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Lecture 4 Effective Stress

Introduction to Stresses in Soil Total Stress Pore water pressure Effective Stress Eff Principle of Effective Stress Effective Vertical Stress

Effect of water table Effect Effect of Capillary Rise

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Students should be able to:

1. Determine values of total stress, pore water pressure and effective stress. 2. Interpret the principle of effective stresses

Learning Objectives
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v =vertical stress (kN/m2) vertical H = horizontal stress (kN/m2) b = bulk unit weight (kN/m3) sat = saturated unit weight (kN/m3) w = water unit weight (kN/m3) ater nit eight uw = pore water pressure (kN/m2) z = d h of soil depth f il

Remember these symbols!!


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Introduction to Stresses in Soil


1.

Total Stress, v Can be defined as stress = force per unit area transmitted in a normal direction acting on a plane assuming the soil to be a solid material. for a small soil element at a depth z below ground level the , g vertical stress, v would be the stress acting on the horizontal surface of the element (refer to Figure a) H. Stresses in soil are not isotropic which is v
Bulk unit weight b

z1

Bulk unit weight b Water table

Depth z

V H V =bz z2

Saturated unit weight sat

V = b z1 + sat z 2
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a) Above a water table


*In this chapter, horizontal stress is neglected but always remembered this stress also act.
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a) Below a water table

2.

Pore water pressure , uw Pressure which is referring to pressure of the water filling the void space between the solid particles Water table = water pressure is the same as atmospheric pressure in the ground ground. water below the water table is known as phreatic water. Therefore, phreatic surface = water table. The pores in soil below the water table are fully saturated.
Ground level Partially saturated zone

If no seepage is occurring, only gravity forces are acting on the pore water so the hydrostatic pressure (pore water pressure) is given by:

Water table Fully satu ated zone u y saturated o e

zw uw = wzw
Pore water Pressure in the ground
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u w = gz w or w z w
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The Principle of Effective Stress


Terzaghi (1923) found that forces transmitted through soil skeleton can be presented i principle of effective stress, based on experimental d t t d in i i l f ff ti t b d i t l data. The principle of effective stress only applicable to fully saturated soils
P

T N' X X

Let us consider an element of a saturated soil is subjected to a normal stress, = P/A, applied on the plane X-X as shown in Figure 1. Fi 1 The total normal stress, , q must be in equilibrium state (Newtons 3rd law).

*Effective stress will be denoted by a prime ('). The equilibrium equation is: ti i

= ' +uw ' = - uw

Figure 1 External force or total stress, Internal resistance from water or pore water pressure Contact area Internal resistance from solids or effective stress, '

The resistance or reaction to is provided by combination of the stresses Principle of effective stress between inter-particles (effective stress, ', and from pore water pressure, Prepared uw. by:aidsalma@feng.unimas.my 6

The principal of effective stress is the most important principle in soil mechanics mechanics. Deformations of soils are a function of effective stresses not total stresses. The principle of effective stresses applies only to normal stresses V(vertical stresses) not to shear stresses, .

The Principle of Effective Stress


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Effective stresses due to geostatic stress fields & water table The effective stress in a soil mass is subjected to unit weight of the soil & depth of groundwater. groundwater Let consider effective stress for a soil element in Figure 2:
Ground level

Total vertical stress is


Water table

z1

= b z1 + sat z 2
Pore water pressure is

z2

sat

z3

uw = w z2
Effective vertical stress is

Figure 2

' = u w = ( b z1 + sat z 2 ) w z 2 = b z1 + ( sat w ) z 2


= b z1 + ' z 2
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Work Examples 1 ( Effect of water table)


A layer of saturated clay 4m thick is overlain by sand 5m l f t t d l 4 thi k i l i b d5 deep, the water table being 3m below the surface. The saturated unit weights of the clay and sand are 19kN/m3 & 20kN/m3 respectively: above the water table the unit weight of the sand is 17kN/m3. Plot the values of total vertical stress & effective stress against depth.
Solution:
= 17kN/m3
W.T. 3 Sand 5

sat = 20kN/m3

sat = 19kN/m3

Clay 9

50

100 kN/m2

150
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Calculation steps:
Depth (m) 3 5 9 3 17 (3 17) + (2 20) (3 17) + (2 20) + (4 19) v (kN/m2) = 51.0 = 91.0 = 167.0 2 9.8 6 9.8 u (kN/m2) 0 = 19.6 = 58.8 'v = v u (kN/m2) 51.0 71.4 108.2

Or.. Also O Al can b calculated as follows: be l l t d f ll Effective unit weight of sand = 20 9.8 = 10.2 kN/m3 Effective unit weight of clay = 19 9.8 = 9.2 kN/m3 At 5m depth: 'v = (3 x 17) +( 2 x 10.2) = 71.4 kN/m2 At 9m depth: 'v = (3 x 17) +( 2 x 10.2) + (4 x 9.2) = 108.2 kN/m2
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Effect of Capillary Rise to Effective Stresses


In silts and fine sands, the soil above the groundwater can be saturated by capillary action. The illustration of capillarity in soils can be idealized as in Figure 3.

Figure 3

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From Figure 3, continuous void spaces can be idealized as capillary tubes. Consider a single idealized tube as shown in the figure. The height at which water will rise in the tube can be found from statics; by summing forces vertically (upward forces are negative), ; y g y( p g ), Fz = weight of water tension forces from capillary action
zc = 4T cos d w

Where T is the surface tension (force per unit length), is the contact angle, zc is the height of capillary rise, and d is the diameter of the void space. p Since T = 0.073N/m, = 0, w = 9.81kN/m3;

1 zc d

Assumed as 0.1D10
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Pore water pressure due to capillarity is negative (a.k.a suction) & is a function of the size of the soil pores and water content. Pore water pressure =0 (at ground water level) & decreases ( ve sign) as move up the (-ve capillary zone. The effective stress increase because the pore water pressure is ve. i.e i e effective stress; ' = ( zcw) = + zcw (-z

Refer to Figure 3
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Work Examples 1(Effect of capillary rise to effective stress) t )

If sand to a height of 1m above the water table is saturated with capillary water, how are the p y , above stresses?

The water table is level at which pore water pressure is atmospheric (i.e. u=0) Above the water table, water is held under negative pressure and even if the soil is saturated above the water table, it does not contribute to hydrostatic pressure below the water table.

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= 17kN/m3
W.T. WT

1m
Sand

2
3 5

v =91.0 + 3 91 0

sat = 20kN/m3

sat = 19kN/m3

'v =71.4 + 3 71.4


Clay 9

50

100 2 kN/m

150

*At capillary level, v < 'v


'v = v u (kN/m2) 0 43.8 54.0 74.4 111.2
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Depth (m) 0 2 3 5 9 0 2 x 17 (2 x 17) +(1 +(1 20)

v (kN/m2) 0 = 34.0 = 54.0 = 94.0 = 170.0 0

u (kN/m2) 0 = -9.8 =0 = 19.6 = 58.8

-1x9.8 0 2 9.8 6 9.8

54+ (2 20) 94.0 + (4 19)

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Plot distribution of total stress, effective o d s bu o o o a s ss, stress, and pore water pressure with depth for the soil profile as given & neglect capillary action:
4.5 m

e0 = 0.7, S = 0.85
Water table

5.0 m

w = 28%

Now u try it!!


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Barnes, G E (2000) Barnes G.E. (2000), Soil Mechanics Principles and Practice, Antony Rowe Ltd, Edition 2. Craig, R.F. (1992), Soil Mechanics, Chapman & g, ( ), , p Hall, Edition 5 Muni Budhu (2007), Soil Mechanics and Foundations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Edition 2.

References
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Thank you

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