Y logic inputs are available and their

(C) (D) complements X and Y are not available, the minimum
number of two-input NAND required to implement
34. The output of logic circuit is HIGH whenever A X Å Y is
and B are both HIGH as long as C and D are either (A) 4 (B) 5
both LOW or both HIGH. The logic circuit is (C) 6 (D) 7

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Chap 4.1 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra 201

## Statement for Q.39–40: Assuming complements of x and y are not

A Boolean function Z = ABC is to be implement available, a minimum cost solution for realizing f

using NAND and NOR gate. Each gate has unit cost. using 2-input NOR gates and 2-input OR gates (each

Only A, B and C are available. having unit cost) would have a total cost of
(A) 1 units (B) 2 units
39. If both gate are available then minimum cost is (C) 3 units (D) 4 units
(A) 2 units (B) 3 units
44. The gates G1 and G2 in Fig. P.4.2.44 have
(C) 4 units (D) 6 units
propagation delays of 10 ns and 20 ns respectively.
40. If NAND gate are available then minimum cost is 1 G1
G2 Vo
(A) 2 units (B) 3 units Vi
0 Vi
(C) 5 units (D) 6 units to

Fig. P4.1.44
41. In fig. P4.1.41 the LED emits light when
If the input Vi makes an abrupt change from logic
VCC = 5 V
0 to 1 at t = t0 then the output waveform Vo is
[t1 = t0 + 10 ns, t2 = t1 + 10 ns, t3 = t2 + 10 ns]
1 kW 1 kW 1 kW

(A) (B)
1 kW
t0 t1 t2 t3 t0 t1 t2 t3

(C) (D)
Fig. P4.1.41
t0 t1 t2 t3 t0 t1 t2 t3
(A) both switch are closed
(B) both switch are open 45. In the network of fig. P4.1.45 f can be written as
X0
(C) only one switch is closed 1
X1 2
(D) LED does not emit light irrespective of the 3
X2 n-1
switch positions X3 n F
Xn-1
Xn
42. If the input to the digital circuit shown in fig.
Fig. P4.1.45
P.4.1.42 consisting of a cascade of 20 XOR gates is X,
then the output Y is equal to (A) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 + X 2 X 4 X 5 .... X n -1 + .... X n -1 X n
(B) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 + X 2 X 3 X 4 .... X n + .... X n -1 X n
1
(C) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 .... X n + X 2 X 3 X 5 K X n + .... + X n -1 X n
(D) X 0 X1 X 3 X 5... X n -1 + X 2 X 3 X 5 K X n +..+ X n -1 X n - 2 + X n
Y

X
Fig. P4.1.42

(A) X (B) X
(C) 0 (D) 1 *******

## 43. A Boolean function of two variables x and y is

defined as follows :

## f (0, 0) = f (0, 1) = f (1, 1) = 1; f (1, 0) = 0

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202 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra Chap 4.1

A - B = A + B, A
Solutions B
010 10110
+ 00010011
0110 1001
1. (C) 100110 2 = 2 5 + 2 2 + 21 = 3810
- A - B = A + B, A 1010 1001
2616 = 2 ´ 16 + 6 = 3810
B + 00010011
468 = 4 ´ 8 + 6 = 3810
10111100
212 4 = 2 ´ 4 2 + 41 = 3810
So 3610 is not equivalent. 7. (B) Here A , B are 2’s complement

B + 1101 0011

## 11001 Þ 00110 Discard the carry 1

+ 1
A - B = A + B, A 010 0 0110
00111 = 710
B + 0010 1101
1001 Þ 0110
0111 0011
+ 1
0111 = 710 B - A, B 1101 0011
111001 Þ 000110 A + 1011 1010
+ 1 1 1000 1101
000111 = 710

## 4. (C) See a example - A - B = A + B, A 1011 1010

42 in a byte 00101010 B + 0010 1101

## -42 in a byte 11010110

8. (B) 1110 = 10112
-42 in a word 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
Therefore (C) is correct. 0.3 2Fi-1 Bi Fi
0.6 0 0.6
5. (C) 4810 = 00110000 2
1.2 1 0.2
-4810 = 1100 1111
0.4 0 0.4
+ 1
0.8 0 0.8
11010000
1.6 1 0.6
6. (D) Here A , B are 1’s complement
Repeat from the second line 0.310 = 0.01001 2
A + B, A 01010110
B + 1110 1100 9. (C)
10100 0010 , b4 b3 b2 p3 b1 p2 p1
+ 1
Received 1 1 0 1 1 0 0
0100 0011
C1* = b4 Å b2 Å b1 Å p1 = 0
B - A = B + A, B 1110 1100
C2* = b4 Å b3 Å b1 Å p2 = 1
A + 1010 1001
C3* = b4 Å b3 Å b2 Å p3 = 1
110010101
C3* C2* C1* = 110 which indicate position 6 in error
+ 1
Transmitted code 1001100.
10010110

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Chap 4.1 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra 203

## 10. (D) X = MNQ + M NQ + M NQ 23. (A)

= MQ + M NQ = Q( M + M N ) = Q( M + N ) A B C ( A + BC) ( A + B)( A + C)
0 0 0 0 0
11. (A) The logic circuit can be modified as shown in
fig. S. 4.1.11 0 0 1 0 0

A 0 1 0 0 0
B 0 1 1 1 1
Z
C+D
1 0 0 1 1
E
Fig. S4.1.11 1 0 1 1 1

Now Z = AB + ( C + D) E 1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
12. (D) You can see that input to last XNOR gate is
Fig. S 4.1.23
same. So output will be HIGH.
24. (B) X = ABC + ABC + ABC = BC + ABC
13. (D) Z = A + ( AB + BC) + C

## = A + ( A + B + B + C) + C = A + B + C 25. (B) ( A + B)( B + C ) = ( AB)( BC) = ABC

ABC = A + B + C
( A + B)( B + C ) = ( A + B) + ( B + C) = A + B + C
AB + BC + AC = A + B + B + C + A + C = A + B + C
( A + B)( B + C) = ( A + B) + ( B + C)
14. (C) ( X + Y )( X + Y ) = XY + X Y = AB + B + C = A + B + C
( X + Y )( X + Y )( X + Y ) = ( X + Y )( XY + X Y ) From truth table Z = A + B + C
Thus (B) is correct.
= XY + XY = XY

## 26. (D) AC + BC = AC( B + B) + ( A + A) BC

15. (B) Using duality
( A + B)( A + C)( B + C) = ( A + B)( A + C) = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC

## Thus (B) is correct option.

27. (D) F = A + AB + A BC + A B C( D + DE)

## 16. (B) Z = ( AB)( CD)( EF ) = AB + CD + EF = A + AB + A B( C + C( D + E))

= A + A( B + B( C + D + E)) = A + B + C + D + E
17. (A) X = ( A B + AB)( A + B) = ( AB + A B)( AB) = AB
28. (B) A( B + C ( AB + AC)) = AB + AC ( AB × AC)
= AB + AC[( A + B)( A + C)]
18. (B) Y = ( A Å B) × C = ( AB + AC) × C
= AB + AC ( A + AC + AB + B C) = AB
= ( AB + AB) + C = A B + AB + C

## 29. (C) ( AB ) × ( AB) = AB + AB = AB + AB

19. (C) Z = A( A + A) BC = ABC

30. (B) X Z + XZ = X ( XY + XY ) + X ( X Y + XY )
20. (A) Z = AB( B + C) = ABC
= X ( XY + X Y ) + XY = XY + XY = Y

## 21. (A) Z = ( A + B ) × BC = ( AB) × BC = ABC

31. (A) X Å Y = X Y + XY = ( XY + XY ) = ( XY ) = X + Y

## 22. (A) A( A + B)( A + B + C)

32. (C) There are 2 4 = 16 different input condition.
= ( AA + AB)( A + B + C) = A( A + B + C) = A
Only one of these (0 0 0 0) produces a LOW output.
Therefore No gate is required to implement this
function. 33. (A) X = A + B Å C

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204 Number Systems & Boolean Algebra Chap 4.1

34. (A) X = ( AB)( CD + CD) 41. (D) Output of NAND must be LOW for LED to
emit light. So both input to NAND must be HIGH. If
35. (C) X will be HIGH when A ¹ B , B = C, and C = 1, any one or both switch are closed, output of AND will
thus C = 1, B = 1, A = 0 is the input condition. be LOW. If both switch are open, output of XOR will be
LOW. So there can’t be both input HIGH to NAND. So
36. (D) For both statement here are case that refutes LED doesn’t emit light.
statements
42. (D) Output of 1st XOR = X 1 + X 1 = X
A A
Output of 2nd XOR = X X + XX = 1
So after 4, 6, 8,.....20 XOR output will be 1.
B B

43. (B) f = xy , f = x + y

X X X
F
Case 1 Case 2 Y
Fig. S4.1.36 Fig. S4.1.43
37. (D)
44. (C)
A
B Vo
Y = ABCD
C

D 1

Fig. S4.1.37

38. (A)
0
X t0 t1 t2 t3

XÅY
Fig. S4.1.44

## Y 45. (C) Output of gate 1 is X 0 X1

Fig. S4.1.38 Output of gate 2 is X 0 X1 + X 2
Output of gate 3 is ( X 0 X1 + X 2 ) X 3 = X 0 X1 X 3 + X 2 X 3
output = ( XY ) X + ( XY ) Y
Output of gate 4 would be X 0 X1 X 3 + X 2 X 3 + X 4
= ( X + Y ) X + ( X + Y )Y = X Y + Y X = X Å Y
Output of gate 5 would be
39. (A) Z = ABC = ACB = AC + B
X 0 X1 X 3 X 5 + X 2 X 3 X 5 + X 4 X 5
If AC = D Then Z = D + B So output of gate n would be
Therefore one NAND and one NOR gate is required X 0 X1 X 3 X 5... X n + X 2 X 3 X 5 ... X n + X 4 X 5 X 7 K X n + X n -1 X n
and cost will be 2 unit.
A

B ABC *******
C
Fig. S4.1.39

D+B
D

Fig. S4.1.40

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